IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.

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1 IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.5 to 395 meters/sec [1to280 miles/hour]

2

3 How do Neurons communicate?

4 Neurons communicate with neighboring neurons via the synaptic junction with help of neurotransmitters Pre-synaptic neuron Post-synaptic neuron v

5 Neuron - a nerve cell

6

7 Formation of myelin sheath by Schwann Cells

8 Clinical App: Demyelination the loss or destruction of the myelin sheaths around the axons. It may result from Multiple Sclerosis, or Tay Sachs (hereditary), radiation therapy & chemotherapy. Leads to degeneration of the nervous system. Clinical App: Rabies, Polio, Herpes viruses travels from PNS CNS via axonal transport; the virus travels up the axon towards the cell body where it reproduces. Herpes simplex virus

9 B. Gray and White Matter: Freshly dissected brain & spinal cord has regions that appear white & dark in color. White matter composed of myelinated axons. Gray matter unmyelinated axons, cell bodies, dendrites.

10

11 C. Three Functional Classifications of Neurons: Based on according to the direction in which the nerve impulse travels relative to the CNS. 1) sensory neurons (adds to CNS) 2) motor neurons (exits CNS) 3) interneurons aka. association neurons (found between motor & sensory neurons)

12 Three Functional Classifications of Neurons

13 Incoming info. CNS Outgoing info. Effect

14 Nerve - a bundle of many neurons (sensory & motor) that follow the same path in PNS; e.g. ulnar nerve and sciatic nerve. One Nerve

15 Nerve - a bundle of many neurons.

16 Tract - a bundle of nerve fibers in the CNS; connects regions of brain, or extends the length of the spinal cord to brain.

17 V. Electrical Signals in Neurons: Nerve cells are electrically excitable! They communicate with one another using two types of electrical signals: 1) Graded potential short-distance communication; within the cell body and dendrites. 2) Action potentials (nerve impulse) long and short-distance communication; within the axon and synaptic end bulbs. Graded potential Action potential

18 A. Neurophysiology: Communication between neurons depends on the nerve cell s membrane - Why is this so??

19 Protein channels can allow ions to cross the membrane (For chemical info to bind to)

20 ECF ICF

21 B. Role of Membrane Ion Channels: the phospholipid bilayer neuron membranes are peppered w/ diff. ion channels made of proteins embedded in the cell membrane. They regulate the movement of ions into & out of the cell. ECF ICF

22 Ion Channels the Bat Cave *Each type of channel is selective about what ions it allows to pass! e.g. sodium ion channels allow for Na + to pass. *When neurons are stimulated, ion channels open & ions diffuse across the membrane; an electrochemical gradient is created and an electrical current flows down the axon. Work is produced! 2 types of ion channels: 1. Leakage/Passive channel 2. Gated channel

23 1. Leakage/Passive channels channels randomly alternate between an open & closed position; the cell membrane has a higher K + leakage than Na + leakage. ECF ICF

24 2. Gated Channels - open & close in response to a stimulus. 4 types of ion channels relative to stimulus applied: a. Voltage - response to memb. voltage changes (Na + & K + ). b. Chemical/Ligand - response to neurotransmitters/hormones (only found on the cell body & dendrites)! c. Mechanical - response to vibration/pressure. d. Light - response to light. Question: What is an adaptive advantage for neurons to have 4 different types of gated channels in the membrane?

25 Voltage-Gated Ion Channelsfound on axon and end-bulbs

26 Voltage-Gated Ion Channelsfound on axon and end-bulbs

27 Ligand-Gated Ion Channels aka. Chemically-Gated(NT) - found on receptors of dendrites

28 Ligand-Gated Ion Channels aka. Chemically-Gated(NT) - found on receptors of dendrites

29 Summary of ion channels found on the nerve cell membrane (NT s)

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