Agriculture. Agriculture

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1 Economic Activities Agriculture The transformation of a plant into a finished product involves three types of economic activities. Primary Activities: - The activities connected with the extraction/production of raw materials are termed as primary activities. E.g.- Secondary Activities: -The activities connected with the processing of raw materials are termed as secondary activities. Tertiary Activities: - The activities which provide support to the primary & secondary sectors through services are termed as Tertiary Activities. Agriculture The activity of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock is termed as agriculture or commonly farming. In the world, 50% of the persons are engaged in agriculture. In India, 2/3 of the population is engaged on agriculture. Favorable topography of the soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity. The land on which the crops are grown is known as Arable land. The word agriculture is derived from Latin words Ager/agri meaning soil, and Cultura/culture meaning cultivation. Farm System Seeds, Fertilizers, Machinery and Labor are the important inputs of Farming. Ploughing, Irrigation, Weeding and Harvesting are the operations involved in Farming. Types of Farming Farming Subsistence Commercial Intensive Primitive Commercial grain Mixed farming Nomadic Herding Shifting Cultivation Plantation 1

2 Farming can be classified into two main groups, depending upon the geographical conditions, and demand of produce, labor and level of technology. SUBSISTANCE FARMING COMMERCIAL FARMING are the two main groups of farming. Subsistence Farming Subsistence farming is practiced by to meet the of the farmer s family. Low levels of Technology and household labor are usually used. Only a small output is produced. Commercial Farming Commercial Farming is practiced for sale of produced crop in the market. The amount of capital invested and the area cultivated is large. Most works are done by machines. Large output is produced. Classification of Subsistence Farming Subsistence farming can be further classified into two, i.e. as Intensive subsistence farming & Primitive subsistence farming. Intensive Subsistence Farming The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labor. Farmers produce enough for their own consumption, & the little remaining produce is sold. Climate with large number of days with sunshine and fertile soil permits growth of more than one crop annually. Rice is the main crop. Wheat, maize, pulses & oilseeds are also gown. Intensive subsistence farming prevalent in thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia. Primitive Subsistence Farming Primitive subsistence farming is practiced to produce crops to meet the needs of one's family. The practices are basic and do not involve the usage of modern technology. Shifting cultivation and Nomadic herding are examples of primitive subsistence agriculture. Shifting Cultivation In shifting cultivation, a plot of land is cleared by cutting trees and burning them. Ashes are mixed with soil and crops are grown thereafter. Once the soil loses its fertility, that land is abandoned and the cultivator shifts into a new plot. Crops like maize, yam, potatoes and Cassava are grown. It is practiced in forested areas Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of Southeast Asia and northeast India, which are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation. Shifting cultivation is also known as slash & burn cultivation and by some names like:- Jumming North East India Milpa - Mexico Roca - Brazil Ladang - Malaysia 2

3 Nomadic Herding In nomadic herding, herdsmen move from one place to another with their animals for food and water, along a defined route. This is migration arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain. Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared animals. They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herder and his family. It is practiced in semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. Classification of Commercial Farming Commercial Farming can be classified into 3, i.e. Commercial grain farming, Mixed Farming & Plantations. Commercial grain farming In Commercial farming, grains are grown for commercial purposes. Wheat and Maize are the major commercially grown grains. Major areas where commercial grain farming is practiced are temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia. The area where commercial grain farming is practiced in very large farms spreading over 100s of hectares on sparsely populated areas. Severe winters restrict the growing season. Mixed Farming In mixed farming the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock. It is practiced in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Plantation Farming Plantation farming is a type of commercial farming where single crop is grown Tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana & cotton are some of the crops grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required for plantation farming. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some 3

4 Name of the Crop Rice Wheat Millets Maize Cotton Jute High humidity & rainfall. Major Crops Climate Soil Regions grown Moderate temperature and rainfall all during growing season. Bright sunshine at the time of harvest. High to moderate temperature. Low-adequate rainfall. Moderate temperature. Moderate rainfall. Lots of sunshine. High rainfall. 210 frost free days. Bright sunshine. Heavy rainfall. Humid climate. Alluvial clayey soil. Well-drained loamy soil. Less fertile and sandy soil. Well drained fertile soils. Black, alluvial soil. Alluvial soil China, India, Japan, Sri Lanka & Egypt. In West Bengal & Bangladesh 2-3 crops are grown yearly. USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India. (In India it is grown in winter) India, China, Nigeria & Niger. North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India & Mexico. China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil & Egypt. India and Bangladesh. Coffee Warm and wet climate Well-drained loamy soil. Brazil, Columbia and India Tea Cool climate. Well distributed high rainfall. (for the growth of its tender leaves) Well-drained loamy soil. Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka Extra informations on specific crops Rice: - Staple diet of tropical and sub-tropical regions. Millets: - are Corse grains. Ragi, Bajra, Jowar are millets which are grown in India. Cotton: - It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry. Jute: - is also known as Golden Fibre. Different types of crops Food Crops Rice, Wheat, Millets & Maize. Fiber Crops Cotton & Jute. Beverage Crops Coffee & Tea. Different types of soils & Crops grown. Well-drained loamy soil Wheat, Coffee & Tea Well-drained fertile soil - Maize Alluvial soil Cotton (black), Jute, Rice (clayey) Less-fertile sandy soil - Millets 4

5 Agricultural Developments Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security. Food security exists, when all people have access to sufficient, safe & nutritious food at all times, to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for a healthy life. Ways of Achieving Agricultural Development Increasing harvested area. Increasing the number of crops grown. Improving irrigation facilities. Use of fertilizers. Using high yielding variety of Seed (HYV seeds). Use of Machinery to increase the production. Farm in India & USA Farm in India Farm holdings are small that is 1.5 hectares. The house of the farmer is in the main village. The farms lack storage facilities and they are forced to sell the produce even when the market is not favorable for them. The farmers use bullocks for ploughing while tube-wells for irrigating the fields. The farmer in India is like a peasant farmer. Farm in USA Farms are larger, generally about 250 hectares. The farmer generally lives in the farm. His grains are stored in the automated grain storage or dispatched to market agencies. The farmers use tractors, seed drills, levelers, combined harvesters and thresher to perform various agricultural operations. The farmer in USA works like a businessman. Some Extra Points Sericulture: - Commercial rearing of silkworms. Pisciculture: - Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds. Viticulture: - Cultivation of grapes. Horticulture: - Growing of vegetables, flowers and fruit for commercial use. Agriculture: - The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. Organic Farming: - refers to farming with organic manure and natural pesticides, without any chemicals or genetic modification to increase the yield. Kaldi an Arab goat-herder in about 850 AD discovered the Coffee plant. 5

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