Cell Theory. Notes Answers

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1 Cell Theory Notes Answers

2 Cell Discovery 1. Coined term cell = Robert Hooke 2. Observe plant cells = Schleiden 3. Observe animal cells = Schwann 4. Cell from pre-existing cells = Rudolf Virchow

3 Cell Theory 5. The cell theory shows = what all cells have in common. 6. The three parts to the cell theory a. All plants are made up of cells. b. All animals are made up of cells. c. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

4 Recall 7.Three organelles found in all cells a.cell membrane b.cytoplasm c.genetic material

5 Recall 7. Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes no nucleus yes nucleus no membrane-bound organelles yes membrane bound organelles few organelles many organelles small in size larger in size BACTERIA ALL OTHER KINGDOMS

6 Cell Organelles Cell organelles Characteristics Functions

7 Centriole Plant cells Animal cells Plant Cells = no (plant cells use other proteins to move their chromosomes around) Animal cells = yes Characteristics Composed of microtubules Always located near the nucleus

8 Centriole Functions: Move chromosomes during cell division.

9 Cell wall Plant cell Animal cell Plant cell = yes Characteristics Composed of microtubules. Animal cell = NO Primary wall in all plants. Secondary wall form bark on a tree.

10 Cell wall Functions * Provides protection, support and shape to the cell.

11 Chloroplast Plant cell Animal cell Plant cell = yes Animal cell = no (animal cells have color pigments but they are not located in a chloroplast) Characteristics Composed of chlorophyll and other color pigments.

12 Chloroplast Function = carry out photosynthesis Photosynthesis converts solar energy into glucose (energy-storing compound)

13 Cytoplasm Plant cell Animal cell Plant cell = yes characteristics Semi-solid material. Animal cell = yes Often described as being jelly-like in consistency.

14 Cytoplasm Functions: Location for many of the chemical reactions of the cell.

15 Cytoskeleton Plant cell Animal cell Plant cells = yes Animal cells = yes Characteristics Composed of microtubules. Composed of intermediate filaments. Composed of microfilaments

16 Cytoskeleton Functions: Provide shape to the cell and for movement of internal cell organelles microtubules Provide strength to the cell intermediate filaments Enables entire cells to move and/or contract muscle cells - microfilaments

17 Endoplasmic Reticulum Plant cell Animal cell Plant cells = yes Animal cells = yes Characteristics Can be smooth = few to no ribosomes Can be rough = many ribosomes Hollow network of membranes. Always connects the nucleus to the cell membrane.

18 Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions Transports materials throughout the cell. Rough ER tends to transport proteins. Smooth ER tends to transport lipids and other compounds.

19 Golgi Complex Plant cell Animal cell Plant cell = yes Animal cell = yes Characteristics Composed of closely layered stacks of membrane- enclosed spaces. Always be found near an endoplasmic reticulum.

20 Golgi Complex Function Collect proteins Modifies proteins Packages proteins Sends the packaged proteins out into the cell via a vesicle.

21 Lysosomes Plant cells Animal cells Plant cells = no (they tend to store their enzymes in a vacuole not a lysosome) Characteristics Membrane-bound sacs filled with enzymes. Animal cells = yes

22 Lysosomes Functions Defend the cell from invading bacteria and viruses. Break down damaged cell organelles or worn-out cell organelles. Digest materials found in vacuoles.

23 Mitochondria Plant cell Animal cell Plant cells = yes Animal cells = yes Characteristics Bean shaped Composed of an outer layer and an inner layer. Inner layer is lined with enzymes. Contain their own DNA Able to replicate

24 Mitochondria Functions Makes energy for the cell (ATP chemical energy)

25 Nucleus Plant cell Animal cell Plant cell = yes Animal cell = yes Characteristics Contains nuclear pores Contains nucleoplasm. Selectively permeable Tends to be in the center of animals cells and pushed up against the wall in plant cells (why? Big vacuole in plants)

26 Nucleus Functions Contains the genetic material for the cell (DNA/Chromosomes) Control the production of proteins.

27 Nucleolus Plant cell Animal cell Plant cell = yes Characteristics Located within the nucleus Animal cell = yes

28 Nucleolus Functions Makes a ribosome

29 Plastids Plant cell Animal cell Plant cells = yes Characteristics Membrane-bound sacs. Animal cells = no (animal cells have color pigments, however, specific cells make these and they are not stored )

30 Plastids Functions Store color pigments for plants

31 Ribosomes Plant cells Animal cells Plant cells = yes Characteristics Composed of 3 pieces. Mainly located on RER. May float freely in the cytoplasm. Animal cells = no

32 Ribosomes Functions Assembles amino acids in order to make proteins.

33 Vacuole Plant cell Animal cell Plant cells Yes large in size located in the center of the cell. Characteristics Animal cell = yes small in size does not last long

34 Vacuole Functions Storage (food, water, inorganic ions, and enzymes)

35 Vesicles Plant cell Animal cell Plant cells = yes Characteristics Membrane- bound sacs Formed by the Golgi complex Animal cells = yes

36 Vesicles Functions Stores/carries proteins to their required locations. Vesicle derived from the proteins packaged by the Golgi or from the ER which contains the ribosomes that made proteins.

37 Cell Analogy City Part 1. Warehouse 2. UPS store 3. City hall 4. Wrecking company 5. Fence 6. Power plant 7. Factory 8. Streets Cell Analogy 1. Vacuole 2. Golgi Complex 3. Nucleus 4. Lysosomes 5. Cell/Plasma Membrane 6. Mitochondria 7. Ribosomes 8. Endoplasmic Reticulum

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