THE UNIVERSE ABOUT FILIP KAWCZYNSKI

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1 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT FILIP KAWCZYNSKI THE UNIVERSE?

2 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? What do you mean by thinking about language? I mean PHILOSOPHY of language What do you mean by the PHILOSOPHY of language? How the heck can you philosophise about language?! Language is just a tool to describe what s around us, we use it to express our knowledge about the world. And that s it.

3 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? What you ve just said is a tiny sample of

4 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? What you ve just said is a tiny sample of

5 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? What you ve just said is a tiny sample of philosophising about language! :P

6 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? What you ve just said is a tiny sample of philosophising about language! :P very modest one, to be precise

7 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE?

8 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? Still sounds a bit strange to me. Maybe I don t get what you mean by language? Language is any system of symbols, i.e. every set of signs and objects that are referred to with the signs. Signs represent or stand for the objects. The objects are called reference or denotation of the signs. OK, so Polish or English etc. are definitely languages, that s obvious. But what about e.g. probability calculus in mathematics?

9 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? Polish, English etc. are called natural languages. The whole mathematics is nothing more or less than an artificial, formal language to describe reality. Alright, the last thing: what about things like heart symbolising love or even acts like waving arms in particular way as an information for plane pilot or sth? These are also signs, since in the contexts you ve described they appear as part of a convention in which they refer to / represent / stand for some things.

10 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? I comprehend that it s not a thing that you can explain in a few words, but could you just try to tell me in short what is philosophy of language then? To put it really briefly and generally, philosophy of language is a detailed reflection on how language works. It is systematic and has to meet strict requirements of logical and conceptual coherence.

11 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? What you ve just said may be as well a description of linguistics, grammar or perhaps even semiology You re right. What differs philosophy from those other disciplines is that it takes the most abstract and general point of view. Philosophers of language are rather not interested in empirical investigation of people using language that linguistics carry out, nor in establishing linguistic norms and rules which is a domain of grammarians.

12 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? So what do they do? Philosophers aim to find out what is the deep, logical, metaphysical structure of language and what place language takes among other entities and phenomena that constitute the universe.

13 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? Alright, but tell me what do we need philosophy of language for? For NOTHING

14 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? yh? Yes, for nothing. Just like the rest of human activities: philosophy in general, building bridges, constructing computers, looking for a cure for cancer, singing songs, eating ice creams etc.

15 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? yh? Yes, for nothing. Just like the rest of human activities: philosophy in general, building bridges, constructing computers, looking for a cure for cancer, singing songs, eating ice creams etc. Yeah, that s cool. Gotta go, C U!

16 WHAT DO WE NEED PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE FOR?

17 HOW DOES THE PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE WORK?

18 Sierpiński Carpet Fractal object

19

20 SOLVING PUZZLES IN PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE IS IN FACT CONCERNING FUNDAMENTAL PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES TYPE A QUOTE HERE.

21 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE SYNTAX Concerns relations between signs and other signs SEMANTICS Concerns relations between signs and their reference PRAGMATICS Concerns relations between signs and users of these signs

22 TWO MAIN PARADIGMS IN SEMANTICS ATTRIBUTIVE REFERENTIAL All expressions of language refer to the world via meaning which is somehow associated with our beliefs concerning properties (attributes) of things. At least some expressions of language refer directly to their references. Expressions that do that via meaning are in fact translatable do those that refers directly.

23 IDENTITY PUZZLE: in case of pairs of true sentences of the form a=a and a=b they both express the same claim about the same thing - namely, that the object being reference of a or b is identical to itself. How then it is possible that the latter sentence has a higher cognitive value?

24 IDENTITY PUZZLE For example, consider: (1) Mount Everest = Mount Everest (2) Mount Everest = Chomolungma Both (1) and (2) says exactly the same: (1) = (2) = Namely, that the mountain in question is identical to itself. Still, (2) can be an expression of a true discovery broadening knowledge. // // Filip Filip Kawczyński

25 IDENTITY PUZZLE ATTRIBUTIVE Sentence (2) is more informative because `Mount Everest` and `Chomolungma` express different senses i.e. the object is given in different modes of presentation REFERENTIAL Both `Mount Everest` and `Chomolungma` directly refer to the mountain in question, without mediation of any sense. The difference in cognitive value between (1) and (2) must be an effect of something different than linguistic phenomena.

26 SOLVING PUZZLES IN PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE IS IN FACT CONCERNING FUNDAMENTAL PHILOSOPHICAL ISSUES TYPE A QUOTE HERE.

27 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Fundamental Issue No. 1

28 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH true true definition true friendship true leader true love true north true sentence true opinion true belief true blood true story true detective true evidence true religion

29 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH

30 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH a sentence a proposition What does it mean that: a belief a description a thought a theory etc. is TRUE?

31 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Coherence Correspon- dence Theory Deflationism Theory Tarski s Pragmatism Theory

32 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Tarski s Theory Coherence Theory Pragmati sm Deflation ism Correspondence Theory A sentence / belief / etc. is true if it corresponds to the way things actually are to the facts

33 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Correspondence Theory Coherence Theory Pragmati sm Deflation ism Tarski s Theory S is true if and only if S Snow is white if and only if snow is white

34 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Correspondence Theory Tarski s Theory Pragmati sm Deflation ism Coherence Theory S is true if and only if S is coherent with the rest of sentences of the theory.

35 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Correspondence Theory Tarski s Theory Coherence Theory Deflation ism Pragmatism S is true if and only if S has some practical value

36 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Correspondence Theory Tarski s Theory Coherence Theory Pragmati sm Deflationism The predicate is true has no significance: saying» S is true«is equal to saying S.

37 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF TRUTH Coherence Correspon- dence Theory Deflationism Theory Tarski s Pragmatism Theory

38 TRUTH ATTRIBUTIVE REFERENTIAL Coherence Theory Correspondence Theory Pragmatism Deflationism Tarski s Theory

39 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF REALITY Fundamental Issue No. 2

40 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? THE NATURE OF REALITY REALISM IDEALISM

41 REALISM There is something real outside the mind, that mind can acquire knowledge of and what is independent of mind, conventions, conceptual frameworks, theories, linguistic patterns and so on.

42 IDEALISM Everything we `know` about the world is essentially determined by the character of our mind s cognitive capabilities. Some idealists believe that everything is just a thought.

43 REALITY ATTRIBUTIVE REFERENTIAL IDEALISM REALISM

44 Go to Downloads on the to download this presentation. Dr Filip Kawczyński THANK YOU!

45 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? INDIVIDUATION Fundamental Issue No. 3

46 WHAT THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? INDIVIDUATION Two understanding of the notion: (1) Epistemological / Cognitive sense: for someone to individuate an object is for that person to 'single out' that object as a distinct object of perception, thought, or linguistic reference. (2) Metaphysical sense: what 'individuates' an object, in this sense, is whatever it is that makes it the single object that it is-whatever it is that makes it one object, distinct from others, and the very object that it is as opposed to any other thing.

47 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? INDIVIDUATION Essence Tropes Matter Universals & form

48 WHAT PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE TELLS US ABOUT THE UNIVERSE? INDIVIDUATION Universals Properties considered as abstracts Tropes Properties considered as particular Matter & form Combination of matter with the form it takes Essence Unique property that only the object in question has

49 INDIVIDUATION ATTRIBUTIVE REFERENTIAL Universals Tropes Matter & form Essence

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