ITALIAN HABITATS. The Mediterranean maquis

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ITALIAN HABITATS. The Mediterranean maquis"

Transcription

1 ITALIAN HABITATS The Mediterranean maquis 6

2 Italian habitats Italian Ministry of the Environment and Territory Protection / Ministero dell Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio Friuli Museum of Natural History / Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale Comune di Udine ITALIAN HABITATS Scientific coordinators Alessandro Minelli Sandro Ruffo Fabio Stoch Editorial commitee Aldo Cosentino Alessandro La Posta Carlo Morandini Giuseppe Muscio "The Mediterranean maquis Evergreen coastal formations" edited by Alessandro Minelli Texts Giuseppe Carpaneto Gaudenzio Paola Simonetta Peccenini Margherita Solari In collaboration with Luca Lapini Mirca Zocchi English translation Gabriel Walton Illustrations Roberto Zanella Graphic design Furio Colman The Mediterranean Maquis Evergreen coastal formations Photographs Archive INFS (Valter Trocchi) 139 Archive MFSN (Ettore Tomasi) 36/2, 37, 39, 48/2, 50, 60 Mauro Arzillo 128, 129 Paolo Audisio 8 Pietro Baccino 12, 15, 20/1, 22, 24, 32, 35/1, 36/1, 38/1, 38/2, 41/1, 41/2, 42, 44/1, 44/2, 47/2, 51, 64/1, 64/2, 64/3, 69, 78, 132/1, 132/2, 133, 150, 151 Enrico Benussi 116/1 Eugenio Busetto 18/1, 26, 34 Giuseppe Carpaneto 11, 33/2, 35/2, 44/3, 47/1, 70, 71, 80, 87, 88/1, 88/2, 89/1, 102, 107, 109, 110/1, 110/2, 111, 112/1, 112/2 Ulderica Da Pozzo 67, 134 Vitantonio Dall Orto 74 Dario Ersetti 19/3, 33/1 Maurizio Fabbri 93, 95/1 Luca Facchinelli 10 Gabriele Fiumi 90/1, 90/2, 90/3, 94, 95/3, 96, 97, 98 Giovanni Gobbi 84, 89/2, 99, 101, 104, 114/1, 126 Gianluca Governatori 18/2, 18/4, 19/2, 82, 148 Luca Lapini 81, 110/3, 122, 140 Daniele Macale 95/2, 103 Paolo Maltzeff 90/4 Maurizio Rizzotto 77 Ugo Mellone 18/3, 83, 130 Giuseppe Muscio 28 Michele Panuccio 86, 108, 120 Gaudenzio Paola 25, 43, 48/1, 54, 56, 62, 142, 144 Roberto Parodi 40, 113, 114/2, 115/1, 115/2, 116/2, 116/3, 117, 118, 119, 135 Silvia Sebasti 123, 137, 138 Paola Sergo 19/1 Pino Sfregola 20/2 Margherita Solari 147 Mido Traverso 52/1, 52/2, 53/1, 53/2 Roberto Zucchini Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine, Italy All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publishers. ISBN Cover photo: low maquis with thyme and ever-lasting flowers (photo by Margherita Solari) MINISTERO DELL AMBIENTE E DELLA TUTELA DEL TERRITORIO MUSEO FRIULANO DI STORIA NATURALE COMUNE DI UDINE

3 Of the various environmental aspects which may be found in Italian territory, many are familiar to the traveller's eye, and are commonly accepted as an expression of naturalness. They are in fact the result of centuries-long interactions with man, who favoured the development of secondary formations, variegated and quite often enriched in several types of flora and fauna. These interactions - the history and above all the initial conditions of which are not always easy to reconstruct - have certainly not spared the Mediterranean maquis, which originally grew along most of the coastline of the Italian peninsula and its islands and, in the southernmost regions, extended to the hills inland. Attentive naturalists will be able to recognize, in the diversity of maquis formations, those few but precious and beautiful remnants which are still in a more or less well-preserved state of naturalness. This volume of the "Italian Habitats" series covers a detailed itinerary through all the various types of primary and secondary maquis, reconstructing its ancient dynamics and presenting its most significant aspects from the botanical and zoological viewpoints. When attempting to document the historical processes undergone by the animal and plant populations of the maquis environment - so characteristic in a country like Italy, so essentially part of the Mediterranean world and its life-style - the role played by Natural History museums is fundamental, since these institutions preserve and house irreplaceable information on all types of fauna and flora and their distribution on the territory. With this series of "Italian Habitats", therefore, the Friuli Museum of Natural History is proud to contribute to the further knowledge of these important and indeed unique parts of the environmental mosaic of Italy. Carlo Morandini Director, Friuli Museum of Natural History

4 Italian habitats Contents Introduction Giuseppe Carpaneto Gaudenzio Paola Simonetta Peccenini Vegetation Gaudenzio Paola Simonetta Peccenini 1 Caves and karstic phenomena 2 Springs and spring watercourses 3 Woodlands of the Po Plain 4 Sand dunes and beaches 5 Mountain streams Fauna Giuseppe Carpaneto Preservation and management Giuseppe Carpaneto Gaudenzio Paola Simonetta Peccenini Suggestions for teaching Margherita Solari 6 The Mediterranean maquis 7 Sea cliffs and rocky coastlines 8 Brackish coastal lakes 9 Mountain peat-bogs 10 Realms of snow and ice Select bibliography Glossary List of species Pools, ponds and marshland 12 Arid meadows 13 Rocky slopes and screes 14 High-altitude lakes 15 Beech forests of the Appennines

5 Introduction GIUSEPPE CARPANETO GAUDENZIO PAOLA SIMONETTA PECCENINI 9 He took to the hills. How many times have we seen these words in the adventure stories we read in our youth! Robbers, thieves and bandits, in all societies, always took to the hills to avoid the legal consequences of their illegal actions, and were often able to hide for long periods of time. In the Mediterranean context, taking to the hills means plunging into the maquis, that sea of green, which closes above our heads and hides us completely from the external world. Particularly during the foreign colonization of Southern Italy and in the confused years following the unification of Italy, brigands and bandits took refuge here and, during the Second World War, so did partisans and members of the resistance. But what exactly is the maquis? In the general acceptance of this French word, which cannot really be translated into English, the maquis is a vegetal formation with prevailing large shrubs or small to medium-sized trees, often spaced so far apart that light can penetrate well. This allows the development of a thick, intricate undergrowth formed of shrubs and creepers. These formations are found where the original broad-leaved forest has been felled, and they generally evolve in order to reconstitute that forest by means of a long process of self-restoration, called succession. The maquis, in its widest sense, may be composed of deciduous broad-leaved trees which tend towards the reconstruction of the original deciduous oak forest, or evergreen shrubs which tend to recompose the Mediterranean forest, dominated by evergreens like holm oak and cork oak. In a strict sense, the word maquis is mainly applied to its Mediterranean version - that formation resulting from the destruction of the evergreen forest (mainly holm oak, as regards Italy), which grows prevalently along the coastline. As regards its extent, evergreen maquis is currently the main vegetal formation in coastal and subcoastal areas of the Mediterranean, and it thus covers much of the Italian peninsula and its islands. In addition, from the coast, the maquis often penetrates inland, developing on the warmest, often southfacing flanks of the anti-appennine and pre-appennine hills. Even in the heart of the Appennines and in some Prealpine districts, so-called xerothermic areas may be found, where favourable local climatic conditions allow the Maquis with rockrose and oleander along littoral of Focene (Latium). Oleander (Nerium oleander) is a common riverbank species in southern Europe; elsewhere, it is planted by man

6 10 conservation of biocenoses associated with hot, arid climates. These biocenoses are relicts from interglacial periods, during which mountain vegetation was forced to retreat due to climatic warming, thus allowing the advance of biological communities generally found near the coast. This is why, as well as evergreen plants, xerothermic areas may host a fauna usually associated with coasts and with limited capacities for dispersion, like some gastropod molluscs and wingless insects. The development of the Mediterranean maquis is a very ancient process, which began in prehistorical times and which reflects the growing impact of human activities on the environment. At least in Italian territory, evergreen maquis is the result of man s direct or indirect intervention on the environment of coastal belts - burning scrub and woodland, felling trees, and grazing livestock. Initially, tens of thousands of years ago, during the hunter-gatherer phase of human development, fires were set in vegetation to frighten wild animals and drive them towards points at which they could be ambushed and trapped. Later, during agricultural and livestock farming phases, the purpose of setting fire to the surrounding vegetation was to create space for settlements and agricultural exploitation, or to stimulate the growth of forage for livestock. Thus, with the passing of centuries, the evergreen Mediterranean maquis became the prevailing landscape of the Italian coastline. 11 Mediterranean maquis with Euphorbia dendroides on island of Caprara (Tremiti, Apulia) Pines in Mediterranean maquis along Tuscany coast

7 Vegetation GAUDENZIO PAOLA SIMONETTA PECCENINI 13 Introduction What is the Mediterranean maquis, exactly? Seen from a distance, the maquis is a sea of changing tones of green, covering hilly slopes near the sea, glowing in spring with the yellow flowers of broom, the white or pink of rockrose, and the blue of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and germander (Teucrium fruticans). Only if we approach closely can we see the dense intertwinings of the bushes which compose it: holm oak (Quercus ilex), strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), buckthorn (Rhamnus alaternus), broad-leaved phillyrea (Phillyrea latifolia), laurustine (Viburnum tinus), a representative of the honeysuckle family with pretty corymbs of white flowers and fruit of a beautiful metallic blue, tree heath (Erica arborea) and other types of heath (e.g., Erica scoparia), prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) and cork oak (Quercus suber), with its characteristic thick bark which protects it from bad weather and from fire. The maquis sometimes contains a series of lower shrubs like butcher s broom (Ruscus aculeatus) with evergreen leaves broadened to form cladodes holding small star-shaped flowers and then its typical red berries; ivy (Hedera helix), or plaited lianas like asparagus (Asparagus acutifolius), madderwort (Rubia peregrina), ruby-coloured with evergreen leaves, verticillate, with small hooked hairs on the edges; Mediterranean honeysuckle (Lonicera implexa), with highly perfumed flowers and connate leaves, i.e., welded together at the base round the stem; sarsaparilla (Smilax aspera) and rose (Rosa sempervirens). The last two make the maquis almost impenetrable with their thorns - as clearly suggested by the common Italian name for Smilax: strappabraghe ( tears your trousers )! In cooler locations, we find laurel (Laurus nobilis), flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus) with pennate deciduous leaves and highly scented white blossom, terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus), and in warmer spots many-flowered heath (Erica multiflora), tree euphorbia (Euphorbia dendroides), Phoenician juniper (Juniperus phoenicea), with scale-shaped leaves, another form of juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus spp. macrocarpa) with needle-shaped leaves and large brown berries, colonizing sandy dunes, myrtle (Myrtus communis), wild olive (Olea Holm oak (Quercus ilex) in flower

8 europaea var. sylvestis), progenitor and sometimes used to graft cultivated olives, carob (Ceratonia siliqua), with horny, evergreen leaves, paripennate and with large brown, sugary pods, thorny oak (Quercus coccifera, Q. calliprinos), with evergreen leaves with very thorny edges, narrow-leaved phillyrea (Phillyrea angustifolia), lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus), Jupiter's beard (Anthyllis barbajovis), a legume with silvery foliage and white flowers, and dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis), the only species of palm growing spontaneously in Italy. Locally, types of common broom may prevail, leguminous with yellow flowers, like spiny broom (Calicotome spinosa, C. villosa, C. infesta), cytisus (Cytisus villosus), hairy cytisus (Chamaecytisus hirsutus), European broom (Cytisus scoparius) and Spanish broom (Spartium junceum). In other places, where fires are frequent, we find abundant pink rockrose and Cretan rockrose (Cistus albidus, C. creticus), sage-leaved rockrose (Cistus salvifolius) and Montpellier rockrose (Cistus monspeliensis). The Mediterranean maquis in the world The Italian macchia and the French maquis are used throughout the world, mainly in the scientific literature, to indicate the shrubby, stiff-leaved, evergreen vegetation so typical of the Mediterranean climate. But there are also many other names: matorral in Spanish-speaking countries (Spain and Chile), chaparral in California, strandveld and renosterveld (according to dominant floristic composition) in South Africa, and mallee in Australia. When increasing summer aridity or heightened pressure of anthropic activities means that the vegetation becomes scanty and low, without the typical features of maquis, it is called gariga in Italy, garrigue in France, phrygana in Greece, batha in Israel, jaral in Cile, and coastal sage in California. Instead, the term fynbos, used in southern Africa, means the Mediterraneantype vegetation growing in those parts: dominated by heath, it is very similar to the moorland of temperate climates, which develops in soils particuarly poor in nutrients Just as the term Alpine derives from the geographic name for the Alps, Mediterranean refers to the basin of the Mediterranean Sea in a geographic sense. However, it is also used to indicate the complex of climatic conditions which occur in this part of the world. This complex may also be observed in some parts of other continents: in the Americas (California, central Chile), southern Africa, and south-western and southern Australia. None of these areas covers an area comparable with that of the Mediterranean basin, but their vegetation is very similar to the Mediterranean version from the structural viewpoint and from that of the morphology of the prevailing plant species. In areas so far removed from each other, floristic diversity is remarkable. The Mediterranean basin is also an area in which several civilizations followed each other in ancient times, and man s relationship with his environment contributed to a marked degree in structuring and consolidating the essential features of the landscape. In spite of its territorial continuity, the Mediterranean region is in fact highly diversified. Generally, we can distinguish its northern and southern parts, as aridity gradually increases from north to south. The western portion is also different from the eastern one, with rainfall which decreases from west to east. But, above all, there are great differences in the history of man s relationship with the territory, which began in the east about 4,000 years before it did in the west. Most of the Mediterranean plants of agricultural interest originated in the Eastern Mediterranean. Myrtle (Myrtus communis)

9 16 Ecology of the Mediterranean maquis 17 The climatic context. Within the framework of the large-scale climatic zones of our planet, the climate of the Mediterranean basin represents the transition between the temperate belt of Europe and the arid tropical belt of North Africa. The Mediterranean climate has autonomous characteristics, which may be briefly described as follows: maximum annual precipitation concentrated in cold periods of the year (autumn, winter); arid conditions during the warmest months (summer); very variable precipitation from one year to the next; hot or very hot summers and cool or cold winters, but without great differences between day-night temperatures or between the various seasons of continental type, i.e., very marked; and, lastly, intense solar radiation, above all in summer. The size of the Mediterranean basin and the complex morphology of the lands which border and sometimes influence it cause local variations in the general climate, usually distinguished into four main types, mainly based on the length of the arid period. Thermometric trends during the course of the year, although kept in consideration, play a secondary role. The Mediterranean climate is thus subdivided into: xero-mediter- Areas of world with prevalent Mediterranean maquis vegetation (red) COLD CURRENTS WARM CURRENTS Distribution of olive in Mediterranean basin. Although a cultivated species, olive does approximately indicate the belt of Mediterranean vegetation

10 18 ranean (or arid), with no rain for 9-10 consecutive months; thermo- Mediterranean (semi-arid), with 7-8 months without rain; meso- Mediterranean (sub-humid), with aridity lasting for 5-6 months, and sub-mediterranean (damp), with only 3-4 consecutive months without rain. The xero-mediterranean type of climate represents the borderline situation with the desert-type climates of the Sahara; the sub- Mediterranean climate, extensive in Italy, connects the temperate climates of northern Italy and, thence, central Europe. Clearly, therefore, only part of Italy can be considered strictly Mediterranean. We can draw an ideal line across the Italian boot running from Liguria (on the Tyrrhenian side) to the Conero promontory in the Marches (Adriatic), and thus divide the country into two climatically different parts: continental Italy, which includes the Alpine arc and the whole of the Po Plain, with a temperate climate; and peninsular Italy, mainly of Mediterranean type. This approximate subdivision must be further refined by bearing in mind Italy s complex morphology. First of all, there is the Appennine chain which, although extending within the Mediterranean area, does not present its typical features. The Appennines generally have a climate tending towards San Fruttuoso Island of Ponza Island of San Pietro Cilento coast Approximate subdivision of Italy into climatic zones Salina Trieste Salento green: temperate-continental; blue: cool sub-mediterranean; light blue: medium sub-mediterranean; yellow: warm sub-mediterranean; red: meso-mediterranean 19

11 20 Holm oak Gaudenzio Paola Holm oak (Quercus ilex) Family: Fagaceae. A medium-sized evergreen tree (sometimes reaching 20 m) or shrub, dense, spherical foliage, short trunk, ascending branches; dark brown bark, divided into small square plaques. Simple alternate leaves, very variable in shape according to their position on the tree and where it grows, hard, oval-elliptical in shape (4-8 x 2-4 cm), shiny above and covered with short hairs below, margin entire or dentate. Small, inconspicuous flowers, acorns 2-3 cm long, partly covered by a cupule with flat, downy scales. The once extensive holm oak groves, coppiced, supplied high-quality firewood and charcoal.the wood is hard and heavy, suitable for making objects subjected to great mechanical stress, e.g., the moving parts of carts. The bark was once used to tan hides and the acorns as food for pigs or even, in times of famine, for humans. Distribution of holm oak in Italy, approximately coinciding with meso-mediterranean and warm/medium sub-mediterranean climatic zones temperate, at least as far down as Campania. Naturally, altitude plays an essential role, so that part of the Appennines affected by the sea only rises to a few hundred metres on the flanks of the central and northern mountains, but widens gradually and steadily to the south and the islands. The belt with the most marked and typical Mediterranean features, with summer aridity of 5-6 months (meso-mediterranean) involves most of Sardinia, the southern coastline of Sicily, Salento, the Lucanian and Apulian coastlines facing the Gulf of Taranto, and part of the Apulian coast south of the Gargano promontory. The belt where summer aridity is limited to a period of 3-4 months (sub- Mediterranean) is very wide, and includes the remaining parts of the two largest islands (excluding their highest reliefs), the Tyrrhenian coast from Calabria northwards to Liguria (excluding those parts of eastern Liguria and northwestern Tuscany where the morphology of the land (with very steep reliefs on the seaward side and/or conspicuous mountain systems only slightly inland) reduces the arid period, and the remaining Calabrian and Adriatic coast northwards, more or less as far as the Conero promontory. The internal parts of peninsular Italy have increasingly less marked Mediterranean features as we move inland and upwards from the sea. The arid period steadily becomes shorter until it may fade away completely; at the same time, winter temperatures fall, so that most of the Appennine chain, defined as medium and cold sub-mediterranean, shows more or less marked features common to continental climates. There is a small, cold, sub-mediterranean zone along the Gulf of Trieste, again associated with the peculiar morphological and pedological characteristics of the local territory. 21 The soil. Soil may be defined as that superficial part of the Earth s crust which is the result of interactions between physico-chemical alteration of rocks (weathering) and decomposition of the organic matter which is deposited on them. Plants send their roots down into the soil, and find the water and minerals necessary to their metabolism in it. Geologically, Italy is made up of a large variety of rocks, often leading to considerable diversification of soil substrates, even within the same valley or mountain chain. Two of the main soil parameters which are important for plant life are the quantity of lime present, and the degree of acidity. Calcifuge species show signs of distress if they are obliged to live in limestone soils. Examples are bracken, or brake (Pteridium aquilinum), European broom, green heath, cork oak, and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster). Instead, calcicole species prefer soils rich in lime.

12 22 This preference is not due to lime in itself, but to the particular conditions of heating and aridity of the substrate which these warmth- and heat-loving species find in such soils. The degree of soil acidity is also a factor determining the geographic distribution of many species of plants. Maquis species which prefer acid substrates include cork oak, strawberry tree, tree heath, and wild lavender (Lavandula stoechas); those preferring alkaline soils are Spanish broom, many-flowered heath, Aleppo pine, rosemary, and many types of juniper. So many calcifuge species are also acid-loving, whereas those preferring alkaline soils often live well on limestone. To summarize, since all plant species establish their own personal relationships with the soil, the maquis in various parts of Italy has similar structural aspects but diverse floristic composition, due to the local soils. Adaptations to drought by hard-leaved plants Comparison between an ordinary leaf and one from a hardleaved plant (oleander) upper epidermis with cuticle; in oleander, epidermis has several layers and cuticle is very thick palisade-type chlorophyll tissue lacunose chlorophyll tissue lower epidermis 23 Biology and phenology of plants. The Mediterranean maquis is thus closely associated with precise local conditions, mainly as regards climate. Maquis is limited to those portions of the globe where annual precipitation is irregular over the course of the year, most rainfall being concentrated in late autumn and winter, and more or less prolonged aridity in summer. In areas with temperature trends like those of the Mediterranean climate, Wild lavender (Lavandula stoechas) but where precipitation increases in quantity and duration over the year, conditions conducive to tree growth prevail. Here, the vegetation is mainly composed of true evergreen woods and forest. Instead, in areas where dry summers are longer, the vegetation becomes impoverished and the arid shrub typical of sub-desert and desert zones dominates. Maquis is formed of species adapted mainly to summer drought, thanks to their leaf structure and morphology. Leaves are those parts of plants which are most sensitive to variations in the availability of water. Stiff-leaved plants, or sclerophylles (from the Greek scleros, meaning stiff, rigid), have long-lasting, hard leaves, thick cuticles, and deep stomata protected by hairs, which limit transpiration. An excellent example is the leaf of the holm oak. Other species, like tree euphorbia and spiny broom, adopt a different strategy to cope with st cr cs in oleander, stomas are located in deep pockets and protected from excessive transpiration by a mesh of hairs ample development of cuticular layer on upper side of epidermal cells leaf margins turned downwards leaf blade folds on itself during periods of drought stoma embedded with respect to leaf surface cr stomatic crypt st stomatic cells cs substomatic chamber ramified multi-celled hair in lavender shielded hair of olive, seen from above and in cross-section

13 summer drought, losing their leaves as summer approaches (a phenomenon called estivation, very frequent in hot, arid, tropical and equatorial zones). As well as summer drought, plants living in the Mediterranean environment may have to face a second critical period during winter, due to low temperatures. Maquis species do not generally resist cold well, and can only tolerate short periods of frost. Snow damages Mediterranean vegetation, both due to the thermic shock it causes, and mechanically, by breaking branches, especially if high winds accompany low temperatures. Perennial species begin their vegetative activity with the first autumn rains and pass through an intense period of assimilation, extending to December; then a pause intervenes, due to the cold. Vegetative activity starts up again more intensely in spring and continues until the beginning of the dry period; summer is a phase of almost complete repose. In southern Italy and the islands, winter temperatures are sometimes sufficiently high to allow vegetative activity to continue without interruption; in these cases, summer drought often arrives early, sometimes already at the end of May. The seeds of annual plants germinate in autumn or spring. In most cases, the dormant period is relatively short and seeds already germinate with the first autumn rains. In particularly short-lived species, dormancy is extended and germination is delayed until February or March of the year after that in which the seeds were produced: in this case, the vegetative period is reduced to only 2-3 months. In the coolest season, growth and flowering are at their peak, and fructification and dissemination take place with the arrival of the dry season. These species cope with summer aridity in the form of seed. Despite seasonal changes, the maquis Juniper misshapen by prevailing direction of wind almost always looks the same, because the plants which flower every month generally have small, relatively inconspicuous flowers. But, especially where the maquis is less dense and less dominated by holm oak, it presents fruits of all colours: the various tones of red of sarsaparilla, rose and strawberry tree, the metallic reflections of laurustine, the bluish-black of myrtle, and the fluffy white festoons of clematis (Clematis flammula). The maquis takes on a much more varied aspect when clearings open, and the blooming of the so-called early Mediterranean microflora may be briefly admired in spring. The influence of wind must not be underestimated. The shapes into which trees are modelled by the wind reveals its strength and frequency. Sometimes, isolated shrubs or entire areas of maquis are prostrate, or grow curved in the direction of the prevailing wind. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) with fruit Dynamism, primary maquis and secondary maquis. The various shrubby associations collectively called Mediterranean maquis are part of that evolution of vegetation dominated by holm oak or undergrowth with wild olive and carob, or a degraded series due to various kinds of disturbance, mainly anthropic. In practice, the following evolutionary sequence may be established: naked soil - steppe with grasses - garrigue - low maquis - high maquis - forest. Not all the Mediterranean maquis has the same origin and the same history; its origin may be viewed as primary or secondary, and it is not always easy to distinguish between the two. Interpreting Mediterranean shrubby formations is quite difficult everywhere, because they are mostly the result of a lengthy history which includes several kinds of activity on the part of man: deforestation, grazing, agriculture, and more or less frequent fires. Primary maquis is the original type, not the result of the involution of preceding

14 26 forest vegetation, and is rarer. It has two aspects: 1, it is found in areas where holm oak forest is not the present-day climax, e.g., at the geographical and altitude limits of the area covered by holm oak; 2, the maquis grows in situations which limit its expansion, e.g., steep slopes, high contents of salt in the soil, or the continual drying capacity of wind, which means that woody plants cannot grow tall. These cases may be interpreted as permanent stages of vegetation, or subclimax. Thus, in most cases, the heterogeneous aspects of Mediterranean maquis present intermediate stages in the course of evolution or degradation of vegetation, and are thus to be considered as aspects of secondary maquis. The most common causes leading to secondary maquis are anthropic in origin: felling, or coppicing, of trees, fires, and grazing, which often follow the first two and contribute further to making the original vegetation retreat. Many holm oak forests have been destroyed in historical times, both to create pasture for livestock, and to grow crops, mainly vines and olives. Following the abandonment of cultivation, both vegetation and soil progressively undergo degradation, which may even lead to naked rock being exposed. But sometimes plants do manage to regrow, in the form of evergreen shrubs, very REGRESSION HOLM OAK PINEWOOD, ALEPPO PINE AND MAQUIS UNDERGROWTH MAQUIS reafforestation PROGRESSION 27 GARRIGUE MEDITERRANEAN STEPPE MEADOW CULTIVATION: VINEYARDS AND OLIVE GROVES Goats grazing on garrigue in Sardinia Simplified sketch of Mediterranean vegetation. Man s intervention to create space for agriculture and grazing causes either a reduction in the structural complexity of hard-leaved Mediterranean formations or their disappearance. Abandon of cultivated or grazing land results in the development of vegetation which, if no fires occur, leads to increasingly complex formations in the course of time, until the reconstitution of maquis or holm oak woodland

15 similar to those which made up the undergrowth of the primitive forest, but with new, more sun-loving components, extraneous to the original vegetation. Sometimes maquis deriving from evergreen forests which have since disappeared is almost entirely composed of the undergrowth of those forests, without tree cover. This occurs when the climate has become more continental and no longer allows evergreen shrubs to reconstitute themselves, so that many forms of maquis may be considered as the remains of once flourishing holm oak groves, or when such groves, periodically and continually exploited by man by means of coppicing, are transformed into tall, dense thickets according to coppicing method used and the length of time in which trees were left to grow freely. In the case of holm oak coppicing, the maquis which appears afterwards is a transitory stage, necessary to create the conditions suitable for future growth of holm oak seedlings and shoots. The most evolved forms of maquis contain heath, strawberry tree, and holm oak thickets. The least evolved contain rockrose, associated with garrigue. As these associations are not fully evolved, each of them is affected by soil characteristics (ph, amount of lime, etc.) and climate (above all aridity) more than forest formations. The relationship between fire and maquis Mosaic of maquis/garrigue along Cilento coast (Campania) When discussing the effects of fire, a distinction must be made between occasional and repeated outbreaks. Occasional fires allow the vegetation to continue its normal evolutionary course towards forested land, and thus the maquis which establishes itself represents a transitory phase. However, in most cases, fires are recurring phenomena and may give rise to cycles called pyrogenic, i.e., caused by fire itself, so that the vegetation which is burnt is the result of sometimes many preceding fires. The interval between one fire and another, and its violence, determine both the type of starting maquis, and how long it takes to regrow. For example, the region of Liguria - that part of Italy ranging from Tuscany along the coast northwards, and then bending west towards France - contains extensive woods of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) or umbrella pine, with a thick shrub layer. The high degree of combustibility of the pines and the presence of inflammable shrubs mean that flames can reach even the tops of the trees. Much of the vegetation is destroyed but, although most of the pines die, the shrubby layer, formed of species with good capacity for producing shoots which grow from stumps, re-establishes itself quite quickly. The grassy layer, which was almost absent even before the fire, increases in the first post-fire stages, thanks to the new space created, but then immediately decreases, as shrubs take over. If the shrubby layer is composed of species with poor capacity for producing shoots, regrowth will be slower. In these cases, renewed growth on the part of pines takes on an important role. Fire enhances the scatter and germination of pine-nuts and many seedlings develop, because there is no competition from other species. The result is a thick population of pines alone - easy prey for later fires which, if they occur before the young trees have had time to reach reproductive maturity, destroy them completely. There are also vast extents of maquis composed mainly of strawberry tree, tree heath and spiny broom. This is often the result of a succession like that described above for pine woods. In this type of vegetation, fire spreads rapidly and is totally destructive. If species which can produce shoots easily (like strawberry tree and heath) predominate, then the shrubby layer regrows quickly and does not allow the entry of sun-loving or grassy species. Sometimes, in the most mesophilous situations, bracken may prevail in the early post-fire stages, but is later destined to be supplanted by maquis shrubs. After 8-10 years, if no more fires occur, the shrubby layer returns to its previous state, as regards ground cover and height.

16 When the maquis is composed of species with poor capacity for producing shoots, shrubs grow more slowly and a stage dominated by grassy or suffruticous sun-loving species prevails. Fires are quite frequent in Mediterranean and sub-mediterranean vegetation, and so it is rare to find areas which have never been burnt before. The vegetation is thus already the result of perhaps several preceding fires. As fire has played an important role ever since prehistory in the evolutionary processes of man in general and of his environment, it would be true to state that the development of Mediterranean vegetation has taken place in close relationship with fire and has been considerably influenced by it. The resulting natural selection of hard-leaved evergreen species over time has led to great uniformity in response to fires, and most of the perennial maquis species have good shoot-producing capacity. Regrowth is very rapid after fires, so that these species quickly colonize the terrain, and they stop, or at least greatly reduce, the possibility that species extraneous to the pre-fire populations can establish themselves in the area. One of the consequences is that, after fires, Mediterranean maquis tends to re-establish itself quickly. This happens even though the soil may contain vital seeds belonging to other extraneous species. In conclusion, therefore, single fire events do not excessively change the existing vegetation structure and floristic composition - or, rather, the more or less accentuated variations which may be caused by the passage of fire are cancelled in a short, sometimes very short, time. The maquis, particularly if composed of species which produce shoots easily, like tree heath and strawberry tree, immediately varies its structure considerably, but can grow again in the course of only a few years. However, there are cases when such changes are very severe, i.e., when the tree cover is composed of trees containing resin and the undergrowth is dense and composed of several layers. But even here, at least shrubs tend to reestablish themselves quite rapidly. The present-day Mediterranean vegetation is influenced not only by man s various activities, but also by the frequency of fires. In places where they are very frequent, the prevailing vegetation is garrigue or poor, sometimes discontinuous meadowland, occasionally thinly covered with pines. When fires occur every few years, the maquis is mainly composed of spiny broom, heath and strawberry tree, with or without pine cover. The tendency of Mediterranean vegetation, in the absence of fires, to regrow quite quickly is confirmed in areas where agriculture has been greatly reduced during the last few decades and where, probably thanks to difficult or impossible access by traffic, fires have not occurred for at least twenty years A B C D E before fire before fire after fire before fire first post-fire phase second post-fire phase before fire first post-fire phase second post-fire phase before fire first post-fire phase second post-fire phase after fire Effect of passage of fire on various types of Mediterranean vegetation. A: pinewood with abundant undergrowth; B: pinewood with scarce undergrowth; C: maquis; D: hard-leaved evergreen woodland; E: mixed hard-leaved evergreen woodland and pines

17 32 The main aspects of maquis 33 Cork oak (Quercus suber) One first, physiognomic, distinction to be made in maquis is its growth upwards. There is tall maquis, sometimes 4-5 m high, with prevailing holm oak, strawberry tree, sometimes cork oak and, on cooler slopes or at higher altitudes, deciduous oak such as pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) and cerris or turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Instead, in low maquis, plants rarely exceed metres in height, with lentisk, buckthorn, juniper, phillyrea, rockrose, etc. But what really differentiates the maquis is its composition as regards flowers. They exhibit Wild olive (Olea europea var. sylvestris) considerable variability from place to place, according to many ecological factors and, inevitably, man s intervention. Often the plants are not stable, but represent stages of degradation or regeneration, according to changes occurring in the environment. Although within the polymorphism of the maquis, only dynamic types can be defined, there are more highly evolved types which grow in cooler spots, like holm oak maquis (phytosociologically framed in the order of Quercetalia ilicis and in the Quercion ilicis alliance). Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Nearer the sea in hot, arid spots, we find formations of Pistacio-Rhamnetalia alaterni, subdivided into maquis with strawberry tree and tree heath (Erica arboreae), and maquis with carob, wild olive (Oleo-Ceratonion) and common juniper (Juniperion turbinatae). Where the maquis tends towards garrigue, low, discontinuous shrubby cover occurs, with abundant wild lavender and rockrose (Cisto-Lavanduletea) on acid soils, and maquis with many-flowered heath and rosemary (Rosmarino- Ericion, Rosmarinetalia) on limestone and marly soils.

18 34 Types of true maquis Buckthorn and lentisk Gaudenzio Paola 35 Maquis with holm oak. High maquis with prevailing holm oak (Quercetum ilicis) represents one of the recently degraded, primary or secondary aspects of holm oak woods, i.e., very similar to them in composition and physiognomy. Holm oak maquis has more widespread distribution and thus greater importance with respect to the corresponding residual, fragmentary forest. Holm oak prevails more or less absolutely, followed in order of importance by strawberry tree, lentisk, phillyrea, buckthorn, and other hard-leaved evergreen shrubs. It is not a true association, but rather a stage determined and maintained by man s activities. It is poorest in species at the northern limits of its distribution. Near Duino (Venezia Giulia) it is composed only of holm oak, terebinth, Osyris alba and sarsaparilla. Further south, it is enriched with wild olive, prickly juniper and phillyrea, becoming impoverished in evergreen species and progressively mixed with deciduous trees and shrubs as altitude increases. There is a variation with particularly abundant heath, which approaches maquis with strawberry tree and tree heath, as we shall see later on. In Italy, the distribution of holm oak maquis with altitude varies considerably due to the great adaptational flexibility of holm oak itself. It ranges from sea level near Trieste to more than 1000 metres on the slopes of Mt. Procinto (Apuan Alps), Calabria, Sicily and Sardinia. Buckthorn, stinkwood (Rhamnus alaternus) Family: Ramnaceae. An evergreen shrub, 1-5 m tall; trunk ramified low down; hairy branchlets; reddish-grey, finely striated bark; dark yellow wood; spherical, compact foliage. Simple leaves, alternate or subopposed, hard, glabrous, oval, pointed, margin saw-edged or entire, 3-6 cm long. Yellowish-green flowers, with an unpleasant odour, gathered in spherical axillary racemes, no petals or only one. Flowers from January to April. The fruit is a spherical drupe, 0.5 cm across, dark red when ripe, with three kernels. The wood, excellent for fine cabinet-making, is very heavy and fine-grained, but it emits such a foetid smell while it is being worked that it is also known as legno puzzo (stinking wood). In dyeing, the leaves and fresh twigs may be used to dye fabrics a fine orange-yellow shade, and the fruit give a vegetal green. The drupe was once used medicinally as a drastic purge. Lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) Family: Anacardiaceae An evergreen shrub (sometimes a small tree, up to 5 m tall), dense, highly ramified, rounded in shape, scaly brown bark; small, glabrous, reddish-brown branchlets. Composite alternate leaves, with an alate stalk, paripinnate, leaflets with entire margins, obtuse or briefly mucronate at the apex, pale green and shiny above, paler and opaque underneath, glabrous, with a strong resinous odour. The flowers are dioecious, in small, dense axillary racemes, dark red in colour. Flowers appears from March to June. The fruit is a spherical-compressed drupe, reddish or almost black when ripe. The species is sun- and heat-loving, and prefers siliceous, highly fertile soils. A Sardinian proverb says: Terra da chessa, terra trigale (Lentisk land, good wheat land). The wood, with yellow sapwood (alburnum) and reddish heartwood (duramen), is hard, veined, with poorly marked rings, but is not often used owing to the small size of the shrub. It makes excellent fuel. The drupes provide oil as fuel and also for cooking purposes. The resin which weeps from gashes in the bark supplies a mastic, which is used as an ingredient in industrial paints and varnishes. Holm oak maquis between Camogli and Punta Chiappa (Liguria)

19 36 Heath and strawberry tree Heath (Erica arborea) Family: Ericaceae. An evergreen shrub, with many branches, 2-4 m tall, with an erect but often contorted trunk, and rough reddish-brown bark. Simple leaves, in whorls of 3-4, linear, slightly stiff, 4-8 mm long, and very narrow. Small, perfumed, pendent flowers, gathered in thick racemes, white or pink bell-shaped corolla, mm long, shorter than its stalk. The fruit is in the form of a small capsule, divided into 4 locules. Spring flowering. Heath plays an important role in maquis formations, but may also be found high up, among broad-leaved trees. Where it covers large areas, heath gives the landscape a characteristic aspect. It was used in the past to produce charcoal and to make coarse brooms. Small bundles of its branches were used to cover the roofs and walls of poor people s homes. The bunches of dried branches on which silk-worms were placed when they were ready to spin their cocoons were often composed of heath. When coppiced, the plant produces a swelling at the height of the collar, used to make the bowls of pipes. Heath flowers are an important source of nectar for bees. Gaudenzio Paola Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) Family: Ericaceae. An evergreen shrub, occasionally a small tree growing to about 10 m, with reddish-brown bark which flakes off in thin scales. Simple leaves, alternate, 4-10 cm long, elliptical, crenate or saw-edged, dark green and shiny above, paler underneath, with short stalks. Small flowers of 5-7 mm, in terminal clusters, pendent, very thick, jarshaped corolla, 5-dentate, creamy white in colour. Fruit in the form of spherical berries, 1-2 cm in diameter, granulous-tubercular on the surface, first yellowish in colour, then orange, and bright red when ripe, sweet and edible, containing many seeds. The fruit requires one year to mature, with the result that, in autumn, the plant may show both flowers and ripe fruit from the previous year, at the same time. Like all plants with winter fructification, strawberry tree is very important for birds at a time when little other food is available for them. Maquis with buckthorn and lentisk. On limestone or limestone-marly slopes, the degradation of holm oak woods or the evolution of garrigue with heath and rosemary creates very dense maquis, quite homogeneous because it is mainly composed of buckthorn and lentisk, with the typical lianas of holm oak, like sarsaparilla, madderwort, Mediterranean honeysuckle and asparagus. This maquis is frequent along the western Ligurian riviera. The Pistacio lentisci-rhamnetum alaterni association represents a stage in the climacic series of holm oak, but aridity due to type of soil and lower rainfall greatly slows its evolution with respect to maquis with strawberry tree and tree heath. Madderwort (Rubia peregrina) Maquis with strawberry tree and tree heath. This type of maquis, mainly silicicolous, located in the sub-mediterranean belt, anticipates holm oak or represents permanent communities in xerophytic biotopes, and is phytosociologically called Ericion arboreae. It is widespread along all Tyrrhenian coastal areas. Strawberry tree prevails on siliceous, acid soils rich in humus, with cool exposures, and is sometimes found quite high. Tree heath appears in more degraded stages due to further aridity and impoverishment of the soil. The stages of transition between maquis with strawberry tree, strawberry tree plus heath, and prevailing heath, can all be identified. As these two main species are the ones which vegetate first, sometimes only a few weeks after a fire, their prevalence may be due to the practice of deliberately setting fire to vegetation. The association is well characterized by Pulicaria odora, and is constantly accompanied by spiny broom, myrtle, lentisk, buckthorn, holm oak, sarsaparilla, madderwort, asparagus, sage-leaved rockrose, and pubescent oak. From the dynamic viewpoint, Erico-Arbutetum is a quite evolved stage, mainly belonging to the climacic series of holm oak or, further inland and at higher altitudes, that of pubescent oak. The evolution of these formations towards holm oak, in the absence of any 37

20 38 Tree euphorbia and prickly juniper Tree euphorbia (Euphorbia dendroides) Family: Euforbiaceae. A large deciduous shrub, glabrous, spherical, up to 3 m tall, with thick foliage at the tips of branches, bluegreen in colour. Thick, oblong-lanceolate leaves, obtuse, with a mucro. Umbrella-shaped inflorescence, enclosed by bracts, with 5-8 rays, rather thick and stubby. The fruit is in the form of triangular capsules 5-6 mm across. Flowers from November to May. Unlike most Italian plants, it presents the phenomenon of estivation - that is, it enters a state of repose during the hot, dry summer period, instead of during winter. From June to September, it loses its leaves and looks as if it were dead, but then it starts vegetating again and flowers, from the first late summer rains onwards. Lke many other species belonging to the same genus, the trunk of tree euphorbia contains a poisonous white milky sap, once used to capture fish, mainly freshwater ones: large quantities of the branches of the tree were thrown into ponds or specially prepared traps, and the water thus poisoned. Gaudenzio Paola Prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus) Family: Cupressaceae. An evergreen shrub 1-5 m tall, rarely a tree, reaching m. Needle-shaped, very prickly leaves, arranged in threes around branchlets, with two lines above. This is a dioecious species, i.e., specimens produce only male flowers or only female flowers; the flowers are devoid of involucre and are inconspicuous. The fruit is a berry, reddish-brown in colour and pruinous, 8-15 mm in diameter, maturing in the second year. This plant was known in ancient times, and was the subject of many legends and beliefs, one of the strangest being that its wood, if burnt, would keep snakes away. The wood of prickly juniper is very hard, excellent for producing charcoal, and was also used for making carved objects. The berries are considered delicious by birds. Cade oil or juniper-tar oil, prepared by dry-distilling the wood, has been used for thousands of years to treat skin diseases a reputation which is highly justified, since the oil has considerable disinfecting, resolvent and curative properties. kind of disturbance, is quite rapid, but the periodic passage of fire causes continual rejuvenation. In acid soils in Liguria, aspects with abundant green heath, honeysuckle (Lonicera etrusca) and narrow-leaved phillyrea may be identified. Elsewhere, the destruction of holm oak and cork oak groves has favoured groupings composed of spiny broom, daphne (Daphne gnidium) and sageleaved rockrose (Calicotomo infestae- Ericetum arboreae), or spiny broom, lentisk and rosemary (Pistacio lentisci- Calicotometum villosae) or, in damper locations, broom, myrtle and lentisk (Erico arboreae-myrtetum). Dwarf palm (Chamaerops humilis) Maquis with carob and wild olive. This type of maquis (Oleo-Ceratonion) is the most heat-loving shrubby formation found in Italy. It extends all along the central-southern Tyrrhenian coast and on the islands, composed of shrubs of wild olive, carob, tree euphorbia, lentisk and Cneorum tricoccum. It is the permanent vegetation in cliff or beach locations with little soil, or where heatloving holm oak retreats. In Italy, the distribution of this type of maquis is limited to low altitudes, except for unusual locations in Calabria, Sicily and Sardinia, where it may reach 600 metres. According to which species are present and how they are associated, there are different types with reciprocal dynamic affinities and relations. Maquis with wild olive and tree euphorbia. On rocky limestone coasts, we find the association with Oleo-Euphorbietum dendroidis: tree euphorbia, wild olive, prasium (Prasium majus), Jupiter s beard, buckthorn and lentisk. Tree euphorbia prevails, mainly along the warmest places of the mainland, definitely making its mark on the landscape. Maquis with lentisk and dwarf palm. Low maquis with lentisk, dwarf palm, broom and rockrose develop along coastal limestone cliffs in Sicily and Sardinia, deriving both from holm oak groves and broom covers and representing the Pistacio-Chamaeropetum humilis association, characterized by often abundant and sometimes dominant dwarf palm. 39

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Definitions Climate is the average weather of a place over many years Geographers discuss five broad types of climates Moderate, dry, tropical, continental, polar Vegetation:

More information

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what

More information

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other

More information

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

More information

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

3 Temperate and Polar Zones Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

Habitat Comparison at the Garden

Habitat Comparison at the Garden Habitat Comparison at the Garden Several types of habitats are represented at the Atlanta Botanical Garden: tropical rainforest, desert, temperate deciduous forest and wetlands. During this activity students

More information

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological

More information

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot?

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot? 3.1 Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities Here is a summary of what you will learn in this section: Ecosystems change in predictable ways known as succession. Ecosystems can establish

More information

Tree and forest restoration following wildfire

Tree and forest restoration following wildfire Peter F. Kolb (PhD) MSU Extension Forestry Specialist Adj. Assistant Professor Forest Ecology School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59808 Tel. (406) 243-4705, e-mail: efpfk@forestry.umt.edu

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Identification and Prevention of Frost or Freeze Damage By Linda Reddick, Kingman Area Master Gardener

Identification and Prevention of Frost or Freeze Damage By Linda Reddick, Kingman Area Master Gardener KINGMAN IS GROWING! COLUMN Identification and Prevention of Frost or Freeze Damage By Linda Reddick, Kingman Area Master Gardener Again this year we have been experiencing some very cold weather, with

More information

Geography affects climate.

Geography affects climate. KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

More information

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and

The weather effects everyday life. On a daily basis it can affect choices we make about whether to walk or take the car, what clothes we wear and Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence shows us that our climate is

More information

Plant Adaptations. This cactus displays light-colored hair that helps shade the plant. Copyright

Plant Adaptations. This cactus displays light-colored hair that helps shade the plant. Copyright Plant Adaptations Plants have adaptations to help them survive (live and grow) in different areas. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat.

More information

The Basics of Tree Pruning

The Basics of Tree Pruning The Basics of Tree Pruning By John Ball, Forest Health Specialist and Aaron Kiesz, Urban and Community Forestry Specialist Until the end of the 19 th century, trees were not a common sight in many parts

More information

NATURAL REGIONS OF KENTUCKY

NATURAL REGIONS OF KENTUCKY NATURAL WONDERS As you travel around Kentucky taking pictures, you are excited by what you see. Kentucky offers diverse and amazing sights. The Six Regions In the West, you see the Mississippi River, the

More information

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER To explain how to plan and schedule your irrigation program CHAPTER CONTENTS factors affecting irrigation intervals influence of soil water using

More information

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank Read Section 2.3. Write one or two sentences describing the type of thematic map you read about. Then match the physical features in the Word Bank to their correct locations on the illustration. An example

More information

Post-Wildfire Clean-Up and Response in Houston Toad Habitat Best Management Practices

Post-Wildfire Clean-Up and Response in Houston Toad Habitat Best Management Practices Post-Wildfire Clean-Up and Response in Houston Toad Habitat Best Management Practices Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and recommendations for minimizing potential impacts to

More information

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The relationship between a predator and its prey is best illustrated by a. a snake eating a bird. c. a lion eating a zebra. b. a fox eating a mouse. d. a

More information

Exhibit Inquiry. Rainforest. Aug 11

Exhibit Inquiry. Rainforest. Aug 11 Exhibit Inquiry Exhibit Inquiry Have students look for the following exhibits related to living things during their visit to the Ontario Science Centre: Where to go: (Level 6) What it's about: Tropical

More information

Chapter 18 Introduction to. A f r i c a

Chapter 18 Introduction to. A f r i c a Chapter 18 Introduction to A f r i c a Ch. 18:1 Landforms & Resources 1. Africa s shape & landforms are the result of its location in the southern part of the ancient supercontinent of. Pangaea Over thousands

More information

Central Oregon Climate and how it relates to gardening

Central Oregon Climate and how it relates to gardening Central Oregon Climate and how it relates to gardening Garden Note #1 Amy Jo Detweiler Horticulture Faculty Rev. July 2009 Behind the beauty of the High Desert landscape lies many factors that create challenges

More information

Pruning Citrus Trees. Citrus trees are pruned in order; PRUNING STAGES YOUNG TREE PRUNING HAND PRUNING MAINTENANCE PRUNING

Pruning Citrus Trees. Citrus trees are pruned in order; PRUNING STAGES YOUNG TREE PRUNING HAND PRUNING MAINTENANCE PRUNING Pruning Citrus Trees Citrus trees are pruned in order; to allow light penetration into the canopy; to prevent crowding of main scaffold branches and to remove branches which cross; to remove or shorten

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B?

WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST. Which graph best shows the relative stream velocities across the stream from A to B? NAME DATE WEATHERING, EROSION, AND DEPOSITION PRACTICE TEST 1. The diagram below shows a meandering stream. Measurements of stream velocity were taken along straight line AB. Which graph best shows the

More information

Two Main Precautions Before You Begin Working

Two Main Precautions Before You Begin Working Pruning Mango Trees Roy Beckford, Ag/Natural Resources Agent, UF/IFAS Lee County Two Main Precautions Before You Begin Working 1. Mango peel and sap contain urushiol, the chemical in poison ivy and poison

More information

Summary of Pre- and Post-Project Vegetation Survey Results

Summary of Pre- and Post-Project Vegetation Survey Results 3921 East Bayshore Road Palo Alto CA 94303-4326 tel 650.962.9876 fax 650.962.8234 www.acterra.org info@acterra.org Introduction Summary of Pre- and Post-Project Vegetation Survey Results Acterra Stewardship

More information

Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves

Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves I. Leaf Structure and Anatomy Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves A. Structural Features of the Leaf Question: How do plants respire? Plants must take in CO 2 from the atmosphere in order to photosynthesize.

More information

Apricot Tree Prunus armeniaca

Apricot Tree Prunus armeniaca Apricot Tree Prunus armeniaca Up to 25-30 tall x 15-20 wide or partial shade 10 degrees F. General: The Apricot Tree is a subspecies of the peach and dates back 3,000 years to northeastern China. Apricots

More information

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees

Diagnosing Disorders of Trees 148 Appendix A Diagnosing Disorders of Trees Diagnosing tree problems can be difficult. Symptoms and signs can be subtle or only visible using special techniques, important information can be missing,

More information

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES OAK TREES CARE AND MAINTENANCE

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES OAK TREES CARE AND MAINTENANCE DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES OAK TREES CARE AND MAINTENANCE This guide will offer basic information for the preservation and maintenance of oak trees as a part of an overall landscape use. Unfortunately, oak

More information

Stage 4. Geography. Blackline Masters. By Karen Devine

Stage 4. Geography. Blackline Masters. By Karen Devine 1 Devine Educational Consultancy Services Stage 4 Geography Blackline Masters By Karen Devine Updated January 2010 2 This book is intended for the exclusive use in NSW Secondary Schools. It is meant to

More information

defined largely by regional variations in climate

defined largely by regional variations in climate 1 Physical Environment: Climate and Biomes EVPP 110 Lecture Instructor: Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 Climate and Biomes Ecosystem concept physical and biological components of environment are considered as single,

More information

Mapping Forest-Fire Damage with Envisat

Mapping Forest-Fire Damage with Envisat Mapping Forest-Fire Damage with Envisat Mapping Forest-Fire Damage Federico González-Alonso, S. Merino-de-Miguel, S. García-Gigorro, A. Roldán-Zamarrón & J.M. Cuevas Remote Sensing Laboratory, INIA, Ministry

More information

Fire, Forest History, and Ecological Restoration of Ponderosa Pine Forests at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota

Fire, Forest History, and Ecological Restoration of Ponderosa Pine Forests at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota Fire, Forest History, and Ecological Restoration of Ponderosa Pine Forests at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota Restoration uses the past not as a goal but as a reference point for the future...it is not to

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions

Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Lawn Care FAQ s Fertilizer, Weed Control, Grubs, and General Application Questions Why do we have so many weeds? Dandelions in particular, weeds in general, do not seem concerned about how long lawn has

More information

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN LOMPOC AREA

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN LOMPOC AREA SANTA BARBARA COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE PLAN LOMPOC AREA A. LAND USE ELEMENT INTERPRETIVE GUIDELINES B. COMMUNITY BENEFITS C. COUNTY ACTION ITEMS Adopted by the Board of Supervisors November 9, 1999 A. Santa

More information

runing & Orchard Renewal

runing & Orchard Renewal P runing & Orchard Renewal Richard G. St-Pierre, Ph.D. (January 2006) The Basics Of Pruning & Orchard Renewal Pruning is defined as the art and science of cutting away a portion of a plant to improve its

More information

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B.

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B. 1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude

More information

Deciduous Forest. Courtesy of Wayne Herron and Cindy Brady, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service

Deciduous Forest. Courtesy of Wayne Herron and Cindy Brady, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Deciduous Forest INTRODUCTION Temperate deciduous forests are found in middle latitudes with temperate climates. Deciduous means that the trees in this forest change with the seasons. In fall, the leaves

More information

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 HEALTH Kindergarten: Grade 1: Grade 2: Know that litter can spoil the environment. Grade 3: Grade 4:

More information

Growing lemons in Australia- a production manual - Readers Note

Growing lemons in Australia- a production manual - Readers Note Growing lemons in Australia- a production manual - Readers Note This document is part of a larger publication. The remaining parts and full version of the publication can be found at: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/horticulture/citrus/lemon-manual

More information

Higher Geography Biosphere Vegetation Succession: Sand Dunes

Higher Geography Biosphere Vegetation Succession: Sand Dunes Higher Geography Biosphere Vegetation Succession: Sand Dunes A PowerPoint resource to accompany the posters available at: http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/soilposters/education_vegetation_6v2.pdf http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/soilposters/education_vegetation_7v2.pdf

More information

Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types

Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types Plant Structure, Growth, & Development Ch. 35 Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types A tissue is a group of cells consisting of one or more

More information

Preserving Wild Ginseng in Minnesota

Preserving Wild Ginseng in Minnesota Note: This digital document was adapted from Smith, W. R. 1993. Preserving Wild Ginseng in Minnesota. Minnesota Natural Heritage Program, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 7 pages. Preserving

More information

Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Geography Level 1. Describe aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Geography Level 1. Describe aspects of a geographic topic at a global scale Exemplar for internal assessment resource Geography for Achievement Standard 91013 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Geography Level 1 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard

More information

The Geographv of Ancient Rome

The Geographv of Ancient Rome The Geographv of Ancient Rome Italy is a rocky, mountainous peninsula 600 miles long and 150 miles wide. The Apennine Mountains form its "backbone" and stretch from north to south, with the Tiber River

More information

Answer Keys to Unit Tests

Answer Keys to Unit Tests Reading Geography Series Answer Keys to Unit Tests Unit 1 The Five Themes of Geography Unit 2 Patterns in Physical Geography Unit 3 Natural Resources 7 Portage & Main Press Unit Test for The Five Themes

More information

Common Name: AMERICAN BARBERRY. Scientific Name: Berberis canadensis Miller. Other Commonly Used Names: none. Previously Used Scientific Names: none

Common Name: AMERICAN BARBERRY. Scientific Name: Berberis canadensis Miller. Other Commonly Used Names: none. Previously Used Scientific Names: none Common Name: AMERICAN BARBERRY Scientific Name: Berberis canadensis Miller Other Commonly Used Names: none Previously Used Scientific Names: none Family: Berberidaceae (barberry) Rarity Ranks: G3/S1 State

More information

Flowers; Seeds enclosed in fruit

Flowers; Seeds enclosed in fruit Name Class Date Chapter 22 Plant Diversity Section Review 22-1 Reviewing Key Concepts Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions. 1. Describe the main characteristics of plants.

More information

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development. Chapter 35

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development. Chapter 35 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Chapter 35 PLANTS developmental plasticity = ability of plant to alter form to respond to environment Biological heirarchy Cell basic unit of life Tissue group

More information

Cotinus coggygria. Cotoneaster sp. Shrubs

Cotinus coggygria. Cotoneaster sp. Shrubs Cotinus coggygria Common Name: Smoke Bush Family: Anacardiaceae Characteristics of plant: A large shrub/small tree which grows to 15 with bluish-green foliage that turns red in fall. Flowers appear as

More information

Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland

Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland Forest characteristics and forest types - Finland Geographically Finland lies in an intermediate zone between maritime and continental climates, belonging for the most part to the boreal vegetation zone.

More information

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed?

JAPANESE KNOTWEED. What is Japanese Knotweed? JAPANESE KNOTWEED What is Japanese Knotweed? Japanese Knotweed (botanical name Fallopia japonica) was introduced into Britain from Japan in the early 1800 s. It was originally grown as an ornamental plant,

More information

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 How do changes

More information

by Erik Lehnhoff, Walt Woolbaugh, and Lisa Rew

by Erik Lehnhoff, Walt Woolbaugh, and Lisa Rew Designing the Perfect Plant Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted

More information

Global environmental information Examples of EIS Data sets and applications

Global environmental information Examples of EIS Data sets and applications METIER Graduate Training Course n 2 Montpellier - february 2007 Information Management in Environmental Sciences Global environmental information Examples of EIS Data sets and applications Global datasets

More information

Fry Instant Word List

Fry Instant Word List First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE Between 30-60 percent of water applied to lawns and gardens is never absorbed by the plants. Water is often wasted because it is applied too quickly and runs off, evaporates

More information

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group

More information

Invasive Tree Species

Invasive Tree Species Invasive Tree Species A Contents Invasive Tree Species................. 1 Removal Permit Process.............. 2 Mitigation......................... 3 Identification Guide: Norway maple - Acer platanoides............

More information

Keywords: Post-fire recovery; mortality; tree species; natural regeneration.

Keywords: Post-fire recovery; mortality; tree species; natural regeneration. Effects of fire on tree survival and regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem Filipe Xavier Catry, Francisco Castro Rego, Miguel Nuno Bugalho, Tito Lopes, Joaquim Sande Silva, Francisco Moreira Instituto

More information

Oak Trees BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR

Oak Trees BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR They are beautiful in their peace, They are wise in their silence. They will stand after we are dust. They teach us, and we tend them. G.A. MacDunelmor BASIC GROWING REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR Oak Trees The

More information

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois

Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Why Fruit Trees Die D. B. Meador, Extension Specialist (retired) University of Illinois Occasionally, fruit trees decline and often die. Diseases affecting the leaves, fruit, and twigs of fruit trees usually

More information

Vegetation versus Flora

Vegetation versus Flora What lives where and why? Ecological hypotheses Do the species occur here because of similar climate? latitude? animal grazing? montane rain shadows? fire history? Australian grass savanna African grass

More information

Regional Parks Botanic Garden Plant Adaptations to Habitat Tour: Selected Plant Adaptations by Garden Section

Regional Parks Botanic Garden Plant Adaptations to Habitat Tour: Selected Plant Adaptations by Garden Section INTRO Regional Parks Botanic Garden Plant Adaptations to Habitat Tour: Selected Plant Adaptations by Garden Section Tools (optional, but nice to use): -Discovery Scope -Spray bottle of water--from the

More information

Common Backyard Birds of Alabama

Common Backyard Birds of Alabama Common Backyard Birds of Alabama Alabama Ornithological Society (AOS) state list includes 420 species: 158 species regularly breed in Alabama 174 species regularly winter 80 species migrate through Alabama

More information

Cercis Ruby Falls. www.planthaven.com. Origin: Redbud breeding program at NCSU Species: Cercis canadensis Protection Status: US PPAF

Cercis Ruby Falls. www.planthaven.com. Origin: Redbud breeding program at NCSU Species: Cercis canadensis Protection Status: US PPAF Cercis Ruby Falls Origin: Redbud breeding program at NCSU Protection Status: US PPAF Key Features Unique weeping habit. Full crown of foliage at the top. Large heart shaped purple leaves. Attractive reddish-purple

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

Region of Georgia : Mountains

Region of Georgia : Mountains Region of Georgia : Mountains Northern most region of GA Cold weather in the winter Brasstown Bald is the highest point in Georgia Lots of creeks and streams High above sea level Poor soil for farming

More information

Trees help us experience connections with our natural heritage and with our most deeply held spiritual and cultural values.

Trees help us experience connections with our natural heritage and with our most deeply held spiritual and cultural values. REASONS FOR PLANTING TREES Shade from trees cools hot streets and parking lots and drive ways. Cities are "heat islands" that are 5-9 degrees hotter than surrounding areas. Trees and shrubs add beauty

More information

WILLOCHRA BASIN GROUNDWATER STATUS REPORT 2009-10

WILLOCHRA BASIN GROUNDWATER STATUS REPORT 2009-10 WILLOCHRA BASIN GROUNDWATER STATUS REPORT 2009-10 SUMMARY 2009-10 The Willochra Basin is situated in the southern Flinders Ranges in the Mid-North of South Australia, approximately 50 km east of Port Augusta

More information

LEARNING THE LANDFORMS Grade Level: Third Presented by: Elizabeth Turcott, Endeavor Charter Academy, Springfield, Michigan Length of Unit: 14 lessons

LEARNING THE LANDFORMS Grade Level: Third Presented by: Elizabeth Turcott, Endeavor Charter Academy, Springfield, Michigan Length of Unit: 14 lessons LEARNING THE LANDFORMS Grade Level: Third Presented by: Elizabeth Turcott, Endeavor Charter Academy, Springfield, Michigan Length of Unit: 14 lessons I. ABSTRACT This unit develops an understanding of

More information

Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food),

Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food), LEARNING FROM LEAVES: A LOOK AT LEAF SIZE Grades 3 6 I. Introduction Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food), water, space in which to live, air, and optimal

More information

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts?

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts? Ecosystems and Biomes 1. All of the living organisms in a forest plus their environment is an example of A. a biome. B. a community. C. a population. D. an ecosystem. 2. Which of the following best describes

More information

Pruning Fruit Trees. Develop strong tree structure. This should begin when trees are planted and continue each year thereafter.

Pruning Fruit Trees. Develop strong tree structure. This should begin when trees are planted and continue each year thereafter. Agriculture and Natural Resources Pruning Fruit Trees Extension Horticulture Arkansas Is Our Campus Visit our web site at: http://www.uaex.edu Fruit trees should be pruned every year to maintain their

More information

April s Featured Plants

April s Featured Plants Genus: Geum (Avens) Genus of about 50 perennials, mostly with dense clusters of hairy leaves Geum chiloense Species originating from Island of Chiloe, Chile which enjoys a cold, wet climate. These plants

More information

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers

Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Chapter 3: Climate and Climate Change Answers Section A: Climate 1. (a) Explain what each of the following means: (4 x 1 mark) (i) climate the average weather of an area over a 25 30 year period (ii) maritime

More information

Growth and development of. Trees

Growth and development of. Trees Growth and development of Objectives: Trees 1. To study the morphological and physiological processes that occur for a temperate deciduous tree during the annual cycle, and the whole life cycle. 2. To

More information

There are three steps to determining a watering schedule for a drip irrigation system:

There are three steps to determining a watering schedule for a drip irrigation system: Master Gardener Sonoma County Calculating Drip Irrigation Schedules The biggest challenge in drip irrigation is accurately determining how much and when to water. Fortunately, UC websites contain a goodly

More information

Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)

Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) Japanese Barberry (Berberis thunbergii) Photo: www.emmitsburg.net Description: Aggressive plant that forms thickets 3-6 feet tall. Stems are hollow and bamboo-like.

More information

Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity

Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity Middle School: 5-8 Task Overview: Soil profile refers to layers of soil. A typical soil profile takes nearly 1,000 to 100,000 years to form. The formation of the soil

More information

Australia, Boambee and Boambee Public School. Boambee

Australia, Boambee and Boambee Public School. Boambee Australia, Boambee and Boambee Public School Boambee Today we will take you on a quick trip around Australia and we hope you will begin to understand; The size of Australia The various climates of Australia

More information

Climate Change on the Prairie:

Climate Change on the Prairie: Climate Change on the Prairie: A Basic Guide to Climate Change in the High Plains Region - UPDATE Global Climate Change Why does the climate change? The Earth s climate has changed throughout history and

More information

Care of Mature Backyard Apple Trees

Care of Mature Backyard Apple Trees Education Center and Info Line practical solutions to everyday questions Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769 M-F 9 AM - 2 PM Care of Mature Backyard Apple Trees Introduction Backyard apple trees can be

More information

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON - 1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,

More information

Deserts, Wind Erosion and Deposition

Deserts, Wind Erosion and Deposition Deserts, Wind Erosion and Deposition By definition, a desert has less than 10 in (25 cm) of precipitation per year. Deserts occur at 30 o and 60 o in regions of descending air. Deserts can be hot or cold.

More information

A Morphological Study On Endemic Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss. (Apiaceae) From Bingol (Turkey)

A Morphological Study On Endemic Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss. (Apiaceae) From Bingol (Turkey) Araştırma Makalesi/Research Article A Morphological Study On Endemic Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss. (Apiaceae) From Bingol (Turkey) Ömer KILIÇ 1 Abstract- In this study morphological characters of Malabaila

More information

Your Defensible Space Slideshow

Your Defensible Space Slideshow Your Defensible Space Slideshow Red = Trees to Remove Your Defensible Space Slideshow This slideshow was created to highlight actions you can take to dramatically improve the chances of your home surviving

More information

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region

Growing Cocoa Beans. Growing Region Growing Cocoa Beans All chocolate begins with cocoa beans, the fruit of the cacao tree (also called a cocoa tree). Scientists know that the cacao tree originated somewhere in South or Central America.

More information

6.4 Taigas and Tundras

6.4 Taigas and Tundras 6.4 Taigas and Tundras In this section, you will learn about the largest and coldest biomes on Earth. The taiga is the largest land biome and the tundra is the coldest. The taiga The largest land biome

More information

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS PLANT BITS 4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS There are four main parts to a plant. They are the root, stem, leaf and flower. Each part has an important task to do in the life of

More information

Controlling Invasive Plants and Animals in our Community

Controlling Invasive Plants and Animals in our Community Controlling Invasive Plants and Animals in our Community PROVIDED BY THE WILDLIFE COMMITTEE What makes a plant or animal invasive? When a plant or animal from another region of the world (usually Europe

More information

FOREST RESTORATION MONITORING TOOL

FOREST RESTORATION MONITORING TOOL FOREST RESTORATION MONITORING TOOL Draft version for field test INTRODUCTION FAO upon recommendation of its members identified the need to initiate a comprehensive analysis, evaluation and documentation

More information