TEACHING TENSES By USING GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD AT FIRST GRADE STUDENTS OF SMP BHAKTI MULYA BANDUNG BARAT

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1 TEACHING TENSES By USING GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD AT FIRST GRADE STUDENTS OF SMP BHAKTI MULYA BANDUNG BARAT Windhy Suciarti English Education Study Program Language and Arts SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN (STKIP)SILIWANGI BANDUNG ABSTRACT The objectives of the research entilted Teaching Tenses By Using Grammar Translation Method were to find out the problems of the students of junior high school Bhakti Mulya in comprehension of tenses. The research method of this study was quantitative method, the design of this study was nonequivalent pretestposttest control design. The instrument of this study was the test. The population of this research was the 80of the seventh grade students of Junior High School Bhakti Mulya, and the sample was entire population which was divided into experimental group and control group consisted of 40 students.the collected data were analyzed using T- test Formula. The results of the data analysis showed that: the means score of experimental group was 6,53, means score of control group was 6,00, and the T- observed was 4,08. Thecritcal value with df 78 and significance level at 0,05 was Based on the data analysis above, the alternative hypothesis of this research was accepted, because the T- observed was bigger than T- critical value ( 4,08 > 1.66). It could also meant that there was a significant influence of grammar translation method on the students achievement in learning the tenses. A. Background As an international language, English is akey succes in studying all the subjects. It has also the most significant role in intellectual, social and emotional building. That s why English teaching should be focused on students competence in accordance with the global environment changes and developing sciences and technology. English teaching in Indonesian schools is big problem because most of learners find it difficult. Brown ( 1980:4) thinks there are just a few learners who are able to speak foreign language fluently. if it is right, teaching activity of foreign language should be changed to facilitate learning. The teachers in a language class a teacher becomes a model for his/her students. for this reasons, he/she must be a fluent speaker of English. In curriculum 2004, the aspects of teaching English consist of competence model, language model, and literary level. The represent that language is real communication. Based on the background above the writer as folows conducted a research entitled Teaching Tenses by using Grammar Translation method. The writer would like state the problem as follows: a. How far our the problems of the student of in comprehension. b. How far is there significant difference between the stdents achievment who are taught by using grammar translation method. There are several aims of writing this paper, among other things could be put forwards as follows: a. To know how far out the problems of the Student of incomprehension. b. To know how far is significant differencebetween the students achievement who are taught by using grammar In fact, Most of student find difficulties in learning English grammar They are stiil confused to identify verb and auxiliary verb of the tenses, the other word only teacher who is active. Because of these difficulties and impacts, the writer has a plan to do some things as follows : 1

2 1. Measuring how far the students mastery in tenses. 2. Presenting grammar translation method to the students. 3. Analyzing the difficulties they have. In this study, the finding of their problems can be solved if teaching activity uses grammar in teaching tenses. Of corurse, both of the method has been chosen bacause the writer thinks that they are appropriate ways to teach the tenses at the first grade of SMP Bhakti Mulya, Bandung barat. B. Literature Rievew 1. Definitionof Teaching Teaching technique is an implementation that takes place in the classroom Anthony (196: 63). And teaching refers to building and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning Brown (1994:7 ). In This research, teaching is an activity to give explanation about Simple Present Tense after pretest. The purpose of teaching is the students can understand about function of To Be and Verb 1. This activity use method P P P ( presntation, practice, product ) presentation is activity to introduction about Descriptive Text ang gives explanation the function of To Be and verb 1 related Descriptive Texts. Practices is the students make sentences use Simple Present Tense ( To Be and Verb 1 giving instruction students to create a Descriptive Texts with theme jobs (posttest). 2. Definition of Tenses According to Hornby (1987:891) a tenses is grammatical verb that shows : time, the present, past, future etc. In Indonesian language it is not difficult to express idea either in the present form unlike Indonesian language, English tenses comparison some delicate and complicated forms that are strange to non native English speakers, like Indonesian people. The meaning of tenses entail a language specific way of dealing with time and relationship of event and interlocutors of time (Murcia, 1983 :61). Because English tenses would make us easy to use English either in spoken or written. The sentences that we want express should be meaningful, easy to interpret, understand able by other people. So English tenses would helps us making correct English, either in spoken or in written. Time is a universal, non- lingusitic concept with three divisions : past, present, and future;by tense we understand the correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time Quirk(1973:40).Grammatical tense is a way languges express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. 3. GrammarTranslation Method Richards and Theodore (1984:4) stated that,grammar Translation Method dominated and foreign language teaching from the 1840s to 1940s, and in modified form in continues to be widely used in some parts of the world day. This resulted in the type of Grammar Translation courses remembered with distate by thousands of school learners, for whom foreign language learning meant a tedious experience of memorizing endless lists of unsable grammar rules and vocabulary and attempting to produce perfect translations of stilted or literary prose. The writer suggest that the Grammar Translation Method is the method of teaching English by memorizing the grammar rules, and the students learn by translating sentence from the first language into the target language. Some of the grammar translation method are mentioned by Freeman in her book entitled Techniques and Principles in language Teaching ( 1983 : 11-12) such as : 1. Goals To be able to read literature in target language learn grammar rules and vocabulary, develop mental activity. 2. RolesTeachers have authority, students follows instructions to learn what the teacher knows. 3. Teaching and learning process students learn by translating from one language to the other, often translating reading passages in the target language to the native language. Grammar is usually laerned deductively on the basis of grammar rules and examples, student memorize the rules, then apply them to other examples. They learn paragdims such as verb conjugation and they learn the native language equivalents of vocabulary words. 4. Aspects Aspect of language the approaches emphasizes Vocabulary, grammar, emphasizes, reading, writing, are primaryskills; pronouncation and 2

3 other speaking and listening skills no emphasizes. 5. Means for evaluation Test require translation from native to target and native language, applying grammar rules, answering, questions about foreign culture. 4. Teaching Tenses by using Grammar Translation Method. In the teaching the Simple Present Tenses and Simple Past Tense by using the grammar translation method, the teacher begins teaching with the grammar rules. Then the teacher explains them as exposure. After the teacher explains them, the students make the examples without using them for communication.then followed by knowledge to the task of translating the sentences. The practice is conducted by completing a sentence with the correct verb ( in the simple present tense or simple past tense) and changing them into positive, negative and intrrogative/question sentences.then the students are asked to change them and translate the sentences. C. Research Design Based on objectives and the problem, it employs aquasi experimental design. Burn (1995:127) stated That: Quasi experimental is design that provides full experimental through the use of randomization procedures. There are many situations in educational research in which it is no possible to conduct a true experiment For instance, it may not possible for the experimenter to assign subject randomly to group. Sudjana and Ibrahim in Penelitian and Penilaian Pedidikan (2001:18) stated that, there are four research design. They are experiment, ex-post, facto, desctiptive, and histories. This study used the teaching method by using grammar 1. ResearchMethod It was a way to explain the method in this research. Descriptive research is triying to describes a behaviour or condition that happened at this time. This research uses a descriptive quantitative method. that requires an experimental group and the control group. a. Experimental group It is a group of students who are taught by using the grammar b. Control It is a group of students who are not taught by using grammar it is conducted to control the experimental group whether there were any differences in learning outcomes. c. Population and Samples The populations of this study is she first year of SMP Bhakti Mulya Bandung barat. They were two classes of this grade. The sample of this study took two classes; one class as experimental group and another one asa control group. d. Instrument In collecting the data, research instrument is a test. The students in experimental group are given a test after being given treatment by using grammar The test was designed to know the students achievement and their ability after learning the tenses by using grammar e. Data Collection The data are gained through a written test. The test is given to the students after being given the treatment to both the experimental group by using grammar taranslation method. The test consist of 20 items in multiple choices with available time in 45 minutes for each group. 2. Reasearch Procedures The teaching experince by using grammar translation was conducted at the first grade of SMP bhakti Mulya Batujajar, Bandung Barat. There were two groups of students investigated. First, the method was applied to the students in class X-2 who have not studied English. The result of oral and witten test were combined and analyzed inferentailly to see how different teaching technique application would result in the students achievement. 3. Data Analysis The data was obtained from 40 students by using the postest. In analyzing the data, this study uses the following steps: 3

4 Experimental Group (X) No 1. put the Scores into the table of distribution 2. Calculate the mean of experimental group and 3. Calculate th standart deviation of two group 4. Find out he significant differences by using t- test 5. Calculate the degree of freedom (df) the next steps was to compare t-value and critical t-value at the degree of freedom and the level of significance (0,0 5) if t-value was higher than critical t-value, null hypothesis is rejected and research hypothesis is accepted. And if t-value was lower than critical t-value, null hypothesis is accepted and research hypothesis is rejected D. Research Findings And Discussion 1. Calculating the data The following study is the result and pretest posttest scores of the experimental group and control group in learning Tenses The Simple Present Tense and Simple Past Tense. Table 4 The scores of Experimental group and Control group. Code Numb er Control Group (Y) X No Code Numb er Y XY X² Y² 1 E C E C E C E C ,25 5 E C005 6,5 45, E C ,25 7 E C007 5,5 38, E C E C E C E C E C , 13 E C013 4, E C ,25 15 E C015 5,5 22, E C E C ,25 18 E C018 4,5 22, ,25 19 E C019 6, E C E C E C022 5,5 35, E C023 6, E C ,25 25 E C E C E C E C028 4,5 31, E C E C , ,25 31 E C E C E C E C034 4, ,25 35 E C035 5, ,25 36 E036 7,5 36 C036 5,5 41,25 56,26 30,25 37 E C E038 6,5 38 C ,50 42, E C E C Data analysis above : 1. The mean of experimental group and control group to find out of groups, the formula : M M Mean 15588, 25 The sum of (x) score N Number of sample The mean of Experimental group Me 6.53 The mean of Control group Mc The standard deviation of two groupsthe calculate the standard deviation, the writer used the following formula based on Burn (1995): ² ²

5 SD ² ( )² SD Standard Deviation ² The sum of the square of (x) score ( )² The square of the total sum of (x) score N The Numbet of Sample or data The Standartd deviation of the experimental group SD ( )² ( ) SDe 1.05 The standard deviation of the control group SD ( )² ( )2 0,56 SDe 0,7 N-1 3. Finding out the significant differences by using t-test. After knowing the two standard deviation values, the writer can find out the t-test value. To make it clear the writer uses t-test formula which is stated By Burn (1995) in introduction to research method as follows : t t- value Me mean of experimental group Mc mean of control group Sde 2 the square of the standard deviation of expetimental group Sdc 2 the square of the standard deviation of control group. The standard deviation of the control groups t Me - Mc t t t ,53 t t,, t 4.08 df ( N1 1) + (N2-1) (40 1) + (40-1) ² + ² DataInterpretation After collecting the data, and analyzing them using one tailed t-test formula, it is on 0,05 level significance. The data above t-value is 4,08 and the degree of freedom in this study is 78 lies between 60 and 120.So critical t-value is Based on the data from the test above, it is clear that the observed t-value (1.661) higher than the critical t-value (4,08) It was based on the criteria: If t-computation > critical value, H is accepted. If t-computation < critical t-value, H is rejected. (Hatch and Lazaraton,1991 : 225) 5

6 t-computation > t-critical (4,08 >1.661) so, H is accepted. Based on the criteria, the writer comes to the conclusion that there is any significant difference between the students achievement in learning the Simple Present Tense and the Simple Past Tense by using Grammar Translation Method. E. The Conclusions And Suggestions 1. After the writer conducted the research, it can be concluded as follows: a. Based on the data of the test, it is known that the grammar translation method is more effective to improve the students achievement in learning the Simple Present Tense and the Simple past Tense. b. There is a significant difference between the students achievement taught by using grammar The students who were taught by using translation method have better tenses mastery than those who were taught by using grammar 2. The Suggestions The writer presents some suggestion as follows : A teacher should do the following steps: 1. A teacher should give a motivation, guidance, and stimulus in order that the students are encouraged to speak English. 2. A teacher should give the students a lot of chance to practice using the language. BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown,H, Douglass Principle of Language Learning & Teaching Third.edition Prentice Hall. INC. Burn, Robert, B Introducing to Research Method, Australia: Longman Australia Pty Ltd. Hornby, AS, Oxford advance Learner s Dictionary of Current English, London: Oxford University Press. Jack,C, Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers,1986, Approaches and Method in Language Teaching, New york: Camridge University Press. 6

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