RAP PUBLICATION 2006/07 MANGROVE GUIDEBOOK FOR SOUTHEAST ASIA

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1 RAP PUBLICATION 2006/07 MANGROVE GUIDEBOOK FOR SOUTHEAST ASIA

2 The designaions and he presenaion of maerial in his publicaion do no imply he expression of any opinion whasoever on he par of he Food and Agriculure Organizaion of he Unied Naions concerning he legal saus of any counry, erriory, ciy or area or of is froniers or boundaries. The opinions expressed in his publicaion are hose of he auhors alone and do no imply any opinion whasoever on he par of FAO. Auhored by: Wim Giesen, Sephan Wulffraa, Max Zieren and Liesbeh Scholen ISBN: FAO and Welands Inernaional, 2006 Prined by: Dharmasarn Co., Ld. Firs prin: July 2007 For copies wrie o: Fores Resources Officer FAO Regional Office for Asia and he Pacific Maliwan Mansion Phra Ai Road, Bangkok Thailand ii

3 FOREWORDS Large exens of he coaslines of Souheas Asian counries were once covered by hick mangrove foress. In he pas few decades, however, hese mangrove foress have been largely degraded and desroyed during he process of developmen. The negaive environmenal and socio-economic impacs on mangrove ecosysems have led many governmen and nongovernmen agencies, ogeher wih civil socieies, o launch mangrove conservaion and rehabiliaion programmes, especially during he 1990s. In he course of such aciviies, programme saff have faced coninual difficulies in idenifying plan species growing in he field. Despie a wide availabiliy of mangrove guidebooks in Souheas Asia, none of hese sufficienly cover species ha, hough ofen associaed wih mangroves, are no confined o his habia. These species include no only grasses, herbs and ferns, bu also rees, shrubs and climbers. Expers working for Welands Inernaional in Indonesia realized his consrain and commenced preparaion of a mangrove guidebook wih his exended scope in mind. By 2002, informaion had been compiled for 204 species. A he beginning of 2003, Welands Inernaional proposed a parnership wih FAO o produce a mangrove guidebook for he whole of Souheas Asia. Thus, a join effor began. Two and a half years laer, a 534 page manuscrip wih many illusraions had been prepared wih he aid of reviews by naional mangrove expers. Furher ediorial work coninued by he auhors from Welands Inernaional and FAO foresry officers. Afer nearly hree years of hard work, his mangrove guidebook has been compleed, and i gives me grea pleasure o inroduce his unique publicaion o hose who sudy, manage, conserve and uilize mangrove foress. This book will conribue o guiding more people, especially he younger generaion, o learn abou mangrove foress in Souheas Asia. Thus, i suppors furher advancemen of mangrove conservaion and rehabiliaion programmes. We should all acknowledge wih hanks he work done by he main auhors headed by Mr Wim Giesen, mangrove boanis for Welands Inernaional, Mr Sephan Wulffraa, foreser, now wih WWF Indonesia, wo FAO foresers, Dr Mee Loyche Wilkie, Senior Foresry Officer, FAO, Rome, Ialy, and Mr Masakazu Kashio, Fores Resources Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and he Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, and all of he reviewers in many counries for heir valuable conribuions. Wihou heir painsaking effors, his publicaion would no have seen he ligh of day. iii

4 We would also like o express our appreciaion o he Foresry programme for early rehabiliaion of Asian sunami-affeced counries (OSRO/GLO/ 502/FIN), which is funded by he Governmen of Finland, for providing financial suppor o prin he firs copies of his guidebook. This publicaion is a useful ool for mangrove fores managers, foresers, coasal resource managers, scieniss, sudens and ineresed lay persons, no only in Souheas Asian counries, bu also in many oher counries where mangroves grow. He Changchui Assisan Direcor-General and Regional Represenaive for Asia and he Pacific Food and Agriculure Organizaion of he Unied Naions iv

5 I is wih grea pleasure ha I am wriing he foreword for his guide o he mangroves of Souheas Asia. Is developmen sared in 1991 when a young Duch suden, Sephan Wulffraa, enered my office in Bogor (Asian Weland Bureau Indonesia), inquiring abou possibiliies for an inernship. I had worked exensively along he coass and in he mangrove swamps of Wes Malaysia and Sumara and ofen found i edious o idenify various plan species associaed wih hese magnificen areas; no so much he rue mangroves which comprise relaively few species bu he many species in he backswamps, he slighly elevaed areas and he sandy ridges associaed wih his brackish waer habia. For hese, no concise field guide exised. As a Duch researcher I was used o he fanasic field guides ha can be obained in almos any bookshop in Europe. For sudens in Souheas Asia i is much more difficul o ge acquained wih he remendous biodiversiy around hem. There are many more species bu hardly any field guides. They have o scramble hrough many incomplee invenories, herbaria and obscure scienific papers. I believe ha his dearh of access o basic knowledge is one of he mos significan consrains for boh he public and young scieniss in Souheas Asia o develop a rue appreciaion of heir biologically rich environmen. I believe ha his also susains he limied undersanding and awareness of he ecology of mangroves and heir incredible produciviy and usefulness for people. I suggesed Sephan o sar he developmen of a field guide o he mangroves and associaed plans species of Indonesia. I did no foresee ha his would become a long process, hampered by lack of funding bu carried on hrough he enhusiasm and ineres of is consecuive auhors and he drawing alens of Wahyu Gumelar, Triana, Iskak Syamsudin and Tilla Visser. The mos significan driving force of i all was Wim Giesen, who was involved from he sar and in he end even ook he sep o expand he focus o Souheas Asia. I would like o hank FAO for heir suppor in he developmen and publicaion of his guidebook. A las, here i is. I am exremely pleased wih he end resul. I call on sudens and naure lovers of Souheas Asia o go ou here, sudy and appreciae why and how mangroves should be managed and proeced, and o become knowledgeable advocaes for heir pligh. Too many valuable areas have been los. I is ime o urn he ide. Marcel Silvius Senior Programme Manager Welands Inernaional Wageningen, The Neherlands v

6 AUTHORS PREFACE The aim of his book is o provide hose involved wih he managemen and conservaion of mangroves in Souheas Asia wih a guidebook for idenifying mangrove plans. A he same ime, he book aims o provide a brief inroducion o mangroves in general and Souheas Asia s mangroves in paricular. This would hen also be of use o sudens and ineresed lay persons. Accordingly, he book has been spli ino wo pars: par one deals wih he mangrove habia in Souheas Asia, while par wo focuses on he mangrove plans hemselves. The core of he book is formed by he blackand-whie drawings of mangrove plans, skilfully drawn by Wahyu Gumelar, Tilla Visser, Iskak Syamsudin and Triana a he Welands Inernaional Indonesia Programme office in Bogor, Wes Java. Various guidebooks exis for mangroves of Souheas Asia, bu all have a limied geographic scope covering only one counry: Malaysia (Wason, 1928), Papua New Guinea (Percival & Womersley, 1975), Indonesia (Kiamura e al., 1997; Noor e al., 1999) and he Philippines (Aragones e al., 1998). An even more severe limiaion of hese guidebooks is ha hey focus almos exclusively on so-called rue mangrove species i. e. species ha occur in he mangrove habia only and are no found in oher habias. While his is an approach ha is common world-wide, he disadvanage is ha many plan species found in he mangrove habia are no deal wih, which can be mos frusraing. Anoher disadvanage of mos exising guidebooks is ha hey end o ignore species oher han rees and shrubs. Epiphyes and lianas, for example, are ofen ignored enirely even hough some may only be found in mangroves. Up o now, idenifying all plans found in Souheas Asian mangroves was a dauning ask, as comprehensive axonomic works (or floras ) of he region are bulky (Flora of Java, Tree Flora of Malaya), or boh bulky and far from complee (Flora Malesiana, Flora of Thailand). The region is endowed wih he world s larges expanse of mangrove ha a he same ime is also he world s mos biologically diverse and varied in srucure. This unparalleled naural heriage gives he region a paricular responsibiliy, while providing a unique opporuniy for all hose waning o sudy and enjoy his wondrous habia. This book represens he firs aemp a covering all mangrove plan species in Souheas Asia, and is likely o be incomplee. The auhors would herefore warmly welcome addiional informaion, especially regarding geographic coverage and addiional species no covered, so ha his can be updaed in fuure ediions. Please forward your commens and suggesions o he lead auhor, Wim Giesen, a: vi

7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like o hank he many exernal expers who kindly gave heir advice and assisance: Taxonomiss & herbaria The lae Dr A.J.G.J. ( Doc ) Kosermans (Bogor Herbarium), Dra. J.J. Afriasini (for her kind help idenifying specimens in he Bogor Herbarium), Ms Agusina Arobaya checked our orchid lis for occurrence in Indonesian Papua, Dr Max van Balgooij (Rijksherbarium Leiden) and Dr E. Hennipman (Insiue of Sysemaic Boany, Universiy of Urech, The Neherlands). We hank he library saff of Bogor Herbarium for heir kind help in locaing (ofen very obscure) lieraure. Many hanks o he Royal Boanic Garden, Kew, especially Jim Kay and Trish Long for kindly providing illusraions of some of he mos obscure and difficul o locae species, John Dransfield for providing conacs, and Jovia Yesilyur for he digial image of Schefflera lanceolaa he las and mos elusive. Lasly, los of hanks also o Bogor Herbarium and Rijksherbarium Leiden for providing access o he herbarium collecions and allowing us o make skeches, which made i possible o complee he illusraions ha grealy enhance he usefulness of his book. Oher specialiss Jim Berdach, who provided us wih informaion on proeced mangroves and oal mangrove area in he Philippines; Sim Cheng Hua, Sundari Ramakrishna and Murugadas Loganahan of Welands Inernaional Malaysia Programme for informaion abou Malaysian mangroves; Tony Sebasian of Aonyx Environmenal (Kuching) for informaion abou mangroves of Brunei; Mam Kosal of Welands Inernaional Mekong Programme, Melissa Marschke of IDRC and Alvin Lopez of IUCN s Mekong Welands Programme for informaion abou mangroves of Cambodia; and las-bu-no-leas Mee Loyche-Wilkie of FAO for informaion abou he mangroves of Papua New Guinea and Myanmar. Producion eam We would like o especially hank he saff of Welands Inernaional Indonesia Programme who assised wih he producion of his volume in many ways, bu especially wih he producion of he excellen line drawings. We would like o hank Nyoman Suryadipura, Yus Rusila Noor, Wahyu Gumelar, Tilla Visser, Triana, Iskak Syamsudin, Rosie Ounsed, Endah Niraria, Cecilia Lurell, Penina Mampioper and George Siania. vii

8 Thanks also goes o Taej Mundkur of Welands Inernaional Asia Programme, Sundari Ramakrishna of Welands Inernaional Malaysia Programme, and Marcel Silvius of Weland Inernaional s headquarers in he Neherlands, for heir enduring suppor. A lo of hanks also goes o Paul Giesen for he grim ask of soring ou he wo very long indexes, and for assising wih scanning of he lieraure. Special hanks go o Masakazu Kashio, FAO, Bangkok, for his final reviews, commens, ediing and formaing, and arrangemen for prining. We acknowledge wih grea hanks he financial suppor of he FAO Foresry programme for early rehabiliaion of Asian sunami-affeced counries (OSRO/GLO/502/FIN), which is funded by he Governmen of Finland, o prin his guidebook. Lasly, we would like o hank UNEP-WCMC for allowing us o reproduce he mangrove map of Souheas Asia, and he Inernaional Sociey for Mangrove Ecosysems (ISME, based in Okinawa, Japan) for heir financial conribuion owards he producion of he Indonesian precursor of his guidebook. Wim Giesen Senior consulan wih ARCADIS Euroconsul in he Neherlands & Sephan Wulffraa Senior foreser/biologis for WWF, Tarakan, Eas Kalimanan, Indonesia viii

9 Conens FOREWORDS iii AUTHORS PREFACE vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii PART ONE: INTRODUCTION TO THE MANGROVES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 1 INTRODUCTION Wha are mangroves? Souheas Asia s mangroves: he world s larges and bes-developed Scope of his guidebook 3 2 MANGROVE FLORA Flora and diversiy Endemic and rare/uncommon plan species 9 3 THE MANGROVE HABITAT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Inroducion o he mangrove habia Physical condiions Mangrove vegeaion ypes Mangrove fauna 21 4 BENEFITS DERIVED FROM MANGROVES Mangrove uses Mangrove funcions Economic value of mangroves 36 5 THE STATE OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN MANGROVES Pas and presen area Causes of decline Mangrove conversion for aquaculure Mangrove resoraion Mangroves and sea level rise 56 6 IMPORTANT AND PROTECTED MANGROVE AREAS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Mangroves in he Proeced Area Sysem Imporan mangrove areas Brunei Darussalam Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar 66 ix

10 6.2.6 Papua New Guinea Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Lese Vie Nam 71 7 MANGROVE STUDIES: POINTS FOR BEGINNERS Imporan references Field rip basics Mangrove plan specimens Flora sudies Fauna sudies 77 REFERENCES 79 Annex 1 Table of Souheas Asian mangrove species 97 Annex 2 Map of Souheas Asian mangrove areas 104 Annex 3 Index of scienific names 106 Annex 4 Index of local plan names 143 PART TWO: THE MANGROVE PLANT SPECIES Glossary 187 Keys 197 Descripions 221 Group A: Ferns 221 Group B: Grasses & grass-like plans 271 Group C: Oher ground-dwelling herbs 327 Group D: Epiphyes 375 Group E: Vines & climbers 433 Group F: Palms, cycads & pandans 491 Group G: Trees & shrubs 511 Lis of Figures: Figure 1 Mangrove areas in Souheas Asia 2 Figure 2 Species group/lifeform diversiy 5 Figure 3 True mangrove species in Souheas Asia 8 Figure 4A Figure 4B Figure 4C Figure 5 Example of mangrove zonaion in Cilacap, souh coas of Java, Indonesia Schemaic cross-secion of a small mangrove island near Kimbe, Wes New Briain province, Papua New Guinea Schemaic cross-secion of a coasal area on Binan Island, Riau province, Indonesia Mangrove communiies in Vie Nam: relaionship wih inundaion and saliniy x

11 Figure 6 Food web and use of mangroves in Indonesia 35 Figure 7 Mangrove conversion and fishpond area in he Philippines 48 Figure 8 Area of brackish waer fishpond (ambak) in Indonesia, Lis of Tables: Table 1 Species group diversiy 6 Table 2 True mangrove species in Souheas Asia 7 Table 3 Mangrove (associae) species endemic o Souheas Asia 9 Table 4 Mangrove zones and species in Souheas Asian counries 22 Table 5 Quaniaive lis of plan producs in Souheas Asia 30 Table 6 Mangrove producs 33 Table 7 Economic value of various mangrove producs 36 Table 8 Changes in mangrove area Table 9 Brackish waer fishponds in Souheas Asia 49 Table 10 Mangroves in Proeced Areas 57 xi

12 xii

13 PART 1: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION 1.1 WHAT ARE MANGROVES? The erm mangrove is used o define boh he plans ha occur in idal foress, and o describe he communiy iself (Tomlinson, 1986; Wighman, 1989). In his guidebook, mangrove is generally used o refer o he habia, and he meaning is usually obvious from he conex. Elsewhere, he erm mangal is used by some auhors (e.g. MacNae, 1968; Chapman, 1976, 1977; Ogino & Chihara, 1988) in reference o mangrove vegeaion, bu is usage has no me wih much suppor apar from in he Americas, and mangal is herefore no used in his publicaion. Mangroves can be broadly defined as woody vegeaion ypes occurring in marine and brackish environmens. They are generally resriced o he idal zone, which is he srip of coas saring from he lowes low waer level up o he highes high waer level (spring ide). Wih a few excepions, hey occur only in he ropics and sub-ropics, and heir closes equivalen in emperae zones are herbaceous sal marshes. In his publicaion he erm mangrove is used in is broades sense, i.e. also including he Nypa formaion and he margins of mangroves. These margins are inundaed a few imes a year only, mainly during spring ides or due o sorm surges, and frequenly include species from adjacen vegeaion ypes. The laer may include species from he beach Barringonia formaions, oher ypes of coasal foress, and from he sand dune Pes-capre formaion (van Seenis, 1958; MacNae, 1968; Tomlinson, 1986). Alhough mangroves are no as poorly known as many oher ropical and subropical fores habias, many myhs remain. In a iny 2-page paper on Mangrove myhology Jane Snedaker (1997, quoed in Lewis, 2001) proposes a rue or false es wih five quesions: a. Mangroves require sal waer o develop and grow. b. Mangroves exend shorelines. c. Mangroves build up land. d. The red mangrove (Rhizophora species) are he mos valuable mangroves. e. Some mangrove fores ypes are more imporan han ohers. In fac, all five are common myhs and all are false! Misconcepions are common and need o be addressed in order o fully undersand and appreciae hese unique ecosysems. 1

14 PART 1: INTRODUCTION 1.2 SOUTHEAST ASIA S MANGROVES: THE WORLD S LARGEST AND BEST-DEVELOPED Esimaes of former worldwide exension of mangroves vary from over 15 million hecares (Lanly, in Ogino & Chihara, 1988) o 16.2 (Thurairaja, 1994) and (Saenger e al., 1983; Aksornkoae, 1993), and even as much as 19.9 million hecares (based on Groombridge, 1992). From a global perspecive, Souheas Asia is well endowed as i suppors he world s larges area of mangroves, originally exending over 6.8 million hecares and represening percen of he world s oal. Mangroves occur hroughou Souheas Asia, from he Irrawaddy dela in Myanmar in he norhwes, hrough he more han 17,000 scaered islands of he Indonesian and Philippine archipelagos o Papua New Guinea in he Eas, spanning a disance of more han kilomeres from eas o wes and 3,500 kilomeres from norh o souh. The larges areas of mangrove in Souheas Asia are found in Indonesia (almos 60 percen of Souheas Asia s oal), Malaysia (11.7%), Myanmar (8.8%), Papua New Guinea (8.7%) and Thailand (5.0%; Figure 1). Deailed figures and repors on changes in mangrove area over he pas decades are provided in Chaper 5. FIGURE 1 Mangrove areas in Souheas Asia Timor 0.03% Singapore 0.01% Brunei 0.3% Vienam 2.1% Cambodia 1.3% Philippines 2.2% PNG 8.7% Thailand 5.0% Indonesia 59.8% Malaysia 11.7% Myanmar 8.8% Souheas Asia s mangroves are he bes developed and probably he mos species-diverse in he world (Giesen & Wulffraa, 1998; chaper 2). Fifywo Souheas Asian species are found in he mangrove habia only and nowhere else; his group of so-called rue mangrove species includes 42 rees and shrubs (Annex 1). Saenger e al. (1983) record a world-wide oal of 60 plan species exclusive o he mangrove habia, and alhough he liss are no enirely idenical, i is apparen ha Souheas Asia has a very significan share of rue mangrove species. 2

15 PART 1: INTRODUCTION 1.3 SCOPE OF THIS GUIDEBOOK This manual is inended o be a guide o he mangrove plans of Souheas Asia, i.e. all higher plans occurring in mangroves, and no only hose species exclusive o his habia. Souheas Asia was chosen as geographic scope, as his region has proven o be he world s riches in erms of biological diversiy (Chapman, 1976a,b; Tomlinson, 1986; Giesen & Wulffraa, 1998). Covered from wes o eas are Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vie Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, he Philippines, Indonesia, Timor-Lese and Papua New Guinea. The crierion for inclusion of a paricular plan species in his guidebook has been ha i mus eiher be recorded as occurring in he mangrove habia by he axonomic reference used, or here mus be a leas wo reliable non-axonomic records of his species occurring in he mangrove habia. Hybrid species are menioned under he descripion of he paren species and are no reaed separaely. In all, 268 species are covered (Annex 1), bu more may be recognised in he fuure as more sudies are carried ou and as more axonomic revisions become available. In erms of axonomy, scienific names as revised by he Flora Malesiana have generally been adhered o, excep where hey have been superseded by Tomlinson (1986), Flora of Thailand, or revisions by he Missouri Boanical Gardens ropical boany daabase 1. I is no surprising o see liss of species ha include he same species recorded under various names, or incorrecly spelled names. Parly, his confusion is because of he muliude of synonyms used in axonomic lieraure some species wih more han 50 synonyms especially common bu highly variable species are ofen endowed wih many differen names. To help sor ou his confusion, a separae index of scienific names has been appended o guide he reader o he correc name (Annex 2). A separae index of local names is also provided (Annex 3), bu i may be noed ha his is sill far from complee as local names are ofen no recorded in axonomic (or indeed oher) lieraure. The auhors would be graeful if readers could assis wih updaing his lis of local names preferably by ing he firs auhor. Par one of his guidebook provides an inroducion o mangroves in general, and o Souheas Asian mangroves in paricular. Chaper 1 provides definiions and places Souheas Asia s mangroves in a global conex, while Chaper 2 gives an accoun of he mangrove flora. Chaper 3 describes mangrove habias in Souheas Asia, including informaion on soils, vegeaion ypes and fauna. 1 3

16 PART 1: INTRODUCTION Chaper 4 explains abou he benefis derived from mangroves, while Chaper 5 focuses on he curren sae of mangroves in Souheas Asia. Chapers 6 and 7 are provided for hose waning o engage in field work: six informs us where he mos imporan areas are, while seven explains some of he basic echniques for sudying mangroves. Par wo is he hear of he publicaion, providing he reader wih keys for idenificaion of mangrove plans, plus a 1-page daa shee and a line drawing of all mangrove plan species. Where possible, he use of specialis erms has been avoided, and hose ha have been used are clarified in a glossary of explanaory erms and illusraions. The mangrove plans have been ordered ino seven easily recognised groups (mainly lifeforms), namely i) ferns, ii) grasses and grass-like herbs, iii) (oher) ground herbs, iv) epiphyes, v) climbers, vi) palms and palm-like plans, and vii) rees and shrubs. Seven idenificaion keys have been developed, one for each of hese groups. I mus be noed ha some variable species can belong o more han one group for example, Hypserpa polyandra (Menispermaceae) can form a shrub, bu usually occurs as a large woody climber in his case he predominan form prevails. Noe ha lifeforms are also lised in Annex 1. Appended is a map showing he disribuion of mangroves in Souheas Asia, kindly reproduced under licence from UNEP-WCMC (see Annex 2). This map gives an indicaion of he locaion of he mos imporan mangrove sies in Souheas Asia. For more deailed maps, please refer o heir websie 2. 2 hp://www.unep-wcmc.org/index.hml?hp://www.unep-wcmc.org/fores/global_map.hm~main 4

17 CHAPTER 2MANGROVE FLORA 2.1 FLORA AND DIVERSITY Souheas Asia s mangroves are he bes developed and mos speciesdiverse in he world (Giesen & Wulffraa, 1998). A oal of 268 plan species have been recorded in Souheas Asian mangrove vegeaion, including 129 rees and shrubs, 50 erresrial herbs (including 27 grasses and grass-like plans), 28 climbers, 28 epiphyes, 24 ferns, seven palms, one pandan and one cycad (Annex 1; Figure 2). Of hese 268 species, 52 are found in he mangrove habia only, and his group of so-called rue mangrove species includes 42 rees and shrubs (Annex 1). FIGURE 2 Species group/lifeform diversiy Trees 129 (49%) Palms 9 (3%) Herbs 23 (9%) Ferns 24 (9%) Grasses 27 (10%) Climbers 28 (10%) Epiphyes 28 (10%) Noe ha rees include shrubs; palms include palm-like pandans and cycads; herbs are non-grass-like erresrial herbs; grasses include grass-like sedges and bulrushes; and epiphyes do no include epiphyic ferns. As menioned in chaper one, Saenger e al. (1983) record a world-wide oal of 60 plan species exclusive o he mangrove habia, and alhough he liss are no enirely idenical, i is apparen ha Souheas Asia has a very significan share of rue mangrove species. The norhern Indian Ocean and he norh-wesern Pacific region (sreching from he Red Sea o Japan and Indonesia) harbours he world s mos diverse mangroves. Indeed, hese wo regions respecively harbour 44 and 38 of he 60 rue mangrove species lised by Saenger e al. (1983), while he oher four regions harbour only seven (wesern America/easern Pacific, easern America/Caribbean, 5

18 PART 1: MANGROVE FLORA wesern Africa) o nine (easern Africa) rue mangrove species 3. In erms of plans, Souheas Asia s biodiversiy ranks highes in he norhern Indian Ocean/norhwesern Pacific region, as is eviden in Table 1. TABLE 1 Species group diversiy NE Indian Ocean & Wes Souheas Asia Ausralia & SW Pacific Pacific (his publicaion) (Saenger e al., 1983) (Saenger e al., 1983) Ferns, cycads, bryophyes 25 * 35 5 Gymnosperms Monocoyledons Dicoyledons oals * Does no include mosses (Bryophyes) The larges plan families recorded in Souheas Asian mangroves are he: Leguminosae (Fabaceae) or legumes (22 species), Cyperaceae or sedges (17 species), Rhizophoraceae usually regarded as he family of mangrove rees, many wih sil roos and oher adapaions (12 species), alhough nonmangrove species also exis (e.g. he Souheas Asian Carallia brachiaa), Orchidaceae or orchids (11 species), Asclepiadaceae or Milk Weed family in he mangrove habia consising mainly of climbers and epiphyes, all wih characerisic whie laex (10 species), Polypodiaceae or Polypody fern family one of he main fern families world-wide (10 species), Poaceae or rue grasses (9 species), Arecaceae or palms (7 species), Rubiaceae he coffee family; in he mangrove habia consising mainly of rees and shrubs (7 species), Combreaceae or Terminalia family (6 species), Euphorbiaceae or Spurge family, wih many species conaining a oxic whie laex (6 species), Loranhaceae or Misleoe family, consising enirely of parasiic epiphyes (6 species), Avicenniaceae, anoher family of rue mangrove rees, characerised by pneumaophores, i.e. roos ha emerge, peg-like, from he mangrove soil (5 species), an Sonneraiaceae, anoher family consising predominanly of mangrove ree species (5 species). Some of hese mos common families abound in species wih a very wide geographic range (e.g. Cyperaceae and Poaceae) and consis largely of ubiquious weed species. 3 Saenger e al. (1983) s lis of rue mangroves (60 worldwide) is no he same as our number of rue mangroves (52 in Souheas Asia). The reason for his difference is ha here are 11 species in Souheas Asia ha are exclusive o mangroves (and herefore rue mangrove species), bu are no recorded in Saenger s lis. 6

19 PART 1: MANGROVE FLORA Table 2 gives he disribuion of all rue mangrove species (i.e. species found in he mangrove habia only) in Souheas Asia. A leas 48 of he 52 species lised occur in Indonesia, which is he more biodiverse of he Souheas Asian counries, followed in his respec by Malaysia, wih 42 species. This suppors he claim by Giesen and Wulffraa (1998) ha Indonesia s mangroves are he mos biodiverse in he world. Leas diverse are Timor-Lese and Brunei Dar es Salaam (Figure 3), which is no surprising given he relaively small size of heir erriories. This diversiy appears o no only hold for angiosperms, bu seems o be rue for oher (plan) axons. Tanaka and Chihara (1988), for insance, in heir sudy of macroalgae in easern Indonesian mangroves, sae ha I may be concluded ha he Indonesian mangrove area is one of he mos imporan disribuional cenres of macroalgae associaed wih mangroves in he world. Oher ineresing accouns of mangrove-associaed algae and heir diversiy in he Souheas Asian region are given by Johnson (1979) and Chihara & Tanaka (1988). TABLE 2 True mangrove species in Souheas Asia (These species occur in he mangrove habia only) Brunei Cambodia 1 Acanhus ebraceaus 2 Acanhus ilicifolius 3 Acanhus volubilis 4 Acrosichum aureum 5 Acrosichum speciosum 6 Aegialiis annulaa 7 Aegialiis roundifolia 8 Aegiceras corniculaum 9 Aegiceras floridum 10 Amyema anisomeres 11 Amyema gravis 12 Amyema mackayense 13 Avicennia alba 14 Avicennia eucalypifolia 15 Avicennia lanaa 16 Avicennia marina 17 Avicennia officinalis 18 Brownlowia argenaa 19 Brownlowia ersa 20 Bruguiera cylindrica 21 Bruguiera exarisaa 22 Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 23 Bruguiera hainesii 24 Bruguiera parviflora 25 Bruguiera sexangula 26 Camposemon philippinense? Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar PNG Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Lese Vie Nam 7

20 PART 1: MANGROVE FLORA Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar PNG Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Lese Vie Nam 27 Camposemon schulzii 28 Ceriops decandra 29 Ceriops agal 30 Excoecaria agallocha 31 Heriiera fomes 32 Heriiera globosa 33 Heriiera lioralis 34 Kandelia candel 35 Lumnizera liorea 36 Lumnizera racemosa 37 Nypa fruicans 38 Osbornia ocodona 39 Oberonia rhizophorei 40 Pemphis acidula 41 Rhizophora apiculaa 42 Rhizophora mucronaa 43 Rhizophora sylosa 44 Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea 45 Sonneraia alba 46 Sonneraia apeala 47 Sonneraia caseolaris 48 Sonneraia griffihii 49 Sonneraia ovaa 50 Xylocarpus granaum 51 Xylocarpus moluccensis 52 Xylocarpus rumphii Toal number of species FIGURE 3 True mangrove species in Souheas Asia True mangrove species Timor-Lese Brunei Vie Nam Thailand Singapore Cambodia Myanmar Philippines PNG Malaysia Indonesia 48 8

21 PART 1: MANGROVE FLORA 2.2 ENDEMIC AND RARE/UNCOMMON PLANT SPECIES Fify-one species or 18 percen of he mangrove flora of Souheas Asia are endemic o he region, and includes 22 rees and shrubs, 13 epiphyes, eigh ferns, four palms and four climbers (Table 3). These endemics include eigh species found in he mangrove habia only (and are herefore rue mangroves ), including wo misleoes Amyema anisomeres and A. gravis, one orchid Oberonia rhizophorei, and five rees Aegiceras floridum, Avicennia eucalypifolia, A. lanaa, Camposemon philippinense and Heriiera globosa. Some of he Souheas Asian species are very rare, such as he epiphyic parasie Amyema anisomeres. TABLE 3 Mangrove (associae) species endemic o Souheas Asia Group Species Group Species Trees & shrubs Aegiceras floridum Ferns Cenoperis mouloni Avicennia eucalypifolia Davallia parvula Avicennia lanaa Elaphoglossum amblyphyllum Azima sarmenosa Loxogramma involua Barringonia conoidea Pachypleura angusaa Blumeodendron okbrae Phoinoperis speciosa Camposemon philippinense Playcerium coronarium Croon heerocarpus Selliguea heerocarpa Fagraea crenulaa Glua veluina Epiphyes Amyema anisomeres Heriiera globosa Amyema gravis Ilex cymosa Bulbophyllum xylocarpi Ilex maingayi Cymbidium finlaysonianum Ixora imoriensis Dendrobium aloefolium Ochhocharis bornensis Dendrobium pachyphyllum Podocarpus polysachyus Dendrobium subulaum Quassia harmandiana Oberonia laea Rapanea poreriana Oberonia rhizophorei Scolopia macrophylla Pachycenria consrica Serianhes grandiflora Rhododendron brookeanum Sindora siamensis Schefflera lanceolaa Symplocos celasrifolia Schefflera ridleyi Palms Calamus erinaceus Climbers Calycoperis floribunda Corypha saribus Combreum eralophum Licuala spinosa Combreum rifoliaum Oncosperma igillarium Derris scandens A leas 35 plan species occurring in Souheas Asian mangroves are uncommon or rare: Tweny-one of hese may be locally relaively common, bu rare on he whole: Acanhus volubilis, Aegiceras floridum, Blumeodendron okbrae, 9

22 PART 1: MANGROVE FLORA Calycoperis floribunda, Cassine viburnifolia, Ceriops decandra, Croon heerocarpus, Dalbergia menoeides, Diospyros mariima, Ficus curipes, Ilex maingayi, Oberonia laea, Olax imbricaa, Osbornia ocodona, Quassia indica, Rhizophora exarisaa, Rhododendron brookeanum, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sindora siamensis, Smyhea lanceaa and Sonneraia ovaa. Eigh species are uncommon o rare in Souheas Asia, bu common elsewhere (Cyperus scariousus, Eleocharis parvula, Eleocharis spiralis, Fimbrisylis sieberiana, Lepochloa neesii, Scirpus lacusris, S. lioralis, S. mariimus). These are wide ranging, weedy sedge and grass species ha do no appear o have gained a firm fooing in Souheas Asia. The remaining six species, Amyema anisomeres, Kandelia candel, Oberonia rhizophorei, Quassia harmandiana, Scaevola hainanensis and Schefflera lanceolaa are ruly rare in Souheas Asia 4. Apar from he previously menioned Amyema anisomeres, hese species are generally known from a few scaered localiies only. Scaevola hainanensis, for example, is known from only a few scaered localiies in Vie Nam and Souhern China, while Quassia harmandiana has been colleced a few imes only in Cambodia and Thailand. Kandelia candel is rare in Souheas Asia, bu has become more common in Vie Nam due o planing programmes. I is also naurally common in Souhern China, for example in Guangdong (Zhanjiang Mangrove Naional Naure Reserve) and Hong Kong (Mai Po Naure Reserve). 4 Ineresingly, Kandelia candel is found as far norh as Japan, and is a common species in Hong Kong, being he mos common Rhizophoraceae in he Mai Po marshes. 10

23 PART 1: THE MANGROVE HABITAT CHAPTER 3THE MANGROVE HABITAT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE MANGROVE HABITAT A wonderful, unsurpassed general descripion of Souheas Asian mangroves is given by van Seenis (1958) one of he fahers of plan axonomy in Souheas Asia in his inroducion o he axonomy of he Rhizophoraceae 5 : Seen from a disance he mangrove makes he impression of a dark-green more-or-less monoonous ype of fores. On enering i on foo wih ebb is eerie aspec appears a once from he oppressing hea, he damp amosphere, he bare, sinking mud, covered wih sil-rooed rees..., and several kinds of oher roo formaions (knee-like roos, knobs, snake-like roos, erec peg- or orpedo-shaped pneumaophores), he mud eeming wih crabs, fishes, shells, worms and heir holes, mud-heaps and shallow pools, he air wih pleny mosquioes, he silence only inerruped now and hen by he sudden rush of monkeys hough he gloomy foliage, he hud of a frui falling in he mud, or he forlorn cry of a passing seabird. For a ouris he place is singularly uninviing, bu for he biologis i is a mos fascinaing bioope, and he secres of is life and life condiions are cerainly far from being exhaused. Enering he mangrove on board a small prahu <local canoe> during high ide..., gliding hrough he silen waers of he creeks, bordered now and hen by he flooded fores which is nearly submerged up o he flaish underside of he ree crowns, he aspec is less fascinaing and appears more monoonous, as he foliage of he rees is much alike even of represenaives of very differen families, all of hem having dark-green, ellipic o obovae, medium-sized blades of he laurel ype bu raher coriaceous <leahery> and slighly fleshy. Flowers are no paricularly sriking, and hose which are, as e.g. of Sonneraia and Dolichandrone, are nocurnal. Van Seenis view ha mangroves are very ineresing, bu no he place you would go o on a picnic, is prey much he way hese habias are seen oday. Mangroves are no easy environmens o work in, bu hey can be very rewarding. Their srucure is generally sraighforward and simple, 5 Ding Hou (1958) - Rhizophoraceae. Flora Malesiana, Ser.I, 5:

24 PART 1: THE MANGROVE HABITAT and he number of species is limied. However, he species ha do occur may be very abundan, and as long-erm sudies show, hey are ofen highly producive. Forunaely for he average lay person, many proeced mangrove areas have now been made a leas parially accessible by he consrucion of walkways, which help overcome a leas some of he physical discomfor. For an overview of some of he main proeced mangrove areas, see chaper PHYSICAL CONDITIONS Many mangrove plans have special adapaions o counerac he effecs of inundaion, high saliniy and an unsable soil. A number possess mechanisms o acively remove sal from heir issues (e.g. leaves excreing sal), or have sil or prop roos for suppor, and pneumaophores ( air roos ) o assis oxygenaion of roo sysems. Many ypical mangrove ree genera, such as Avicennia, Bruguiera, Ceriops and Rhizophora, are characerized by vivipary. Tha is, he seeds germinae while sill aached o he moher plan, and wha is commonly regarded as, for example, a long Rhizophora frui, is in fac a hypocoyl (i.e. primary sem) emerging from he frui. Zonaion Mangrove vegeaion ypically displays band-like zonaion paerns (e.g. Figures 4, 5), ha have alernaely been linked by various auhors o soil ype (mud, sand or pea), exposure o wave acion, saliniy, freshwaer inflow from he hinerland and idal influence (e.g. Wason, 1928; van Seenis, 1957; Chapman, 1976a, 1976b, 1977; Bun & Williams, 1981; Whie e al., 1989; Aragones e al., 1998). The widh of a mangrove zone rarely exceeds four kilomeres, and usually i is much narrower. On eroding or seep coass i may be scarcely 50 meres wide, while in some esuaries and shelered, shallow bays i may be as wide as 18 kilomeres (Sungai Sembilang, Souh Sumara; Danielsen & Verheug, 1990) or even 30 kilomeres (Binuni Bay, Papua; Erfemeijer e al., 1989). Along idal rivers a mangrove fringe may be found occurring upsream for many ens of kilomeres, depending on salwaer inrusion. This in urn is deermined by idal ampliudes, river discharges and slopes. The las rue mangrove ree species o disappear along idal rivers is ofen eiher Bruguiera parviflora (van Seenis, 1957, 1958) or Sonneraia caseolaris, while he mangrove palm Nypa fruicans may occur even much furher inland. 12

25 PART 1: THE MANGROVE HABITAT FIGURE 4A Example of mangrove zonaion in Cilacap, souh coas of Java, Indonesia Adaped from (Whie e al., 1989). FIGURE 4B Schemaic cross-secion of a small mangrove island near Kimbe, Wes New Briain province, Papua New Guinea Soil subsraes mainly clay, wih he excepion of a limesone rock in he cener of he island. Ae. - Aegiceras corniculaum Ac. - Acanhus ilicifolius A.s. - Acrosichum speciosum B.g. - Bruguiera gymnorrhiza B.p. - Bruguiera parviflora B.s. - Bruguiera sexangula F.s. - Ficus sp. (non-mangrove species) H.l. - Heriiera lioralis M.h.- Myrisica hollrungii P.s. - Pandanus cf. furcaus (non-mangrove species) P.p. - Pongamia pinnaa R.a. - Rhizophora apiculaa R.m.- Rhizophora mucronaa X.g.- Xylocarpus granaum MHWL - Mean High Waer level; MLWL - Mean Low Waer level FIGURE 4C Schemaic cross-secion of a coasal area on Binan Island, Riau province, Indonesia Subsraes of fronal area consis of coarse sands, while inland i is mixed wih loam & clay. B.c. - Bruguiera cylindrica C.b. - Cerbera odollam C.. - Ceriops agal E.a. - Excoecaria agallocha H.l. - Heriiera lioralis I.b. - Insia bijuga L.l. - Lumnizera liorea L.r. - Lumnizera racemosa N.f. - Nypa fruicans O.. - Oncosperma igillarium P.a. - Pemphis acidula R.a. - Rhizophora apiculaa R.s. - Rhizophora sylosa Sc. - Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea S.a. - Sonneraia alba 13

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