Evidence for Evolution

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1 Evidence for Evolution

2 Evidence for evolution 1. Fossil record and age of the earth (using radioactive dating) 2. Biogeography 3. Homologous structures and vestigial organs 4. Embryology 5. Cellular and Molecular Evidence

3 EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION 1) Fossils and the age of the Earth: (we must take a closer look at fossils) A FOSSIL is the remains or evidence of a living thing. They can be bone of an organism or the print of a shell in a rock. Most common fossils: bones, shells, pollen grains, seeds. Review: how are fossils formed? They are found in sedimentary rock. MOLD

4 Answer: - Existing rock breaks down due to rain, heat, wind, and cold. - This sediment is deposited and over time the sediments build up (including burying dead organisms) New layers of sediment are constantly being deposited The weight of overlying rock compresses the lower layers eventually= rock

5 The Fossil Record: Provides evidence about the history of life on earth It also shows how different groups have changed over time based on the order they were buried in sedimentary rock Why is this important?.. Darwin compared and studied the remains of the organisms in the sedimentary rock to get an idea about where they are found but he could not tell HOW OLD they were which would be helpful.

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8 We can actually date fossils to determine just how old extinct organisms are: 2 ways paleontologists date fossils--relative dating and Radioactive dating. ( read page ) - Radioactive dating: actual age using radioactive isotopes and half lives - Relative dating: Age of the fossil compared to others in layers of sedimentary rock (uses index fossils)

9 Typical half-lives a. Carbon years i. Useful for fossils up to 50,000 years old

10 b. Potassium billion years i. Can be used for older fossils

11 c. Uranium billion years i. Used for cores of old rock

12 7. Assumptions scientist make several assumptions when dating fossils using this method. a. The ratio of carbon-14 & carbon-12 in the atmosphere is constant over time.

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15 C-14 C-12 Simulated Decay N-14 Time = 0 years

16 C-14 C-12 Simulated Decay N-14 Time = 5730 years

17 C-14 C-12 Simulated Decay N-14 Time = years (5730 x 2)

18 C-14 C-12 Simulated Decay N-14 Time = years (5730 x 3)

19 What is an index fossil? Fossil used to help determine the relative age of the fossils around it (used for comparison) Must be easily recognized and must have existed for a short period BUT over wide geographical area.

20 Index Fossils

21 EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION 2) Biogeography: The distribution of plants & animals Example: 13 species of finches on the 13 Galapagos Islands 57 species of kangaroos all in Australia

22 3) Homologous and Vestigial Structures (Divergent Evolution)

23 a) Homologous Structures = shared common anatomical or biochemical traits Ex: " forearm bones Structures that develop from the same clumps of cells Later develop into structures that have different forms and functions Arms, flippers, & wings look very similar at the beginning of development, but differ as the animal matures The function differs as well!

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25 Analogous structures: not evidence for a common ancestor!! (Convergent Evolution) Similar in function, but not in internal form Ex: butterfly wing vs. bird's wings - Both animals fly - BUT butterflies don't have bones to support their wings like birds do; DNA instructions are different

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29 b) Vestigial Structures- A structure that serves no purpose in an organism vestige= trace vestigial organs are traces of homologous organs found in other species Snake Whale

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31 Pelvic bones in snakes/whales

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33 Boa Constrictors with legs Python

34 Duckbill platypuses, which are descended from extinct platypus species that had teeth as adults, grow and re-absorb teeth before birth.

35 Blind Tetra Fish

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38 4) Embryological Development Similarities of vertebrate organisms in early stages of development is similar All animal development begins in the same way (from the same ball of cells- BLASTULA) BUT recognizable features for that species develops as the organism grows.

39 Can you tell the difference between these embryos? Which one is the human?

40 Human Fish Tortoise Chicken Salamander Pig Rabbit Cow What about now? Which ones look most alike?

41 Human Fish Tortoise Chicken Salamander Pig Rabbit Cow

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44 Human 4 weeks Cat - Dog

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47 5) Cellular and Molecular Evidence a) Cellular Evidence All organisms are made of cells consist of membranes filled with water containing genetic material, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, salts and other substances

48 b) Molecular Evidence The DNA code links all life on Earth to a common ancestor DNA and RNA = simple four-base code that provides the recipe for all living things Transfer genetic material from the cell of one living thing to the cell of another The recipient would follow the new instructions as if they were its own EX: Roundworms share 25% of their genes with humans.

49 Review: Evidence for evolution 1. Fossil record and age of the earth (using radioactive dating) 2. Biogeography 3. Homologous structures and vestigial organs 4. Embryology 5. Cellular and Molecular Evidence

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