Bacteria. Prokaryotic Cells. Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles

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1 Cells Chapter 7

2 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing cells

3 Bacteria Prokaryotic Cells Very small cells Have cell wall No nucleus No membrane bound organelles

4 Eukaryotic Cells Much larger than prokaryotic cells Animals, plants, fungi, protists DNA is stored in nucleus Membrane bound organelles May or may not have cell wall

5 What is an organelle? It is a part of the cell that performs a particular function

6 Organelle Wanted Poster Your team has been hired by the microscopic FBI to create WANTED! posters for cell organelles. You will be given an organelle by your agency contact (Mrs. Maxwell), and you must create a wanted poster with the following information: The organelle name. A drawing of what the organelle looks like (both by itself and in a cell). A description of why the cell organelle is WANTED. You will need to include what the organelle actually does in a cell. You may also note what crimes the organelle has committed. Any friends the organelle has (i.e. other organelles that might be in its gang). What type of cell this organelle might be found in. The reward for information leading to the arrest of this organelle.

7 Cell Wall Made up of Cellulose Adds rigidity to the cell Protects the cell Found only in plants, fungi, bacteria, some protists

8 Cell Membrane Allows materials into and out of the cell Flexible barrier Made of Phospholipids with proteins scattered throughout

9 Cytoplasm Everything inside the cell The jelly-like cytosol, cytoskeleton and all organelles

10 Nucleus Control center of the cell Where DNA is stored Largest organelle in animal cells

11 Nucleolus Contains RNA needed to make ribosomes

12 Chromatin Unorganized strands of DNA bound with Proteins

13 Chromosomes Highly organized and condensed DNA Only seen during cell division

14 Mitochondrion Site of cellular respiration Sugars are broken down into ATP (energy) Powerhouse of the cell Found in plant and animal cells

15 Chloroplast Found only in plant cells Site of Photosynthesis Contain Chlorophyll

16 Endosymbiosis Simply stated, the theory of endosymbiosis is the concept that mitochondria and chloroplasts are the result of years of evolution initiated by the endocytosis of bacteria and blue-green algae which, instead of becoming digested, became symbiotic.

17 Chlorophyll Green pigment found in chloroplasts that captures sunlight needed for photosynthesis

18 Vacuole In plants, it is a large storage area for water, salts, carbohydrates and other nutrients In animals, it is much smaller Also plays a part in intracellular digestion

19 Lysosome Small digestive sacs found in animal cells Contains enzymes needed to break down food particles and discarded organelles

20 Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER makes lipids for membranes Rough ER contains ribosomes for making proteins associated with the membrane

21 Golgi Apparatus The post office of the cell Packages and sends proteins to different parts of the cell

22 Ribosome Site of protein synthesis Not membrane bound so prokaryotes also have them

23 Centrioles Small barrel like structures in animal cells that may aid in cell division

24 Vesicles Carry proteins that have been sorted and modified by the golgi apparatus

25 Review

26

27 Cell Membrane The job of the membrane is to regulate what comes into and leaves the cell It is a flexible barrier made up of phospholipids

28 Phospholipids are amphipathic They are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic

29 The hydrophobic tails bury themselves into the middle of the bilayer and the hydrophilic heads face the water on the inside and outside of the cell

30 Transport through the membrane There are two types of transport through the membrane Passive which requires no energy (ATP) Active which requires energy (ATP)

31 Diffusion Passive transport Molecules move down a concentration gradient from high to low concentration MovieMovies from lecture June 2

32 Diffusion Demo A starch and glucose solution is placed into a sac made from dialysis tubing. The sac is placed into pure water. The sac is permeable to glucose, but not to starch What do you expect to see in the water within 24 hours? Why? How could we test for this?

33 Demo Set-up

34 OSMOSIS cture/lecnotes/facdiff.html The movement of water across the membrane from high concentration to low concentration. Also passive transport

35 Hypertonic The solute concentration is higher, meaning the water concentration is lower. Hypotonic Solute concentration is lower, meaning the water concentration is higher Isotonic Solute concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane

36 Facilitated Diffusion Movement through proteins in the membrane Does not require energy (ATP)

37 Active Transport Movement of molecules against the concentration gradient Requires ATP (energy) Low High concentration

38 How do we get the ATP to do these things? Photosynthesis provides the sugars (fuel) for the power plant Cellular Respiration breaks down the sugars to make ATP (energy) Think of photosynthesis as the process that makes coal and Respiration as the power plant that burns the coal to make electrical energy for our homes

39 Endocytosis and Exocytosis Endocytosis Cell envelops and engulfs large materials Phagocytosis solid materials Pinocytosis liquid materials Exocytosis Large particles leave the cell

40

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