CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the background of the study, the statement of problem, the objective of the study, the scope and limitation of the study, the significance of the study, the definition of key terms, the theoretical framework, the hypotheses, and the organization of the study. 1.1 Background of the Study In this globalization era, English has become one of the most important languages in the world. Many countries, including Indonesia, have used English as their first or second language. As a developing country, Indonesia needs to build a good relationship and cooperation with other countries. To build those relationship and cooperation, we need something to communicate with. Here, English serves as an important tool of communication. Besides, it is important to realize that much information is gathered and clarified through reading. Some of the mass media today, such as newspapers and magazines, are written in English. So, if we do not understand English, we will miss some important information about what happens around us. Realizing the importance of English, the Indonesian government has stipulated English as one of the compulsory subjects taught in schools. The teaching of English in high schools covers the skills of reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Besides those four skills, the teaching of reading also covers its language components which include grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. The reading ability is very important for high school students as 1

2 they can broaden their knowledge through reading. They can get a lot of information which can be useful for their life. Hence, they can increase their quality of life. Moreover, reading is vital to academic success. Most of the academic materials used in higher education in Indonesia are written in English. Without sufficient reading ability, the students will not be able to succeed in their study. However, some students still have low reading achievement. They often find difficulties in comprehending the meaning of an English passage. Moreover, the students can easily get bored in a class due to the teaching method used by the teacher. Based on the writer s experience, the teaching method used is the Grammar Translation Method that is the traditional method. In the Grammar Translation Method, the class sometimes starts by the teacher s asking the students to read the passage silently and by giving them opportunities to ask the meaning of difficult words. Then, the teacher asks students to translate the passage into Indonesian, continued by answering the questions based on the passage. Since the characteristic of this method is teachercentered, there are not enough opportunities for the students to engage in an active learning. They can not explore the passage carefully and effectively by themselves because the teacher is the authority in the class. The teacher always dictates students what to do. Furthermore, the number of students in a class is usually too large for the teacher to give each of them personal attention. To handle the problem about students difficulties in comprehending English passages above, it is suggested that teachers apply the Cooperative Learning Method in their reading class. According to Olsen and Kagan (1992:1), 2

3 cooperative learning provides the students with opportunities to interact with each other and encourage them to be responsible for each other s learning. These kinds of interactions, such as the discussion and the consultation, result in the comprehension of the material. Each student will learn more independently since they get their knowledge not only from the teacher, but also from interactions with others. Considering the problem in the teaching of reading, the writer conducted a research on the effect of Cooperative Learning Method and Grammar Translation Method on the reading achievement of tenth grade students, which was a comparative study. This study wants to find out whether Cooperative Learning Method improves students reading achievement better than Grammar Translation Method. It is hoped that through the result of this study, teachers will get reference about which method is better to be applied in the class to develop students reading achievement. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The writer stated the major problem to be solved in this study as Do the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement than those taught with Grammar Translation Method? Sannia (1998:3) stated that in order to read comprehensively, students should have the skills of (1) identifying the explicitly stated information, (2) determining the topic, (3) identifying the main idea, (4) identifying the implied information, and (5) interpreting the word, phrase, and sentence in context. Due to the skills of identifying the explicitly stated information, the main idea, and the 3

4 implied information, the writer formulates the minor hypotheses of this study as follows: 1. Do the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement in answering factual questions than those taught with Grammar Translation Method? 2. Do the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement in answering inference questions than those taught with Grammar Translation Method? 3. Do the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement in answering main idea questions than those taught with Grammar Translation Method? 1.3 Objective of the Study Based on the statements of the problems above, the main objective of this study is: 1. To see whether the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement than those taught with Grammar Translation Method. To achieve the main objective above, these sub-objectives are investigated first: 1.1 To see whether the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement in answering factual questions than those taught with Grammar Translation Method. 1.2 To see whether the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement in answering inference questions than those taught with Grammar Translation Method. 4

5 1.3 To see whether the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method obtain higher reading achievement in answering main idea questions than those taught with Grammar Translation Method. 1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study The writer finds it necessary to limit the scope of this study. This study is about teaching reading by using the M.U.R.D.E.R technique of Cooperative Learning Method and the Translation technique of Grammar Translation Method for high school students. In this study, the students reading ability includes: (1) identifying the explicitly stated information, (2) identifying the implied information, and (3) identifying the main idea. The population of this study is also limited to the tenth grade students of SMUK Santa Agnes belonging to the school year of It is based on the consideration that the tenth grade students have already had enough reading practices since they were in junior high school. The reading passages that are used for the research are adapted and developed from the Jakarta Post of 21 st March, 2007, 22 nd March, 2007, 26 th March, 2007 and 28 th March, 2007, and 29 th March, Significance of the Study This study is designed to give contribution to the teaching of reading at senior high school. It is hoped that the result of this study will give useful information about the effect of the Cooperative Learning Method and Grammar Translation Method on students reading achievement, especially the tenth grade students. The writer also hopes that this study will help teachers to develop a 5

6 method of teaching reading to improve the reading ability of English as Second Language or English as Foreign Language students. 1.6 Definitions of Key Terms In order to avoid misunderstanding or misinterpretation, the writer finds it necessary to define these following key terms: a. Reading According to Byrnes (2003), reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension. b. Method A particular way of doing something (Hornby, 2000: 803). In relation with teaching, method is a generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives (Brown, 1994: 51). c. Technique A particular way of doing something, especially one in which you have to learn special skills (Hornby, 2000: 1334). In relation with teaching, technique is any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom fro realizing lesson objectives (Brown, 1994: 51). d. Factual question Is a type of question which is related with the information stated explicitly in the passage. Students are expected to identify the information, facts, statements, and opinions stated by the author (Kurnia, 2002: 7) 6

7 e. Inference question Is a type of question which is related with the students ability to identify the information stated implicitly in the passage (Kurnia, 2002: 7) f. Main idea question Is a type of question which requires the students to find the main idea of the paragraphs in the passage (Kurnia, 2002:7). g. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is a group of learning that is organized so that each learner interacts with others and all learners are motivated to increase each other s learning (Olsen and Kagan, 1992: 1) h. M.U.R.D.E.R (Mood, Understand, Recall, Detect, Elaborate, and Review) A reading technique which emphasizes on students comprehension and recall of the reading passage. i. Grammar Translation Method A method which purpose is to enable the students to understand the passage from the native language to the target language or vice versa. 1.7 Theoretical Framework This study is suggested in order to enable the students to comprehend English passages as second language readers by activating all of their background knowledge. The theories that are used as the basic of this study are the theory of reading, the theory of Schemata, the teaching of reading, the theory of cooperative learning, the theory of the M.U.R.D.E.R technique (Mood, Understanding, Recall, 7

8 Detect, Elaborate, and Review), the theory of Grammar Translation Method, and the theory of the Translation technique. 1.8 Hypotheses Based on the statements of the problems, the major hypothesis to be tested in this study is There is a significant difference between the reading achievement of the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method and those taught with Grammar Translation Method. But before this hypothesis is answered, the following minor hypotheses are tested first: 1. Students taught with Cooperative Learning Method show a significant difference in answering factual question than students taught with Grammar Translation Method. 2. Students taught with Cooperative Learning Method show a significant difference in answering inference question than students taught with Grammar Translation Method. 3. Students taught with Cooperative Learning Method show a significant difference in answering main idea question than students taught with Grammar Translation Method. The alternative hypothesis is then formulated in its null hypothesis to be tested, that is There is no significant difference between the reading achievement of the tenth grade students taught with Cooperative Learning Method and those taught with Grammar Translation Method. 1.9 Organization of the Thesis This study consists of five chapters. In chapter one, the writer presents the introduction of the study which covers the background of the study, statement 8

9 of the problem, objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study, definition of key terms, theoretical framework, hypotheses, and organization of the study. Chapter two deals with the review of the related literature. Chapter three explains the research methodology that deals with the research design, population and sample, the treatments, schedule of the treatments, the instructional material, the research instrument, data collection procedure, and data analysis technique. Chapter four is about the findings of the study and the discussion of the findings. And chapter five presents the conclusion and suggestions from the writer. 9

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