2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place

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1 Nervous Regulation A. Functions of the nervous system Maintain Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place 3. Coordinate responses - B. Mechanisms for Nervous Regulation (how its done) Receptors Structures b. Stimulus c. Impulse an d. Sense Organ: aka -receptors - Specialized structures that are sensitive to certain changes both inside and outside the organism. where sensory neurons are concentrated eg., eyes, ears, tongue, nose, and skin Neuron 3. Effector -

2 C. Structure of Neurons (nerve cells page 509) Dendrite b. Cell Body (cyton) 3. Axon - long fiber that extends from the cyton b. structure of the axon Schwann cells Myelin 3. Nodes of Ranvier D. The Synapse junction (microscopic gap) between adjacent neurons or between neuron and effector (page 510) Terminal Branch b. Synaptic Knots Neurotransmitter b. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine - chemicals that aid in the transmission across the synapse c. Transmission of a nerve impulse only travels in one direction!!!

3 E. Three Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons b. Motor Neurons Interneurons (most common neuron) Overall Pathways: Sensory Neuron Interneuron Motor Neuron Nerves Nerves are bundles of neurons or parts of neurons bound together by connective tissue There are three types of nerves Sensory nerves b. Motor nerves c. Mixed nerves The Nerve Impulse (transmission) The resting neuron (nerve) transmission of an impulse is made possible because of the difference in electrical charge between the outer and inner surfaces of the nerve cell membrane b. at rest: the outside of the membrane has a net positive charge due to potassium (K+) ions while the inside has a net negative charge due to sodium (Na-) ions c. when a nerve impulse starts sodium flood gates open and sodium flows outside (by diffusion) the cell reversing the charge on the outside and inside. d. when a nerve impulse passes the potassium flood gates open and potassium flows inside restoring the original charger both inside and outside.

4 Facts about the Nerve Impulse refractory period The brief recovery period in which the cell membrane of a neuron can not carry impulses b. a nerve can send up to 1000 impulses per second and travel up to speeds of 268 mph!! c. rate of impulses depends on - size of nerve fibers and if it has a myelin covering b. impulses can jump from one neuron to another c. no impulses are stronger than another Central Nervous System A. Consists of 2 major parts - The Brain - Parts of the Brain Cerebrum - thinking center - responsible for all voluntary movement and the position of movable parts of the body b. c. Cerebral Hemispheres - right and left sides of the cerebrum Left hemisphere - mathematical. b. Right hemisphere - artistic and musical ability. Repetition - habits and conditioned behavior due to repetition are controlled by rapid automatic responses. Practice makes perfect the more you do it the better you become. b. Cerebellum c. Medulla Oblongata 3. if this part of the brain were injured you would die instantly

5 3. Minor Parts of the Brain Thalamus functions as a relay center for messages between the brain and the spinal cord - also receives and changes sensory impulses before they go to the cortex b. Hypothalamus also part of endocrine system 4. Spinal Cord b. Functions Peripheral Nervous System consists of 3. reflex arc pathway - the pathway impulses travel: from receptors to sensory neuron to interneurons to motor neuron to an effector b. PNS has 2 parts Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Severing spinal cord results in paralysis (eg. C-3, O-2)

6 Malfunctions of Central Nervous System Cerebral Palsy Meningitis 3. Stroke - A disease resulting from cerebral hemorrhage or a blood clot in the cerebral vessel. May result in brain damage 4. Polio 5. Alzheimer s Disease is a disease where nerve cells in the brain cannot communicate with each other. The result is severe memory loss. Alzheimer s may be genetic a defect on chromosome #2 It may also be caused by a defect where the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is not produced or a protein called amyloid B which in older people can cause brain cell destruction Adaptations in other animals Hydra - Earthworm Grasshopper - similar to earthworm.

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