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1 Cape Cod Community College Departmental Syllabus Prepared by the Department of Natural Sciences & Applied Technology Date of Departmental Approval: November 2, 2009 Date approved by Curriculum and Programs: January 21, 2010 Effective: Fall Course Number: CHM102 and CHM102L Course Title: General Chemistry II and General Chemistry II Laboratory 2. Description: Continuation of CHM101. Considers the study of chemical families, chemical kinetics, chemical equilibria, solubility products, electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry and organic chemistry. Laboratory studies reinforce the principles and concepts studied in lecture and include the qualitative analysis of metals. (3 class hours/ 3 laboratory hours) 3. Student Learning Outcomes (instructional objectives, intellectual skills): Upon successful completion of this course, students are able do the following: Describe the experimental factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions Apply the method of initial rates to find the rate-law expression for a reaction and calculate k, the rate constant Use the integrated rate-law expression for a reaction (the relationship between concentration and time) Analyze kinetics data to determine the order of a reaction and to solve problems related to calculations of the rate constant, k; concentrations of reactant after time, t; half-life of reactions Describe the collision theory of reaction rates, transition state theory, and the role of activation energy in determining the rate of a reaction Use the Arrhenius equation to relate the activation energy for a reaction to changes in the rate constant with changes in temperature Derive the reaction quotient and explain the relationship between the reaction quotient and the equilibrium constant Apply LeChatelier s Principle to recognize factors that affect equilibria and predict the result when changes are introduced into systems at equilibrium Recognize strong electrolytes and calculate concentrations of their ions Calculate ph and poh Use ionization constants for weak monoprotic acids and bases to determine concentrations of species in dilute solutions Describe the ionization of polyprotic acids and calculate the concentrations of all species in solutions of polyprotic acids Apply acid-base equilibrium concepts to salts of acids and bases Explain the common ion effect and calculate the concentrations of all species in solutions containing common ions Describe the process of titration; the use of acid-base indicators and how they function Calculate the concentrations of all species present at various stages of titration curves for (a) strong acids and bases, (b) weak acids and strong bases, (c) strong acids and weak bases Write solubility product expressions and use K sp in chemical calculations Use K sp to calculate separation of ions by fractional precipitation and explain how simultaneous equilibria can be used to control solubility Describe methods used to dissolve precipitates Write formation expressions for complex ions and use K f in chemical calculations Describe the differences between electrolytic cells and voltaic (galvanic) cells Write half-reactions and overall cell reactions for electrolysis processes Use Faraday s Law of Electrolysis to calculate amounts of products formed, amounts of current passed, time elapsed, and oxidation state Describe the construction of simple voltaic cells from half-cells and a salt bridge; identify the components; calculate the emf for the cell; and write half-reactions and overall cell reactions for voltaic cells Describe the relationship between neutron-proton ratio, nuclear stability, band of stability Describe the common types of radiation emitted when nuclei undergo radioactive decay Calculate concentrations, half-lives, rate constants, time elapsed for first-order radioactive decay Write and balance equations that describe nuclear reactions Describe the uses of radioisotopes in dating objects CHM102 / CHM102L. General Chemistry II / General Chemistry II Laboratory Page 1 of 6

2 Differentiate between nuclear reactions that are induced by bombardment of nuclei, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion Describe the hybridization of atomic orbitals in carbon to produce hybrid bonding orbitals (sp 3, sp 2, sp) Explain the molecular geometry of carbon compounds in terms of hybrid bonding orbitals (sp 3, sp 2, sp) Describe resonance structures with respect to carbon compounds Describe saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes and cycloalkanes); their structures and their nomenclature Describe unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes); their structures and their nomenclature Describe the differences between constitutional isomers and stereoisomers Draw and name constitutional isomers of alkanes Distinguish between isomers and conformers Draw and name constitutional and geometric isomers of alkenes Describe and name some aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, condensed aromatics and substituted aromatic compounds) Describe some functional groups and name compounds from the following classes: halides, alcohols and phenols, ethers, amines, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amides Recognize examples of the three fundamental classes of organic reactions: substitution, addition, elimination Identify some common polymers and the reactions by which they are formed; identify the monomer from which they are formed Describe the structure of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids Use appropriate techniques in the laboratory, collect and analyze meaningful data, and present clearly and cogently written laboratory results (utilizing Standard American English). Work cooperatively in a small group setting to complete various laboratory exercises, following the written instructions provided. Solve problems that involve any of the topics included in the outline for this course. Explain some of the ways in which Chemistry can be applied to the problems of society in general. Effectively utilize appropriate quantities and units to describe chemical phenomena. Use a variety of devices and instruments in taking laboratory measurements. Use a scientific calculator as a tool in solving a wide variety of problems. 4. Credits: Four credits 5. Satisfies General Education Requirement: Natural or Physical Science 6. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in CHM Semester(s) Offered: Spring 8. Suggested General Guidelines for Evaluation: Course grading procedures are detailed on a student handout. Grades will be based on quizzes, hourly exams, final exam, formal laboratory reports, laboratory notebook and prelaboratory problems. 9. General Topical Outline (Optional): Attached. CHM102 / CHM102L. General Chemistry II / General Chemistry II Laboratory Page 2 of 6

3 CHM102 General Chemistry II - Course Outline A. Chemical Kinetics 1. The Rate of Reaction 2. Factors Affecting the Reaction Rate a. Concentration of Reactants b. Nature of Reactants c. Temperature and Heat d. Catalyst e. State of Subdivision 3. Rate Equations 4. Order of a Reaction 5. Half-Life of a Reaction 6. Collision Theory of the Reaction Rate 7. Activation Energy and the Arrhenius Equation 8. Elementary Reactions a. Unimolecular b. Bimolecular c. Termolecular 9. Reaction Mechanisms B. An Introduction to Chemical Equilibria 1. The State of Equilibrium 2. Reaction Quotients and Equilibrium Constants 3. The Relationship of Rates of Reaction and Equilibrium Constants 4. Predicting the Direction of Reaction of a Reversible Reaction 5. Calculations Involving Equilibrium Concentrations 6. Calculation of Equilibrium Concentrations 7. Techniques for Solving Equilibrium Problems 8. Effect on Equilibrium When Change of: a. Concentration b. Temperature c. Pressure 9. Effect of Catalyst on Equilibrium 10. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Equilibria 11. The Distribution Law and Extraction C. Acids and Bases 1. The Bronsted-Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases a. Protonic Concept of Acids and Bases b. Amphiprotic Species c. Strengths of Acids and Bases d. Neutralization e. Relative Strengths of Strong Acids and Bases f. Bronsted Acids i. In Aqueous Solution ii. Preparation iii. Monoprotic iv. Diprotic v. Triprotic g. Bronsted Bases i. In Aqueous Solution ii. Preparation h. Salts i. Quantitative Reactions of Acids and Bases j. Equivalents of Acids and Bases 2. The Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases a. Definitions b. Examples D. Ionic Equilibria of Weak Electrolytes 1. ph and poh 2. Ion Concentrations in Solutions of Strong Electrolytes CHM102 / CHM102L. General Chemistry II / General Chemistry II Laboratory Page 3 of 6

4 3. The Ionization of Weak Acids a. Monoprotic Acids b. Diprotic Acids c. Triprotic Acids 4. The Ionization of Weak Bases 5. The Common Ion Effect 6. Buffer Solutions 7. Reactions of Salts with Water a. Salt of Strong Base and Weak Acid b. Salt of Weak Base and Strong Acid c. Salt of Weak Base and Weak Acid 8. The Ionization of Hydrated Metal Ions 9. Acid-Base Indicators 10. Titration Curves E. The Solubility Product Principle 1. The Solubility Product 2. Calculation of Solubility Products from Solubilities 3. Calculation of Solubilities from Solubility Products 4. The Precipitation of Slightly Soluble Electrolytes 5. Calculation of Concentrations Necessary to Form a Precipitate 6. Calculations of Concentrations Following Precipitation 7. Solubility and Crystal Size 8. Fractional Precipitation 9. Multiple Equilibria Involving Solubility 10. Dissolution by a. Formation of a Weak Electrolyte b. Changing an Ion into Another Species c. Formation of a Complex Ion F. Electrochemistry and Oxidation-Reduction 1. Galvanic Cells and Cell Potentials a. Galvanic Cells b. Cell Potentials c. Standard Electrode Potentials d. Calculation of Cell potentials e. Effect of Concentrations on Cell Potentials f. Relationship of the Cell Potential to the Equilibrium Constant 2. Batteries a. Primary Cells b. Secondary Cells c. Fuel Cells d. Corrosion 3. Electrolytic Cells a. The Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride b. The Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions c. Electrolytic Deposition of Metals d. Faraday's Law of Electrolysis 4. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions a. Balancing Redox Equations by the i. Half-Reaction Method ii. Change in Oxidation Number Method b. Some Half-Reactions G. The Nonmetals, Part 1: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur and the Halogens 1. Hydrogen b. Chemical Properties c. Isotopes - Heavy Water d. Uses 2. Oxygen c. Ozone CHM102 / CHM102L. General Chemistry II / General Chemistry II Laboratory Page 4 of 6

5 d. Importance of Oxygen to Life e. Uses 3. Sulfur c. Hydrogen Sulfide and Sulfides d. Oxides e. Sulfurous Acid and Sulfites f. Sulfuric Acid and Sulfates 4. The Halogens b. Uses c. Properties d. Interhalogens e. Hydrogen Halides f. Binary Oxygen-Halogen Compounds g. Oxyacids of the Halogens and Their Salts H. The Nonmetals, Part 2: Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and the Noble Gases 1. Carbon a. Occurrence and Allotropes b. Chemical Properties c. Carbon Monoxide d. Carbon Dioxide e. Carbonic Acid and Carbonates f. Carbon Disulfide g. Carbon Tetrachloride h. Carbides and Cyanides 2. Nitrogen c. Ammonia and Its Derivatives d. Oxides e. Nitric Acid and Nitrates f. Nitrous Acid and Nitrites g. The Nitrogen Cycle 3. Phosphorus c. Phosphine d. Halides e. Oxides f. Acids i. Orthophosphoric ii. Phosphorous iii. Hypophosphorous 4. The Noble Gases a. Discovery and Production c. Noble Gas Compounds d. Uses I. Nuclear Chemistry 1. Stability of Nuclei a. The Nucleus b. Nuclear Binding Energy c. Nuclear Stability d. Half-Life 2. Nuclear Reactions a. Equations for Nuclear Reactions b. Radioactive Decay c. Radioactive Dating CHM102 / CHM102L. General Chemistry II / General Chemistry II Laboratory Page 5 of 6

6 d. Synthesis of Nuclides 3. Nuclear Energy and Other Applications a. Nuclear Fission b. Nuclear Fusion c. Nuclear Power i. Nuclear Power Reactors ii. Breeder Reactors iii. Fusion Reactors d. Additional Applications of Radioisotopes 4. Radioactive Emissions and The Environment a. Ionization of Matter by Radiation b. Radiation Dosage c. Factors Involved in Radiation Dosage d. Somatic and Genetic Radiation Damage J. The Atmosphere and Natural Waters 1. The Atmosphere a. Composition b. Pollution c. Most Common Air Pollutants d. Fossil Fuels and Combustion e. Chlorofluorocarbons f. Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect 2. Natural Waters a. Naturally Occurring Water b. Water Pollution c. Purification d. Hard Water e. Water Softening K. Organic Chemistry 1. Saturated Hydrocarbons 2. Nomenclature 3. Alkenes 4. Alkynes 5. Aromatic Hydrocarbons 6. Isomerism a. Structural b. Conformational c. Geometric d. Stereo 7. Derivatives of Hydrocarbons a. Alcohols b. Ethers c. Aldehydes d. Ketones e. Carboxylic Acids f. Esters g. Amides 8. Natural Organic Compounds a. Pheromones b. Alkaloids 9. Polymers a. Rubber b. Synthetic Fibers L. Biochemistry 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Nucleic Acids - The Genetic Code 4. Future Research CHM102 / CHM102L. General Chemistry II / General Chemistry II Laboratory Page 6 of 6

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