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1 Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following statements about the atomic nucleus is accurate? A) The nucleus is held together mostly by the electrical and gravitational forces. B) Large nuclei are denser than light nuclei. C) All nuclei have nearly the same density. D) A nucleus containing 0 nucleons will have approximately twice the radius as a nucleus containing 10 nucleons. E) Heavy nuclei most easily undergo nuclear fusion. 1) ) Nucleus "a" contains 5 protons and 5 neutrons and has radius R. The radius of nucleus "b", which contains 35 protons and 45 neutrons, is closest to: A) 8R B) R C) R D) 1.4R E) 4R ) 3) The decay rate of an isotope is initially R 0 but after one half-life has gone by, the rate is R 0 /. At the end of the next half-life, the decay rate will be: A) 0 B) R/4 C) R/e D) R/ E) R/e 3) Situation 43.1 Two sealed boxes each start out containing g of radioactive samples and contain nothing else. The isotope in one box has a half-life of 1.00 hr, while the isotope in the other box has a half-life of.00 hr. Both isotope samples have the same initial decay rate and both are beta-minus emitters. Each box is on a laboratory scale, and the boxes themselves have negligible weight. 4) In Situation 43.1, after 4.00 hr have elapsed, the ratio of the scale reading for the.00-hr isotope to the scale reading of the 1.00-hr isotope will be closest to: A) B) 16 C) 1 D) 4 E) 8 4) 5) In Situation 43.1, after 4.00 hr have elapsed, the ratio of the decay rate of the.00-hr isotope to the decay rate of the 1.00-hr isotope will be closest to: A) 1 B) C) 4 D) 16 E) 8 5) 6) The following masses are known: 6) 1 0 n u 1 1 H u 7 Li u 3 The binding energy of 7 Li, in MeV, is closest to: 3 A) 48 B) 56 C) 39 D) 5 E) 43 1

2 7) The binding energy per nucleon for 60 Co, calculated from the liquid drop model, in MeV, is 7 closest to: A) 8.4 B) 8.8 C) 8.0 D) 8.6 E) 8. 7) 8) A proton is projected at a stationary 6 Ni aluminum target. The proton momentarily comes to a 38 halt at a distance from the center of an aluminum nucleus, equal to twice the nuclear radius. Assume that the nucleus retains its spherical shape and that the nuclear force on the proton is negligible. The initial kinetic energy of the proton, in MeV, is closest to: A) 5.8 B) 1 C) 1.9 D) 3.8 E) 8.6 8) 9) Rubidium 87 Rb is a naturally occurring nuclide that undergoes beta-minus decay. The nuclide, 37 which is the product of the decay, is: A) Kr B) Rb C) Kr D) Sr E) Sr 9) 10) Naturally occurring tellurium, 13 Te, transforms by electron capture, according to the reaction 5 10) 13 5 Te + e- X + v e The product nuclide, denoted by X, is: A) I B) Sb C) 13 5 Te D) Sb E) I 11) Neodymium 144 Nd is a nuclide that undergoes alpha decay. The nuclide that is the product of the decay is: A) Sm B) Ba C) Pr D) Ce E) Gd 11) 1) Scandium 44 Sc decays by emitting a positron. The nuclide that is the product of the decay is: A) 44 Ti B) 43 1 Sc C) 44 0 Ca D) 45 1 Sc E) 43 1 Ca 1) 13) Neptunium Np has a decay constant of s-1. A 3.0-mg sample of Np-39 is prepared. The activity of the Np-39 sample, in Ci, is closest to: A) 70 B) 0 C) 700 D) 00 E) 13)

3 14) A radioactive source of a single nuclide emits.4-mev neutrons at the rate of 900 neutrons per second. The number of atoms in the source is The activity of the source, in nci, is closest to: A) 50 B) 90 C) 500 D) 9 E) 5 15) A radioactive source of a single nuclide emits.4-mev neutrons at the rate of 300 neutrons per second. The number of atoms in the source is The mean lifetime of the nuclide is closest to: A) B) C) D) E) ) 15) 16) The decay constant of a radioactive nuclide is s-1. The half-life of the nuclide, in minutes, is closest to: A) 6.7 B) 3.6 C).6 D) 4.6 E) ) 17) The decay constant of a radioactive nuclide is s-1. At a given instant, the activity of a specimen of the nuclide is 80 mci. The time interval required for the activity to decline to 40 mci is closest to: A) 95 s B) 88 s C) 80 s D) 73 s E) 100 s 17) 18) The decay constant of a radioactive nuclide is s-1. At a given instant, the number of atoms of the radioactive nuclide is The number of atoms of the nuclide that remain after a time interval of 30 minutes is closest to: A) B) C) D) E) ) 3

4 Figure ) In Fig. 43.1, the curve graphed here helps us to understand A) the nature of the process called beta decay. B) why scintillation counters are used in nuclear physics. C) why eventually the universe will be entirely composed of heavy elements like uranium. D) how radioactive dating is accomplished. E) how energy is generated in a nuclear reactor. 19) 0) Which of the following is not true of the nuclear force? A) For two protons in close proximity, the nuclear force and the electric force have comparable magnitudes. B) The nuclear force has a short range, of the order of nuclear dimensions. C) A nucleon in a large nucleus interacts via the nuclear force only with nearby nucleons, not with ones far away in the nucleus. D) The nuclear force does not depend on charge. E) The nuclear force favors binding of pairs of protons or neutrons with opposite spin angular momenta. 0) 4

5 1) The stability of 11 C with respect to alpha, beta-plus, and beta-minus decay is to be determined. 6 1) Do not consider the possibility of decay by electron capture. The following atomic masses are known: 4 He Be B C N The 11 6 C nuclide is: A) subject to alpha decay only B) subject to beta-minus decay only C) not subject to alpha, beta-plus, or beta-minus decay D) subject to beta-plus or beta-minus decay, but not to alpha decay E) subject to beta-plus decay only ) The stability of 36 Cl with respect to alpha, beta-plus, and beta-minus decay is to be 17 determined. Do not consider the possibility of decay by electron capture. The following atomic masses are known: ) 4 He P S Cl Ar The 36 Cl nuclide is: 17 A) subject to beta-plus decay only B) subject to beta-minus decay only C) subject to alpha decay only D) not subject to alpha, beta-plus, or beta-minus decay E) subject to beta-plus or beta-minus decay, but not to alpha decay 5

6 3) The stability of 47 Sc with respect to alpha, beta-plus, and beta-minus decay is to be 1 determined. Do not consider the possibility of decay by electron capture. The following atomic masses are known: 3) 4 He K Ca Sc Ti The 47 Sc nuclide is: 1 A) subject to beta-minus decay only B) not subject to alpha, beta-plus, or beta-minus decay C) subject to beta-plus or beta-minus decay, but not to alpha decay D) subject to alpha decay only E) subject to beta-plus decay only 4) The stability of 56 Fe with respect to alpha, beta-plus, and beta-minus decay is to be 6 determined. Do not consider the possibility of decay by electron capture. The following atomic masses are known: 4) 4 He Cr Mn Fe Co The 56 Fe nuclide is: 6 A) subject to alpha decay only B) subject to beta-plus or beta-minus decay, but not to alpha decay C) subject to beta-minus decay only D) subject to beta-plus decay only E) not subject to alpha, beta-plus, or beta-minus decay 6

7 5) Bismuth 1 83 Bi is known to be radioactive. The stability of 1 Bi with respect to alpha, 83 beta-plus, and beta-minus decay is to be determined. Do not consider electron capture. The following atomic masses are known: 5) 4 He Tl Pb Bi Po The 1 Bi nuclide is: 83 A) subject to beta-plus decay only B) subject to beta-minus decay only C) subject to alpha decay only D) subject to alpha or beta-plus decay, but not beta-minus decay E) alpha or beta-minus decay, but not beta-plus decay 6) The maximum permissible workday dose for occupational exposure to radiation is 6 mrem. A 63-kg laboratory technician absorbs.1 mj of 0.7-MeV gamma rays in a work day. The relative biological efficiency (RBE) for gamma rays is The ratio of the equivalent dosage received by the technician to the maximum permissible equivalent dosage is closest to: A) 0.17 B) 0.13 C) 0.14 D) 0.15 E) ) 7) The maximum permissible workday dose for occupational exposure to radiation is 1 mrem. A 70-kg laboratory technician absorbs.9 mj of 0.5-MeV gamma rays in a work day. The relative biological efficiency (RBE) for gamma rays is The number of gamma-ray photons absorbed by the technician in a workday is closest to: A) B) C) D) E) ) 8) A 63-kg researcher absorbs neutrons in a work day. The energy of the neutrons is 6.5 MeV. The relative biological efficiency (RBE) for fast neutrons is 10. The equivalent dosage of the radiation exposure, in mrem, is closest to: A) 43 B).7 C) 13 D) 1.3 E) 4.3 8) 7

8 9) A beryllium-8 atom at rest undergoes double alpha decay as follows: 9) 8 4 Be 4 He + 4 He The atomic masses are: 4 He Be The kinetic energy of each departing alpha particle, in kev, is closest to: A) 9 B) 180 C) 65 D) 46 E) ) One of the fusion reactions that occurs in the sun is: 30) 3 He + 3 He 4 He H H The following atomic masses are known: 1 1 H He He The reaction energy, in MeV, is closest to: A) 17 B) 19 C) 11 D) 13 E) 15 Situation 43. An excited 36 9 U* nucleus undergoes fission into two fragments U* Ba Kr The following atomic masses are known: 9 Kr Ba U* ) In Situation 43., the reaction energy, in MeV, is closest to: A) 150 B) 180 C) 170 D) 190 E) ) 8

9 3) In Situation 43., assume, at a given instant, that the two fragments are spherical and barely in contact. At that instant, the electrostatic interaction energy of the two fragments, in MeV, is closest to: A) 40 B) 50 C) 70 D) 60 E) 30 3) Table ) In Table 43.1, in a laboratory accident a work area is contaminated with radioactive material. Health physicists monitor the area during a 30-day period and obtain the data shown here. The accident occurred at t = 0. They determine that it will not be safe for workers to enter the area until the radioactivity level has dropped to 133 counts per minute. Of the choices listed, which is the earliest time that workers could safely return? A) 50 days B) 3 days C) 44 days D) 38 days E) 4 days 33) 34) The radioactive nuclei 60 Co is widely used in medical applications. It undergoes beta decay, and the total energy of the decay process is.8 MeV per decay event. The half-life of this nucleus is 34) 7 days. Suppose that a patient is given a dose of 6.9 microcurie of 60 Co. If all of this material decayed while in the patient's body, what would be the total energy deposited there? ( 1 Ci = decays/sec.) A) 11 J B) J C) 3.9 J D) J E) 4 J 35) In the nuclear reaction here, which of the following is the missing nuclear product? 35) 10 5 B + 4 He 1 1 H +? A) 1 7 N B) 13 6 C C) 14 7 N D) 13 7 N E) 1 9 F SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 36) If the radius of a nucleus is given by R = RoA 1/3 where R o = m, calculate the density of a nucleus that has A = 136. The mass of a nucleon (proton or neutron) is 36) kg. 37) The unstable isotope 34 Th decays by! emission with a half-life of 4.5 days. (a) What mass of 34 Th will produce decays per second? (Note: 37) 1u = kg.) (b) If the initial decay rate of the sample is decays per second, what is the decay rate after 68 days? 9

10 38) Consider the fusion reaction: 38) 1 H + 1 H + 1 H 4 He H n The atomic masses are: 1 H, u ; 4 He, u; 1 1 H, u and 1 n, u, where 1u = kg. What mass of deuterium { 1 H} fuel is used up in producing J of energy by this reaction? 39) A hypothetical particle has mass 51 MeV/c. If such a particle at rest decays into two gamma-ray photons, what is the wavelength of each photon? 39) (Note: e = C, c = m/s, and h = J s.) 40) What initial kinetic energy must a proton have in order to initiate a nuclear reaction with a 6 38 Ni nucleus? Express your answer in MeV. (R o = m) 40) 41) A certain isotope has a half-life of 3.4 hr and a relative biological effectiveness of A sample of this isotope initially delivers an equivalent dose of 4.0 rad to 50 g of tissue. (a) What was the initial equivalent dose to the tissue in rem? (b) How many joules of energy did the 50-g sample initially receive from the isotope? (c) How long would it take before this isotope would deliver only 5.00 rad to the 50-g piece of tissue? 41) 10

11 Answer Key Testname: UNTITLED1 1) C ) C 3) B 4) C 5) C 6) C 7) B 8) A 9) D 10) D 11) D 1) B 13) C 14) A 15) E 16) D 17) D 18) B 19) E 0) A 1) E ) E 3) A 4) E 5) E 6) B 7) E 8) E 9) D 30) D 31) B 3) B 33) D 34) C 35) B 36).31 x kg/m 3 37) (a) kg (b) decays per second 38) kg 39) m 40) 19 MeV 41) (a) 84 rem (b) J (c) 73.3 hr 11

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