Chapter 4- Cells. Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells. Unicellular. Multicellular

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1 Chapter 4- Cells Organisms are composed of one to many microscopic cells Unicellular Multicellular Multicellular organisms are composed of one or more types of tissues Different types of tissues are grouped to form organs The Two Major Types of Cells -Prokaryotic cells -Eukaryotic cells The Three Domains of Life 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea 3. Eukarya Prokaryotic cells

2 Domain Eukarya includes all of the eukaryotic organisms. Domain Eukarya includes several different kingdoms Domain Eukarya Protists (multiple kingdoms) Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotic cells Diagram of a plant cell All eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells have at least three components in common: -an outer cell membrane or plasma membrane -cytoplasm -ribosomes Prokaryotic flagella The plasma membrane Capsule Pili Cell wall Nucleoid region (DNA) Ribosomes Plasma membrane The plasma membrane is composed of phospholipids, proteins, and other materials.

3 The cytoplasm consists of the entire region of the cell between the nucleus and plasma membrane The cytosol is the cellular fluid. Ribosomes, are composed of protein and RNA. Cell Membrane Structure and Function The membranes of cells are composed of: -lipids -proteins The lipids belong to a special category called phospholipids Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail Outside cell Cytoplasm (inside cell) (a) Phospholipid bilayer of membrane Hydrophilic region of protein Phospholipid bilayer Hydrophobic region of protein (b) Fluid mosaic model of membrane The cell membrane is described as selectively permeable because it allows free passage of some materials and not others. -Very small, uncharged molecules can easily pass through the cell membrane Ex: -Other molecules do not pass through the cell membrane easily without specific membrane transport proteins or energy input. Ex:

4 Selective membrane permeability is the basis for osmosis. Osmosis and Water Balance in Cells Osmosis is the diffusion of water across the cell membrane in response to differences in concentrations of solutes (dissolved substances) such as sugars or ions. Diffusion Diffusion is the tendency for molecules of any substance to spread out into the available space. Water, like many substances, will move from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated. Osmosis and Water Balance in Cells If the concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell is the same, then the cell is osmotically balanced. isotonic If the solute concentration is lower outside a cell than inside, hypotonic Prokaryotes, protists, fungi, and plants have cell walls that limit the increase of cell volume through the uptake of water. If the concentration of solutes outside the cells is higher than inside, water leaves the cell and the cytoplasm shrinks. hypertonic

5 Eukaryotic cells The nucleus is the major site of genetic information (DNA) storage in eukaryotic cells. The nuclear envelope Nuclei also contain nucleoli (nucleolus, sing.), Ribosomes Chromatin Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Pore Eukaryotic nuclear DNA is combined with proteins to form chromosomes. Many of the membranous organelles in the cell belong to the endomembrane system The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Rough ER The roughness of the rough ER is due to ribosomes that stud the outside of the ER membrane Ribosomes Nuclear envelope Ribosomes Rough ER Smooth ER Small globular structures composed of protein and RNA that generate proteins from amino acids. Transport vesicle buds off 4 Ribosome 3 Secretory protein inside transport vesicle After the rough ER synthesizes a molecule it packages the molecule into transport vesicles 1 2 Protein Rough ER Polypeptide

6 Smooth ER lacks the surface ribosomes of rough ER Nuclear envelope Ribosomes The Golgi apparatus Rough ER Smooth ER Works in partnership with ER The Golgi apparatus of a cell consists of 1 or more Golgi bodies. The cytoskeleton consists of three major types of long, thin, protein fibers: Flagella and Cilia Eukaryotic flagella typically contain a pair of single microtubules, surrounded by a cylinder of nine paired microtubules (9 + 2 arrangement).

7 Mitochondria Each mitochondrion is enclosed by an envelope composed of an outer membrane and a highly folded inner membrane. Peroxisomes -surrounded by single membrane Study outline for Chapter 4-Cells Define unicellular. Give an example. Define multicellular. Give an example. Name the two major types of cells. Define prokaryotic. Give an example. Define eukaryotic. Give an example. Name the three domains of life. Prokaryotic organisms are included in Domain and Domain. Name three characteristics of prokaryotic cells. Which kingdoms are included in Domain Eukarya? Name two characteristics of eukaryotic cells. Name three components that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have in common. Define plasma membrane. Define cytoplasm. Define cytosol. Define ribosome.

8 Study outline for Chapter 4-Cells Cell membranes are made up of and. Define phospholipids. Define hydrophilic. Define hydrophobic. Label the figure below using the following terms: -outside the cell -inside the cell -hydrophilic head -hydrophobic tail -phospholipid bilayer Define selectively permeable. Which types of molecules pass easily through the cell membrane? Which types of molecules do not pass easily through the cell membrane? Define osmosis. Define diffusion. Define isotonic. Define hypotonic. Define hypertonic. Define turgid. Define plasmolysis. Label the figures below using the following terms: -isotonic -hypertonic -hypotonic water water water water Which figure is turgid? Which figure shows the process of plasmolysis?

9 Study outline for Chapter 4-Cells What is the function of the following eukaryotic cellular structures? -nucleus -nuclear envelope -chromosomes -rough endoplasmic reticulum -smooth endoplasmic reticulum -Golgi apparatus -mitochondria -peroxisome Which of the organelles above belong to the endomembrane system? Name the three major types of protein fibers of the cytoskeleton. What is the difference between flagella and cilia? Give an organismal example for each. What is the 9x2 arrangement in eukaryotic flagella?

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