Driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs Prevention best buys

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1 Driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs Prevention best buys 21ST INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON ALCOHOL, DRUGS AND TRAFFIC SAFETY CONFERENCE GRAMADO, BRAZIL 18 OCTOBER 2016 Eugenia Rodrigues NMH/RF PAHO/WDC

2 Source: Drug use and Road safety (WHO, 2016) Proportion of drug-related road traffic deaths

3 Key elements in a drinking and driving law Specify BAC or BrAC limits 0.05 g/dl for the population at large g/dl for young or novice drivers and commercial drivers because they have a higher risk. Set minimum age for legal purchase or drinking of alcohol Specify an age below which the purchase or public consumption of alcoholic beverages is illegal. Specify penalties Fines Vehicle impoundment Jail

4 Key elements in a drinking-driving law Specify enforcement mechanisms Legislation should allow for police to conduct random alcohol screening of drivers at any time using appropriate methods or devices. Legislation should require alcohol testing of everyone involved in a crash (in hospital or at the site of the crash). The law should establish who has authority for enforcement. The law should provide a mechanism to monitor the sale of alcohol to underage people in certain facilities.

5 Key elements in a drinking-driving law The laws on their own are not sufficient enough to bring about the expected reduction in road traffic fatalities. It is important to ensure that the law is enforced and appropriate punishments administered to drivers and other road.

6 Key elements in a drink-driving law A traffic law that is not enforced, or not perceived as being enforced, has very little chances to be complied with. The enforcement of traffic laws needs to be evidence-based and data-driven, with an emphasis on approaches demonstrated to deter illegal road user behaviour such as highly visible, random operations. Appropriate penalties and sanctions need to be in place to deter offending among the general population, as well as minimise recidivism among traffic offenders.

7 Challenges implementing drinking and driving laws and their mitigation High cost of alcohol testing equipment This challenge can be overcome by ensuring allocation of funds to enforcement agencies to purchase key equipment. Equipment failure For example, alcometers may not work at low temperatures. This challenge can be overcome by checking, maintaining and following instructions related to equipment use. Opposition from certain groups, for example, alcohol companies This challenge can be overcome by conducting awareness raising campaigns and ensuring drinkdriving remains high on the political agenda.

8 Challenges of implementing drinking and driving laws and their mitigation Weak or inappropriate enforcement Because of limited human resources, lack of equipment for testing, and poor or delayed fines. This challenge can be overcome by allocating human and financial resources to enforcement operations. Low or poor compliance Low or poor compliance with the drinking-driving law may arise due to weak enforcement. It may be manifested among certain risk groups such as young male. This challenge can be overcome by conducting awareness raising campaigns, tailored to specific groups such as young men and repeat offenders as well as continued enforcement.

9 The difficulties of addressing drug driving Efforts to reduce drug driving are, to a large degree, influenced by the wealth of experience gained in relation to drink driving and usually involve a combination of laws, enforcement and primary prevention. The situation is more complex in relation to drug driving. Detecting and measuring levels of psychoactive substances is more complicated than detecting alcohol in breath, and requires samples of blood, urine or saliva. It also requires sophisticated levels of expertise among police to recognize impairment and carry out tests.

10 Challenges on addressing Drug driving Lack of scientific evidence on the links between drug levels, impairment and crash risk for many drugs makes it difficult to set threshold limits for each substance. As a result of these complicating factors, objective measures akin to BAC limits are largely lacking in most countries laws on drug driving. While 159 countries (93% of those assessed) have national legislation prohibiting drug driving, most of these laws do not define what substances are considered to be drugs.

11 Effective interventions: Social marketing campaigns Conduct social marketing campaigns To raise public awareness on drinking and driving To support the implementation of interventions

12 Increase awareness of road safety risk factors and prevention measures, and implement social marketing campaigns. Safe road-user behaviour and a reduction in road traffic fatalities depend not only on knowledge and skills but also on community support, perception of vulnerability and risk, social norms and models, engineering measures and law enforcement. It is important for practitioners and decision-makers to remember that increasing awareness of road safety risk factors and prevention measures through education and social marketing campaigns is an adjunct to other measures, rather than a stand-alone solution.

13 What are the implications of implementing enforcement solutions? Who/ Orellana Reduction in road traffic fatalities and injuries and related socio-economic costs Improvement in compliance with traffic laws Increase in awareness of road safety risk factors and prevention measures

14 Integrating legislation into monitoring and evaluation Types of indicators collected Global: Number of countries with good drinking and driving laws National: Proportion of uninjured drivers over the limit. Proportion of injured/dead drivers over the limit. Include key legislative points in monitoring and evaluation programmes at a national level: What was addressed in the law. The date the law passed. When implementation began.

15 Evaluation Objectives should be clear and specify a measurable outcome in a defined time period. Keep the objectives SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and timebound. Objectives should be evidence-informed, deriving from the situation assessment as well as available literature. Objectives should include fatality and injury reductions and also reductions in other risks.

16 Sustainable Development Goal targets ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELL- BEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES 3.5. Strengthen prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol. 3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries. MAKE CITIES AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS INCLUSIVE, SAFE, RESILIENT AND SUSTAINABLE By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.

17 Sustainable Development Goal targets The targets on substance abuse and sustainable transport provide further opportunities for work on road safety within a broader urban development and drug policy context.

18 Thank you, Eugenia Rodrigues Regional Advisor on Road Safety No Communicable Diseases and Mental Health Department PAHO/WHO rd Street NW Washington, DC Tel:

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