Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument

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1 Lecture 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Reading: M&O Ch 4, Compare and contrast the roles of individual cell types and fiber types within connective tissue. 16. Classify the different types of connective tissues based on distinguishing structural characteristics. 17. Describe functions of each type of connective tissue in the human body and correlate function with structure for each tissue type. 18. Describe locations in the body where each type of connective tissue can be found. 19. Describe the structure and function of mucous, serous, cutaneous and synovial membranes. 20. Identify the locations in the body where each type of membrane can be found. 21. Identify and describe the structure and function of all layers of the epidermis, clearly indicating which are found in thin skin and which are found in thick skin Describe the specific function of each dermal layer and relate that function to the skin s overall functions. 23. Identify and describe the functions of the following epidermal structures: Hair follicles, sebaceous glands, eccrine sweat glands, apocrine sweat glands Connective tissue Connective tissue contains cells in a matrix of fibers and ground substance. It is the body s stuffing...it fills in all the spaces. Basic characteristics of CT include: 1. Connecting or supporting 2. Usually highly vascular (except for cartilage, which is avascular) 3. Cells are far apart, with lots of extracellular materials 4. No free surfaces! This is because connective tissues CONNECT different layers. 5. May or may not be regenerative (or proliferative). 6. VERY DIVERSE Types of cells (lots of variety!) can include: 1. Mesenchymal cells- undifferentiated precursors of all CT cells 2. Fibroblasts- fiber builders 3. Adipocytes- stores fat 4. Macrophages- phagocytize debris 5. Mast cells- produce histamine and heparin, causing inflammation 6. Other immune cells, like B cells and plasma cells Fibers (secreted by fibroblasts) 1. Fibers determine the material properties of the tissue. This includes strength, brittleness, elasticity, etc primary fiber types: A. Reticular fibers: thin little strands of collagen that form a delicate, thin meshwork that is yielding. Found in solid structures like lymph nodes. B. Collagen fibers: twisted strands of collagen that form rope-like cords. They are incredibly strong (stronger than steel, which breaks first, when compared with these fibers!) and do not stretch. C. Elastic fibers: very stretchy fibers made of the protein elastin 3. The proportion of these fibers will determine the qualities of the tissue. Ground substance This is everything BUT the cells and the fibers. If you combine ground substance and fibers, you get the matrix. Ground substance includes: 1. Water (in varying amounts) 2. Solutes (secreted by fibroblasts) A. Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are exceedingly hydrophilic. This keeps CT moist and hydrated. B. Salts and ions can be crystallized or dissolved. 21

2 Classifying CT Combine these in different ways and get GRAND diversity of CT types. loose CT dense CT dense regular CT dense irregular CT special CT CT proper structural CT hematopoetic CT areolar reticular adipose Membranes Compound structures that line or cover organs, surfaces, or cavities, made of both ET and CT. 1. Mucous membranes A. Structure i. Epithelial tissue (varying types) bound to underlying connective tissue layer called the lamina propria. ii. Two layers are linked by the basement membrane. iii. Epithelial cells are often interspersed with goblet cells (single celled mucus-making glands). B. Function(s) i. Provide protection from external environment ii. Allow absorption of goodies from external environment iii. Enable secretion of substances from the internal environment into the external environment (like mucus!) C. Location i. Line internal spaces that open to the external environment. 2. Serous membranes A. Structure i. Simple squamous epithelium (called mesothelium) bound to a very thin layer of loose CT (areolar) ii. ET and CT are linked by the basement membrane. iii. Serous membranes are double layered membranes... iv. Layer closest to organ (covering the organ) is the visceral layer v. Layer lining the cavity is the perietal layer (Image from ) B. Function(s) i. Epithelial layer secretes serous fluid to reduce friction between organs and body walls C. Location i. Lining cavities and covering organs 22

3 Functions of the integumentary system 1. Protection from abrasion, UV radiation, pathogens, dessication 2. Vitamin D synthesis 3. Sensory information 4. Temperature regulation Layers of the skin 1. Epidermis (Activity: Label fig 5.2 pg 121) A. Stratum basale (germinativum): Divides to produce other layers...also includes melanocytes B. Stratum spinosum: Maturing keratinocytes and melanocytes C. Stratum granulosum: Cells become dense and start filling up with keratin (protein). Cell begins to die. D. Stratum lucidum: Dead cells...keratin is in an intermediate stage and consists of a different protein. i. This layer is lacking in thin skin. E. Stratum corneum: Dead cells...very flattened and made up of layers of dead cells tightly linked together. Functions as a barrier. 2. Dermis A. Papillary layer (superficial) i. Areolar connective tissue ii. Little inlets of dermis into epidermis; increases surface area for contact between epidermis and dermis, enabling better connections. B. Reticular layer (deep) i. Dense irregular connective tissue ii. The term reticular refers to the fact that essentially, the collagen fibers are a MESS. Other structures in skin (epidermal!) 1. Hair follicles (only in thin skin!) 2. Exocrine glands (secretes substances into external surfaces) A. Sebaceous glands (only in thin skin) i. These glands produce SEBUM (an oily/waxy lipid) to keep skin and hair lubricated. ii. When they get plugged, this causes acne. (See clinical view on pg 135 of text) B. Sweat glands i. Eccrine: Secretes clear sweat that functions in temperature control (thermoregulation), secretion of water and electrolytes, and protection from pathogens (because of the acidic nature and chemicals). Found all over body in thin skin. ii. Apocrine: Secretes protein/fat filled substance that bacteria ingest, causing odor. Found in armpits, around nipples, in the pubic and anal regions. Become active after puberty. Could function in communication. C. Ceruminous glands: produce earwax! 23

4 Lecture 3: Images 24

5 Lab 3: Connective Tissue and Integument Reading: E Ch. 3, Ch. 10 Part 1: Connective Tissues Today we are looking at general connective tissues. We will study special connective tissues in later labs (cartilage and bone next time, and blood later in the semester). Your Task Use the listed slides to find and identify the different types of connective tissue and the structures each contains. Draw what you see. 1. Areolar connective tissue (H 570, HB 3-1): loose connective tissue A. collagen fibers B. elastic fibers C. fibroblasts 2. Skin Hair Follicles (HI 3-1): dense irregular connective tissue A. collagen fibers B. fibroblasts 3. Muscle Tendon Junction (HB 5-1): dense regular connective tissue A. collagen fibers 4. Thyroid Gland (HO 2-1): adipose connective tissue A. fat vacuole B. adipocyte nucleus 25

6 Part 2: Integument The integumentary system serves an extraordinary number of functions, from protection against abrasion and infection, to insulation, excretion, and more! In the integument you will recognize a specialized epithelium (which type?), and some connective tissue (which type?), but you will also see some new structures, e.g., hair and various glands. Pay particular attention to how the relative abundance of different layers/ structures varies among different kinds of skin. Keep asking yourself about the functional significance of these structural differences. Your Task Draw each slide. Label all required structures. 1. Skin Human Sole (HI 1-2) Epidermis (which type of epithelial tissue???) A. stratum corneum B. stratum lucidum C. stratum granulosum D. stratum spinosum E. stratum basale (germinativum) Dermis F. papillary layer (tissue type?) G. reticular layer (tissue type?) Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) H. connective tissue (which type???) Eccrine sweat glands 2. Skin Hair Follicles (HI 1-3) Epidermis A. stratum corneum B. stratum granulosum C. stratum spinosum D. stratum germinativum (basale) Dermis E. papillary layer F. reticular layer Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) G. connective tissue (which type???) Hair follicle H. hair bulb I. hair Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Eccrine sweat glands Summary Questions 1. Why are there no apocrine sweat glands in either of these preparations? 2. What kind of epithelium do you see in the integumentary system? 3. What type of connective tissue do you see? 26

7 External Brain 3: CT and Skin 15. Compare and contrast the roles of individual cell types and fiber types within connective tissue. 16. Classify the different types of connective tissues based on distinguishing structural characteristics. 17. Describe functions of each type of connective tissue in the human body and correlate function with structure for each tissue type. 18. Describe locations in the body where each type of connective tissue can be found. 19. Describe the structure and function of mucous, serous, cutaneous and synovial membranes. 20. Identify the locations in the body where each type of membrane can be found. 21. Identify and describe the structure and function of all layers of the epidermis, clearly indicating which are found in thin skin and which are found in thick skin Describe the specific function of each dermal layer and relate that function to the skin s overall functions. 23. Identify and describe the functions of the following epidermal structures: Hair follicles, sebaceous glands, eccrine sweat glands, apocrine sweat glands Your Task 1. Thick and thin skin have different structures. Relate the differences in structure to their functions. 2. Explain why the histology of the epidermis is well suited for its functions. 3. Predict the fibers you d find in the connective tissue in each of the following locations. Defend your answers. A. Tip of nose B. Tendons 4. Name and describe the serous membranes found within each of the major body cavities. 5. Create a concept map using the following terms related to connective tissues (CT). Include distinguishing characteristics in your map. Where possible, identify the cells, ground substance, and fibers found in each type of CT. loose CT dense CT dense regular CT dense irregular CT special CT CT proper structural CT hematopoetic CT areolar reticular adipose 6. Why did we study integument and connective tissues on the same day? 27

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