The Nervous System : communication

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1 The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information 3. Axons single, long fiber which conducts impulse away from the cell body, sends information

2 Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): nerves of the body -- Includes 31 pairs of spinal nerves -- And 12 pairs of cranial nerves

3 Basic Divisions of the Nervous System Figure 12.2

4 THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Sensory - gathers info Integrative - information is brought together Motor - responds to signals, homeostasis

5 Motor Functions Somatic Nervous System - skeletal (voluntary) Autonomic Nervous System - smooth muscles, glands (involuntary)

6 Neurons = nerve cells 1. Dendrites - receive information 2. Axons - conducts impulses

7 Neuroglial Cells (p 208) - support cells for the neurons

8 Neuroglial Cells (p 208) 1. Microglial Cells: digest debris or bacteria Microglial cells respond to immunological alarms

9 Neuroglial Cells (p 208) 2. Oligodendrocytes: makes the myelin sheath that provides insulation around the axons

10 Neuroglial Cells (p 208) 3. Astrocytes: connect blood vessels to neurons I connect to blood vessels

11 Neuroglial Cells (p 208) 4. Ependymal Cells: forms a membrane

12 5. Schwann cells: form the insulating myelin sheath around the neurons

13 MYELIN SHEATHS - these serve as insulation around the axon Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons. Oligodendrocytes myelinate the axons of the central nervous system. Practice with neuroglia coloring!

14 Supporting Cells - NEUROGLIA

15 Supporting Cells- NEUROGLIA

16 Neurons

17 9.4 Neurons Axon - long section, transmits impulses Dendrite - small extensions from the cell body; receive information Neurofibrils - fibers within the axon

18 Chromatophilic substance (rough ER) - transport system Myelin -insulation surrounding axons Nodes of Ranvier - gaps in the insulation

19

20 White vs Grey Matter Myelinated (white matter) myelinated axons Unmyelinated (grey matter) - unmyelinated

21 Classification of Neurons Functional: Sensory, Motor, Interneurons Structural: (A) Bipolar (B) Unipolar (C) Multipolar

22 Interesting Facts about the Neuron Longevity can live and function for a lifetime Do not divide fetal neurons lose their ability to undergo mitosis; neural stem cells are an exception High metabolic rate require abundant oxygen and glucose The nerve fibers of newborns are unmyelinated - this causes their responses to stimuli to be coarse and sometimes involve the whole body. Try surprising a baby!

23 9.5 Cell Membrane Potential Resting Potential / Threshold Potential / Action Potential Nerve Impulse = weak electric current.

24 1. Neuron membrane maintains resting potential 2. Threshold stimulus is received 3. Sodium channels open 4. Sodium ions diffuse inward, depolarizing the membrane 5. Potassium channels open 6. Potassium ions diffuse outward, repolarizing the membrane 7. The resulting action potential causes a local bioelectric current that stimulates adjacent* portions of the membrane. 8. Wave of action potentials travel the length of the axon as a nerve impulse * What does the word adjacent mean?

25 Ions in the cell and outside the cell create a positive and negative side, which produces an electric current.

26 9.6 Nerve Impulse Speed of an impulse is proportionate to the DIAMETER of the AXON. Greater diameter = faster speed **Myelinated Axons conduct faster than unmyelinated ones"

27 A: Neuron (Presynaptic) B: Neuron (Postsynaptic) 1. Mitochondria 2. Synaptic vesicle Autoreceptor 3. Receptor Synaptic Cleft Receptor Calcium Channel Vesicle releases neurotransmitter 8. Re-uptake

28 The Synapse Synapse - junction between two communicating neurons Nerve pathway - nerve impulse travels from neuron to neuron Dendrite cell body along axon -> synapse (gap) dendrite

29 The Synapse To complete the signal, a NEUROTRANSMITTER is released at the gap to signal the next neuron. Receptors on the dendrite receive the chemical message

30 Neurotransmitters Excitatory - increase membrane permeability, increases chance for threshold to be achieved Inhibitory - decrease membrane permeability, decrease chance for threshold to be achieved

31 Types of Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine - stimulates muscle contraction Monoamines - Norepinephrine & Dopamine (sense of feeling good, low levels = depression) Serotonin (sleepiness) and mood

32 Endorphins = reduction of pain produced during exercise,excitement, pain, love and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce a feeling of wellbeing. The name endorphin comes from endo- and -orphin; intended to mean "a morphine-like substance originating from within the body.

33 Drugs that Affect Synapses and Neurotransmitters Curare - poison made from frog skin and causes paralysis by blocking Ach receptors at the neuromuscular junction.

34 Drugs that Affect Synapses and Neurotransmitters Strychnine poisoning can be fatal to humans and animals and can occur by inhalation, swallowing or absorption through eyes or mouth Strychnine is a neurotoxin which acts as an antagonist of acetylcholine receptors. It primarily affects the motor nerves in the spinal cord which control muscle contraction. An impulse is triggered at one end of a nerve by the binding of neurotransmitters to the receptors. Read about Strychnine Poisoning

35 Drugs that Affect Synapses and Neurotransmitters

36 In the normal communication process, dopamine is released by a neuron into the synapse, where it can bind to dopamine receptors on neighboring neurons. Normally, dopamine is then recycled back into the transmitting neuron by a specialized protein called the dopamine transporter. If cocaine is present, it attaches to the dopamine transporter and blocks the normal recycling process, resulting in a buildup of dopamine in the synapse, which contributes to the pleasurable effects of cocaine.

37 Dangers of Ecstasy (MDMA) The neurotransmitter serotonin is vital in regulating many of our basic functions. Serotonin is, among other things, the feel good neurotransmitter and helps to regulate body temp. Our brain cells are constantly trying to bring some amount of serotonin back into the cells and out of the synapse using serotonin reuptake transporters. Ecstasy essentially takes these upkeep transporters and reverses their roles. This causes a massive flood of serotonin from the brain cells into the synapse. The most common cause of Ecstasy-related death is overheating (hyperthermia). MDMA interferes with the body's ability to regulate its own body temperature and to see other warning signs allowing the body to overheat without discomfort especially when dancing for hours in hot clubs.

38 LSD; lysergic acid diethylamide Actions/Effects: LSD alters the action of the neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, triggering extreme changes in brain function. Physical effects include increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Psychological effects include perceptual and thought distortions, hallucinations, delusions, and rapid mood swings. Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine

39 Antidepressants Zoloft is part of a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs for short. SSRIs act on a specific chemical within the brain known as serotonin. This is one of several chemicals used to send messages from one nerve cell to another.

40

41 9.8 Impulse Processing Neuronal pool - groups of neurons that make hundreds of synaptic connections and work together to perform a common function These "pools" help us remember sequential tasks, like tying a shoe or riding a bike.

42 9.9 Types of Nerves Sensory Nerves - conduct impulses into the brain or spinal cord Motor Nerves - carry impulses to muscles of glands Mixed Nerves - contain both sensory and motor nerves

43 Neurons Classified by Function: Sensory vs. Motor Neurons Figure 12.11

44 9.10 Nerve Pathways Reflex arc = simple path, only includes a few neurons Reflex Behavior = automatic, subconscious responses Knee-jerk reflex = maintains uprightedness Withdrawal reflex = avoidance of painful stimuli

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