Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS

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1 Section 1 Workbook (unit 3) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN B1. Analyze the functional inter-relationships of cell structures. 1) Describe the function and structure of these organelles. Cell Organelle Function Structure cell membrane cell wall chloroplast cytoskeleton cytoplasm Golgi bodies lysosomes mitochondria incl cristae and matrix nucleus nuclear pore nucleolus chromatin nuclear envelope chromosomes ribosomes polysomes Defines cell boundary, regulates what goes in & out of cell Support & structure to cell protects - cellulose -phospholipid bilayer with protein, cholesterol, & carbs Photosynthesis - grana & stroma, double membrane Organelle movement, anchor organelle, support - protein fibres Contains organelles - semi fluid medium Processing, packaging & distribution of proteins & lipids - stack of flattened sacs Intracellular digestion - large membrane bound sacs Cellular respiration - double membrane with cristae & matrix Stores genetic info., synthesize DNA & RNA, controls cell activities Allow certain molecules in and out of nucleus - double membrane, chromatin - hole in nuclear membrane Makes rrna - concentrated area of chromatin, RNA, and proteins Stores genetic information & controls cell activities - loosely wound DNA around histone proteins Separates nucleus from cytoplasm - double membrane with pores Tightly wound DNA for cell division - tightly wound DNA around histone proteins Protein synthesis - small & large subunits, rrna & proteins Make large proteins faster - group of ribosomes SmootER Makes lipids - membranous, no ribosomes rougher Makes proteins - membranous, has ribosomes vacuoles Name: Long- term storage - large membrane bound sacs vesicles Short- term storage - small membrane bound sacs Page 1 of 14

2 2) Label each organelle that is depicted in the chart. mitochondrion chloroplast Golgi body vesicle rough ER smooth ER Chromosomes Lysosome Chloroplast nuclear envelope nuclear pore Page 2 of 14

3 mitochondrion nucleus rough ER 3) Label the cristae and the matrix: Label the vesicles Cristae Matrix 4) Identify and label the parts of the following organelles. Rough ER with ribosomes Golgi body surrounded by vesicles 5) State the balanced chemical equation for cellular respiration and explain the significance of the mitochondria in this process. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP - Cellular respiration occurs in the cristae of the mitochondrion 6) Describe how the following pairs of organelles function to compartmentalize the cell and move materials through it. Where are proteins made and how are they processed, transported and exported? a. Rough and Smooth ER The rough and smooth ER are membranous channel that are continuous with the nuclear envelope, which separates the contents of these organelles from the cytoplasm. The rough ER produces proteins due to the ribosomes attached to it. The smooth ER produces lipids. The rer follows right after the nucleus and the ser comes right after the rer. Page 3 of 14

4 b. Golgi bodies and vesicles and lysosomes The Golgi modifies, packages, and processes proteins it is a group of flattened sacs in the cytoplasm. Vesicles isolate substances inside their membrane and transports substances from the ER to the Golgi to the cell membrane for exocytosis. Lysosomes isolate substances inside for intracellular digestion ex) old organelle or bacteria made by the Golgi Page 4 of 14

5 7) Label plasma membrane, mitochondrion, centriole, rough ER, cytoplasm, smooth ER, Golgi body, microfilaments, microtubules, ribosomes, nucleus, nuclear envelope, nuclear pore, nucleolus, chromatin, lysosome Mitochondrion centriole smooth ER Nucleus rough ER cent Cytoplasm Golgi body nuclear pore nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin microtubules Plasma membrane Lysosome Ribosomes Microfilaments Page 5 of 14

6 Organelles work together: rer makes proteins (or ser makes lipids). Transport vesicle moves it to the Golgi body where Label and explain the inter- relationships between cell organelles the protein or lipid is modified and packaged. A secretory vesicle takes lipid or protein to cell membrane for exocytosis. Smooth ER Rough ER transport vesicle transport vesicle lysosome Golgi body endocytosis secretory vesicle exocytosis Page 6 of 14

7 B9. Analyze the structure and function of the cell membrane 8) Label the following parts of the cell membrane in the diagram below: hydrophobic region, hydrophilic region, phospholipid, carbohydrate, glycoprotein, glycolipid, cholesterol. carbohydrate glycolipids phopholipid glycoprotein glycoprotein hydrophobic region cholesterol hydrophilic region 9) What are the main functions of proteins in the cell membrane? To determine the function of the membrane, moves substances across the membrane and transmits signals into cell 10) Explain why the cell membrane is described as selectively permeable. Some substances can freely cross the cell membrane while others cannot. For example, lipid soluble, small, uncharged molecules cross easily while charged, large molecules need help to cross. 11) How does a molecule s size, shape, charge and lipid solubility affect its permeability? For example, lipid soluble, small, uncharged molecules cross easily while charged, large molecules need help to cross. 12) What is a concentration gradient? Where there is a different concentration of a substance on either side of the cell membrane 13) What form of energy is used? ATP Page 7 of 14

8 14) Complete the following table T y pe of transport diffusion osmosis facilitated active endocytosis exocytosis phagocytosis pinocytosis Comparison of Membrane Transport Processes Concentration Gradient (with or against) Uses channel or carrier protein? (Y or N) Uses energy? (Y or N) Types and sizes of molecules transported With No No Oxygen, carbon dioxide, alcohol, urea With No No Water With Yes No Sugar & amino acids Against Yes Yes Other sugars, amino acids & ions No Yes Large macromolecules omit omit No Yes Small, liquid, solutes Against No Yes Large molecules 15) What process is being depicted in the diagrams below? Diagram A: Endocytosis = phagocytosis Diagram B: Exocytosis Page 8 of 14

9 16) What are the functions of the following membrane proteins? Receptor Receive signal ex) hormone Enzyme speed up chemical reactions Glycoprotein cell recognition 17) A) Explain how the following factors affect the rate of diffusion across a cell membrane: Factor increased temperature Effect:,, or no change Explanation Molecules speed up and move faster increased size of molecule Molecules cannot move through the phospholipid bilayer easily when they get big larger concentration gradient larger pressure gradient charged molecules (ions) instead of neutral molecules The greater the concentration difference the faster diffusion occurs because the greater the push created The greater the pressure difference the faster diffusion occurs because the greater the push created Because charged molecules need help to cross due to the hydrophobic, non-polar interior of the phospholipid bilayer need protein B) Explain osmosis Diffusion of water from high to low concentration of water across a semipermeable membrane. Water moves from low solute concentration to high solute concentration Page 9 of 14

10 18) Predict and explain the effects of the following environments on osmosis in animal cells. Use illustrations in your answer. a. Hypertonic: causes an animal cell to lose water and shrivel up b. Isotonic: no effect on an animal cell c. Hypotonic causes an animal cell to gain water and swell it may even burst (lyse) 19) In the following diagrams, circle the side in which water diffuse to side A or B? Side A Side A 20) Describe what has happened to the RBCs in the diagrams below. Nothing, it is an isotonic solution. Swells because in hypotonic solution. Shrivels because in hypertonic solution. Page 10 of 14

11 B10. Explain why cells divide when they reach a particular surface area-to-volume ratio 21) Complete the table to compare the SA:Volume ratio of two cube-shaped cells. Cell #1 Cell #2 length of one side (s) 2 4 surface area (6s 2 ) volume (s 3 ) 8 64 surface area : volume ratio 24:8 = 3 96:64 = ) Why is the surface area-to-volume ratio important to cells? To allow for adequate exchange of nutrients and wastes at the cell membrane of the cell in order to sustain that cell 23) How do cells increase their surface area-to-volume ratio without increasing their volume? Give three examples. Folding, getting thinner, irregular / convoluted shape Ex) intestinal villi, mitochondria, surface of the brain B11. Analyze the roles of enzymes in biochemical reactions 24) Explain the following terms: a. Metabolism: The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur inside a cell b. Enzyme: A protein that speeds up chemical reactions. (biological catalyst) c. Substrate: The reactant of an enzymatic reaction fits into the active site of enzyme and is used to create the product d. Coenzyme: An organic, non-protein molecules that helps an enzyme do its job e. Activation energy: The amount of energy needed to cause molecules to react to form a product. Page 11 of 14

12 25) Label the parts U through Z. U = active site; V = enzyme; W = coenzyme; X = substrate; Y = substrate-enzyme complex; and Z = product 26) Use a graph to explain how enzymes lower the activation energy of a biochemical reaction. Enzymes reduce the amount of energy needed to cause a reaction to occur. 27) Use a diagram to explain the induced-fit model of enzymatic action. The active site slightly changes shape to allow for the best fit of the substrate into the active site of the enzyme 28) How is the role of an enzyme different from the role of a coenzyme in a biochemical reaction? Enzymes speed up chemical reactions while the coenzymes help enzymes do their job Page 12 of 14

13 29) What is the relationship between some vitamins and coenzymes? Some vitamins are components of coenzyme. If there is a lack of some vitamins there is a lack of the coenzymes. 30) Apply your knowledge of proteins to explain the effects of each of the following on enzyme activity. Use graphs to help in your explanation. ph: An enzyme has an optimal ph depending upon where it functions in the body. If the ph moves away from the optimal ph, the enzyme denatures and enzyme activity decreases temperature: The optimal temperature is 37 C. If you increase the temperature you increase enzyme activity to a point. If you move up to 40 C, enzyme denatures but reversible. If over 40 C permanent. Temp. below 37 C, enzyme activity decreases substrate concentration: Increases enzyme activity until all the active sites of enzymes are full and then the saturation point is reached = maximum rate reached for reaction. enzyme concentration: Increases enzyme activity as long as substrate available. As substrate converted to the product, enzyme activity decreases. If add more substrate, the enzyme activity will increase again. competitive inhibitors: These molecules block the active so the substrate cannot bind to the enzyme. Competitive inhibitors are so close in shape to the substrate that they can compete for the active site. Therefore, enzyme activity decreases. non-competitive inhibitors: (e.g. heavy metals) These molecules decrease enzyme activity or stops it (feedback inhibition / negative feedback). Non- competitive inhibitors bind to the enzyme at a place other than the active site. A change in ph, temperature, or the addition of a non-competitve inhibitor all cause denaturation of the enzyme that leads to it no longer being able to function in the body Page 13 of 14

14 31) What is the source gland for the hormone thyroxin? Describe how thyroxin controls metabolic rate. The thyroid gland produces the hormone thyroxin. Thyroxin increases the metabolic rate of cells and regulates growth and development. 32) What is a metabolic pathway? How are enzymes involved in these pathways? A metabolic pathway is a series of linked reaction where the product becomes the reactant of the next enzymatic reaction in the series. For each step of the pathway there is a different enzyme needed Page 14 of 14

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