Sixth Grade. 5. Explain the jobs of the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, chromosomes, chloroplasts, vacuole, mitochondria, and lysomes.

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1 Sixth Grade Cells Indicator(s): Ls6.3. Identify how plant cells differ from animal cells (e.g., cell wall and chloroplasts). Ls6.1. Explain that many of the basic functions of organisms are carried out by or within cells and are similar in all organisms. 1. Define cell, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm, chloroplast, lysomes, vacuole, mitochondria, chromosome, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes,. 2. Identify the basic parts of a cell. 3. Illustrate animal and plant cells. 4. Compare and contrast animal and plant cells. 5. Explain the jobs of the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, chromosomes, chloroplasts, vacuole, mitochondria, and lysomes. 6. Describe the similarities and differences between osmosis and diffusion. 7. Explain the process of cellular respiration and why cells do it. 8. Explain the process of photosynthesis and why cells do it. 9. Evaluate how cellular respiration and photosynthesis are opposite processes. Sixth Grade I Can 1

2 Cells Indicator(s): Ls6.2. Explain that multi-cellular organisms have a variety of specialized cells, tissues, organs and organ systems that perform specialized functions. Ls7.1. Investigate the great variety of body plans and internal structures found in multi-cellular organisms. 1. Define organism, tissue, organ, organ system, unicellular organism, multi-cellular organism, prokaryotic cell, eukaryotic cell. 2. Describe and give an example of a cell, tissue, and organ. 3. Describe an example of an organ system. 4. Provide examples of unicellular and multi-cellular organisms. 5. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (bacteria, protist and viruses). 6. Explain how cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems are related in multi-cellular organisms. 6. Explain specialized function of various cell types, tissues, organs, and organ systems in multi-cellular organisms. 7. Investigate how the body plan and internal structures are different from one species to another. 8. Explain why the body plan and internal structure is beneficial to some species but would not beneficial to others. Sixth Grade I Can 2

3 Genetics Reproduction Indicator(s): Ls6.4. Recognize that an individual organism does not live forever; therefore reproduction is necessary for the continuation of every species and traits are passed on to the next generation through reproduction. Ls6.5. Describe that in asexual reproduction all the inherited traits come from a single parent. 1. Define organism, reproduction, species, traits, generation, sexual, asexual, inherit, heredity, DNA, genes, offspring. 2. List the basic stages of the life cycle of a living organism. 3. Explain why reproduction is essential to a species. 4. Give examples of inherited traits of living organisms. 5. Explain how traits are passed from one generation to the next using genetic information. 6. Describe how trait are passed to offspring during asexual reproduction. 7. Evaluate how asexual reproduction affects diversity within a species. Indicator(s): Ls6.6. Describe that in sexual reproduction an egg and sperm unite and some traits come from each parent, so the offspring is never identical to either of its parents. Ls6.7. Recognize that likenesses between parents and offspring (e.g., eye color, flower color) are inherited. Other likenesses, such as table manners are learned. 1. Define egg, sperm, zygote, embryo. 2. Recognize that egg and sperm cells contain genetic information from each parent. 3. Describe inherited traits of parents and their offspring. 4. Compare and contrast traits of offspring with each parent. 5. Conclude that the traits of offspring cannot be identical to either parent. 6. Evaluate how sexual reproduction affects diversity in a species. Sixth Grade I Can 3

4 Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes Indicator: Define atoms and identify their parts. 1. Define atom, element, particle, proton, neutron, electron, nucleus, atomic number, atomic mass, charge, property, chemical, substance, neutral 2. Find elements on the periodic table using their symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. 3. Recognize that each of the elements is a different kind of atom. 4. Investigate the properties of different kinds of atoms. 5. Tell the parts of an atom and the charge of each particle. 6. Explain how an atom has an overall neutral charge. 7. Explain that elements make up different substances like air, water, salt, and minerals and give each its different properties. Sixth Grade I Can 4

5 Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes Indicator(s): **Ps6.1. Explain that equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses. Define density. Ps6.3. Describe that in a physical change (e.g., state, shape and size) the chemical properties of a substance remain unchanged. 1. Define matter, particles, phase/state, volume, mass, density, solid, liquid, gas, physical properties, texture, malleability, ductility, conductivity, hardness, brittle, crystal, luster, elasticity, metal, nonmetal, temperature, heat, dissolve, evaporate, condense, freeze, melt, solidify, expand, contract. 2. List examples of physical properties. 3. Describe and contrast how the molecules behave in a solid, a liquid and a gas. 4. Compare and contrast the densities of various substances with the density of water. 5. Draw a conclusion about the density of two objects of equal volume when given their masses. 6. Observe and describe physical properties (hardness/brittleness, shape, density, state, texture, elasticity, malleability, conductivity, color) of various substances and group/classify objects by their properties. 7. Observe and record the changes in shape, volume, density, hardness, temperature, and motion/energy of molecules. 8. Predict, test, and explain how/why properties like elasticity, hardness, malleability, and conductivity change with phase changes. 9. Explain what a physical change is. 10. Recognize examples of physical changes like freezing water, cutting paper, breaking glass, evaporating a puddle. 11. Provide my own examples of physical changes. 12. Analyze and evaluate the changes in an object s physical properties as a result of a physical change. Sixth Grade I Can 5

6 Matter: Physical and Chemical Changes Indicator(s): Ps6.2. Describe that in a chemical change new substances are formed with different properties than the original substance (e.g., rusting, burning). Ps6.4. Describe that chemical and physical changes occur all around us (e.g., in the human body, cooking and industry). Ps7.1. Investigate how matter can change forms but the total amount of matter remains constant. 1. Redefine atoms and explain that they make up everything. Define chemical property, rust, tarnish, corrode, digestion. 2. Explain what chemicals are made of. 3. Define a chemical change. 4. Observe and point out the 5 signs of chemical change. 5. Recognize examples of chemical changes like combing hydrogen and oxygen to make water, burning paper, corroding metal, digesting food. 6. Provide my own examples of chemical changes. 7. Evaluate the changes in an object as a result of a chemical change. 8. Investigate and explain the law of conservation of matter. 9. Compare and contrast physical and chemical properties. 10. Compare and contrast physical and chemical changes. 11. Evaluate changes and classify them as physical or chemical changes. Sixth Grade I Can 6

7 Force and Motion Indicator(s): Ps8.1. Describe how the change in the position (motion) of an object is always judged and described in comparison to a reference point. Ps8.2. Explain that motion describes the change in the position of an object (characterized by a speed and direction) as time changes. Calculate velocity using v = x/ t. Interpret position versus time graphs. Calculate acceleration from changes in velocity, using a = v/ t. 1. Define reference point, position, motion, displacement, velocity, direction, rest, constant, acceleration, friction. 2. Describe the position of an object using a reference system. 3. Find the displacement of an object from measured data. 4. Find the velocity of an object from measured data. 5. Explain a position versus time graph for each: an object at rest, constant velocity, and changing velocity. 6. Recognize that any change in velocity is acceleration. 7. Make a position versus time graph and describe the velocity of the object at any point. 8. Explain the affect of friction on the motion of an object. Sixth Grade I Can 7

8 Force and Motion Indicator(s): Ps8.3. Explain that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes that object's speed and/or direction. Explain that gravity produces constant acceleration. Relate force to acceleration, F=ma. Explain that gravity produces constant acceleration. 1. Define force, mass, weight, inertia, gravity. 2. Draw an object and use arrows to show the forces on an object and the direction of each force. 3. Explain what is meant by balanced forces. 4. Recognize that an object will remain at rest if forces on it are balanced. 5. Recognize that an object will remain in constant motion if the forces on it are balanced. 6. Explain what equilibrium means. 7. Explain what inertia is and how it related to an object s mass. 8. Demonstrate how the amount and direction of force on an object relate to the motion caused. 9. Explain the relationship between an object s mass, force, and acceleration. 10. Calculate force with F = ma. 11. Explain that gravity is a force and describe the acceleration it causes. 12. Create an experiment to determine the effect of friction on an object s motion and the force needed to move it. 13. Record and graph the data from my experiments. 14. Conclude how weight, friction, force, and motion relate. Sixth Grade I Can 8

9 Science and Technology Standards Benchmark 6-8: Design a solution or product taking into account needs and constraints (e.g. cost, time, trade-offs, properties of the materials, safety, and aesthetics.) ST6.5. Design and build a product or create a solution to a problem given one constraint (e.g., limits of cost and time for design and production, supply of materials and environmental effects). ST7.4. Design and build a product or create a solution to a problem given two constraints (e.g., limits of cost and time for design and production or supply of materials and environmental effects). ST8.3. Design and build a product or create a solution to a problem given more than two constraints (e.g., limits of cost and time for design and production, supply of materials and environmental effects). ST8.4. Evaluate the overall effectiveness of a product design or solution. Benchmark 6-8: Give examples of how technological advances, influenced by scientific knowledge, affect the quality of life. ST6.1. Explain how technology influences the quality of life. ST6.2. Explain how decisions about the use of products and systems can result in desirable or undesirable consequences (e.g., social and environmental). ST6.3. Describe how automation (e.g., robots) has changed manufacturing including manual labor being replaced by highly-skilled jobs. ST6.4. Explain how the usefulness of manufactured parts of an object depend on how well their properties allow them to fit and interact with other materials. ST7.1. Explain how needs, attitudes and values influence the direction of technological development in various cultures. ST7.2. Describe how decisions to develop and use technologies often put environmental and economic concerns in direct competition with each other. ST7.3. Recognize that science can only answer some questions and technology can only solve some human problems. ST8.1. Examine how science and technology have advanced through the contributions of many different people, cultures and times in history. ST8.2. Examine how choices regarding the use of technology are influenced by constraints caused by various unavoidable factors (e.g., geographic location, limited Sixth Grade I Can 9

10 resources, social, political and economic considerations). Scientific Inquiry Standards Benchmark 6-8: Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the investigation, safety, considerations, and appropriate tools. SI6.1. Explain that there are not fixed procedures for guiding scientific investigations; however, the nature of an investigation determines the procedures needed. SI6.2, 7.4 and 8.1. Choose the appropriate tools and instruments and use relevant safety procedures to complete scientific investigations. SI7.1. Explain that variables and controls can affect the results of an investigation and that ideally one variable should be tested at a time; however it is not always possible to control all variables. SI7.2. Identify simple independent and dependent variables. SI7.3. Formulate and identify questions to guide scientific investigations that connect to science concepts and can be answered through scientific investigations. SI8.2. Describe the concepts of sample size and control and explain how these affect scientific investigations. Benchmark 6-8 B: Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions. SI6.3. Distinguish between observation and inference. SI6.4. Explain that a single example can never prove that something is always correct, but sometimes a single example can disprove something. SI7.5. Analyze alternative scientific explanations and predictions and recognize that there may be more than one good way to interpret a given set of data. SI7.6. Identify faulty reasoning and statements that go beyond the evidence or misinterpret the evidence. SI7.7. Use graphs, tables and charts to study physical phenomena and infer mathematical relationships between variables (e.g., speed and density). SI8.3. Read, construct and interpret data in various forms produced by self and others in both written and oral form (e.g., tables, charts, maps, graphs, diagrams and symbols). Sixth Grade I Can 10

11 SI8.4. Apply appropriate math skills to interpret quantitative data (e.g., mean, median and mode). Scientific Ways of Knowing Benchmark 6-8 SWKA. Use skills of scientific inquiry processes (e.g., hypothesis, record keeping, description and explanation). SWK6.1. Identify that hypotheses are valuable even when they are not supported. SWK6. 2. Describe why it is important to keep clear, thorough and accurate records. SWK8.1. Identify the difference between description (e.g., observation and summary) and explanation (e.g., inference, prediction, significance and importance). Benchmark 6-8 SWKB. Explain the importance of reproducibility and reduction of bias in scientific methods. SWK7.1. Show that the reproducibility of results is essential to reduce bias in scientific investigations. SWK7.2. Describe how repetition of an experiment may reduce bias. SWK8. 2. Explain why it is important to examine data objectively and not let bias affect observations. Benchmark 6-8 SWKC. Give examples of how thinking scientifically is helpful in daily life. SWK6. 3. Identify ways scientific thinking is helpful in a variety of everyday settings. SWK6.4. Describe how the pursuit of scientific knowledge is beneficial for any career and for daily life. SWK6.5. Research how men and women of all countries and cultures have contributed to the development of science. SWK7.3. Describe how the work of science requires a variety of human abilities and qualities that are helpful in daily life (e.g., reasoning, creativity, skepticism and openness). Sixth Grade I Can 11

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