Conflicts Middle East

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1 Conflicts Middle East

2 Video Clip-Conflicts- Middle East Persian Gulf War Arab-Israeli War- Israel s War for Independence

3 Sequence of Events Activity First, find a partner Second, empty the contents and read each conflict Third, arrange each conflict in chronological order Fourth, discuss in your groups and select which three conflicts are the most serious or important Fifth, examine the words in the description that are bolded. These words represent causes or reasons for conflict. Discuss which causes you think are most important, and rank them on the Diamond 9 sheet according to you and your partner. Write your ranking on the sheet. Number 1-9.

4 Iran-Iraq War In 1980 after disputes over land and water, Saddam Hussein led Iraq invades its neighbor Iran and starts an eight year long war that weakened both nations. Hussein wanted to capture a key water way in the South of Iran as well as territory. Iran countered by bombing Iraq s oil industry. Half a million dead on both sides and eight years of stalemate led to economic depression on both sides.

5 Six Day War- June 1967 Again in May 1967 Egypt shut the Suez Canal to Israeli trade and massed troops near the Israeli border in the Sinai. Israel launched a surprise attack on June 5 th and took territory that still is the subject of peace negotiations to the present day. Israeli forces took all the land in the Sinai, the Golan, the West Bank, Gaza, and the holy site Jerusalem

6 Persian Gulf War Iraq weakened by the Iran-Iraq War attacks its small neighbor to the South, Kuwait because of its oil money. Iraq tries to pass the invasion as a rightful annexation of territory. An international coalition expels Iraqi forces because of the threat to world oil. Retreating Iraqi forces set oil wells ablaze in the wake of incoming United States and coalition forces

7 War for Israeli Independence After years of Imperial rule in the region, British forces withdraw and leave the area to be divided among Palestinians and Jewish settlers. Land and self determination became the main causes of the this conflict, while different cultures and religions played an obvious part these conflicts. On May 14, 1948, Israel is proclaimed and is invaded by a list of Arab Nations. Israeli forces stopped intial Arab advances and then repulsed the invaders taking more territory than given in the 1947 U.N. Partition plan. May 1948-July 1949

8 Yom Kippur War of 1973 Faced with the loss of territory in 1967, Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack in October of 1973, which pushed Israel to the brink of collapse. Israeli forces rebounded to push Egyptian armies back across the Sinai, but both sides attended peace negotiations after. Israel gave land back to Egypt and became the first Arab nation to sign a peace treaty with Israel.

9 Operation Iraqi Freedom In 2003 amid concerns over weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, and freedom for Middle Eastern peoples the U.S. invaded Iraq and captured Baghdad to end Saddam Hussein s rule. Despite concerns over American needs for oil, American troops have stayed in Iraq till the present day stabilizing the rebuilding nation.

10 Suez Crisis of 1956 Egypt seizes control of the Suez Canal in July This vital chokepoint for trade provides the Egyptian economy with needed money. Egypt also shuts the canal to Israeli ships. These moves lead the UK, France, and Israeli to try to seize the canal zone and the Sinai. International pressure forces the French, the British, and the Israelis to withdraw. July 1956

11 Israel vs. Lebanon Israel has invaded Lebanon twice since First in 1982 and again in Both invasions were in response to terrorism. The 1982 invasion saw the Israeli army take Beirut to attack the Palestinian Liberation Organization, and the second saw a limited invasion to repel terrorist rocket attacks.

12 Western Sahara This lesser known conflict was caused by territory disputes over who owned what land. Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania all disputed land claims to Western Sahara. From fighting between the different groups failed to decide who has the rightful claim to the land.

13 Causes of Conflict in the Middle East 1. Holy Sites/Different Religions 2. Land 3. Oil 4. Water 5. Different Cultures 6. Need for Self Determination 7. Money/Trade 8. Imperial powers versus Local Groups 9. Terrorism

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