Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

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1 Chapter and Topic of this Review Guide: Chapter 2 the Brain pages and the Psychology in Action Vocab Term Definition of Term Example Neuron An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information. A nerve cell that has four basic structures in all types of the cell. Dendrites Neuron fibers that receive incoming messages from other Looks like a plant root at the end of a neuron. neurons. Soma The main body of a neuron or other cell. Receives messages and some send their own Contains the Nucleus of the cell. Axon Axon Terminals Resting Potential Threshold messages. Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron. Branching fibers at the ends of axons. These fibers link up with Soma s and Dendrites of other cells. Allows information to transfer from neuron to neuron. The electrical charge of a neuron at rest. The point at which a nerve Thin fiber covered by a casing called the Myelin Sheath. Imagine a subway that runs inside of tunnels under the city. Even Smaller root like fibers at the end of the cell. Easily noticed as different from Dendrites because they do not contain the nucleus of the cell. When a neuron is below -50 millivolts. -50 millivolts impulse is triggered. Action Potential The nerve impulse. At -50 millivolts an impulse runs through the neuron at 200 mph. Ion Channels Negative After-Potential Synapse Neurotransmitter Receptor Sites Tiny openings through the axon membrane. These openings have molecules that block them. When an action potential occurs the molecules pop off allowing NA+ ions to rush in. A drop in electrical charge below the resting potential. Occurs because K+ ions flow out of neuron making it negative once again. The microscopic space between two neurons, over which messages pass. Any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons. Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive NA+ ions make the axon positive and this starts a chain across the neuron. Imagine any type of chain reaction, like dominos falling in a row. K+ ions exit the ion rapidly returning the ion to its negative state. Once again imagine a row of dominos falling down. Imagine a person having to ride a boat over the ocean to deliver a message. The synapse is the ocean. Refer to the story from above. The neurotransmitter is the boat. Imagine a port where the boat from the story above docks in

2 Norepinephrine Dopamine Serotonin Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) Glutamate Endorphins Acetylcholine Neuropeptides to neurotransmitters or hormones. The neurotransmitter released by stress which slows intestinal activities and raises Hear Rate. The neurotransmitter involved in voluntary movement, learning, emotion, and memory. The neurotransmitter involved with sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temperature regulation, pain suppression, and mood. Primarily inhibits neuron activity. Primarily excites neuron activity. The neurotransmitter involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory. The neurotransmitter released by neurons to activate muscles. Brain chemicals that regulate the activity of neurons. These do not carry messages directly. order to let its passengers off. This is the Receptor Site. Without this neurotransmitter we would not be able to work as competently as we do in stressful situations. Without dopamine people would probably be very handicapped in their daily lives. An increase in dopamine levels can be harmful too. Without proper levels of Serotonin a person could definitely have some severe symptoms that could lead to death. Without GABA people might have many misfirings in their bodies which could put them in harmful situations. Glutamate is what can get messages delivered faster to and from your brain and it can restart activity in neurons after GABA. Without Endorphins the part of the brain that controls sex drive would not be able to tell your body the messages that it wants to. Without Acetylcholine our bodies would be paralyzed. Drugs are often used to inhibit this neurotransmitter from being active. When you touch something hot you move you jerk your hand away instead of moving it slowly off the stove. Nerve A bundle of neuron axons. Can easily be seen by the human eye. Look white because they are covered in myelin. Looks like dental floss when you dissect it. Myelin A fatty layer coating some axons. It helps the nerve impulses move faster. Myelin is the reason that people can have such fast reactions in their everyday lives.

3 Neurilemma A thin layer of cells that encases many axons outside the brain and spinal cord. T makes a tunnel for damaged fibers to follow as they repair themselves. Central Nervous System (CNS) The brain and spinal cord. Brain and Spinal Cord. They run through the center of the body so this one should be pretty easy. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic System Autonomic System Sympathetic System Parasympathetic branch Spinal Nerves Cranial Nerves Reflex Arc Sensory Neuron Clinical Studies All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Carries information to and from the CNS. The system of nerves linking the spinal cord with the skeletal muscles of the body and sense organs. The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands. A part of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) that arouses the body. A part of the ANS that quiets the body. Major nerves that carry sensory and motor messages in and out of the spinal cord. Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord. The simplest behavior, in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response. A nerve cell that carries information from the senses toward the CNS. A detailed investigation of a single person, especially one This is everything outside the brain and spinal cord. Basically it makes sense because it is everything outside of the midline of the body. Controls Voluntary Behavior like the movement of the body and such things. An example is dribbling a basketball. Autonomic = self governing Only controls systems that work themselves i.e. Heart, Digestive System, Endocrine System. Fight or Flight Returns the body to lower more relaxed levels. An example would be lying in bed sleeping. These are nerves that are leaving the Spinal cord. There are 30 pairs at the base of the spinal column and 1 from the tip. There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves which leave directly from the brain. Someone steps on a thorn. First their foot detects the pain through a sensory neuron. The sensory neuron sends this to the Spinal Cord where it then goes to the brain. This is a nerve on the sing that can sense various different things like heat, pain, and pressure. These nerves usually can only do one of these functions at a time. Imagine a bunch of doctors studying one specific case.

4 suffering from some injury or disease. Ablation Surgical removal of tissue. This is another way that doctors can experiment with case studies. If ablation causes changes in a person we can associate that part of the brain with that function. Electrode Deep Lesioning Electrical Stimulation pf the Brain (ESB) Electroencephalograph (EEG) Computed tomographic (CT) scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fmri) scan Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan Any device (such as a wire, needle, or metal plate) used to electrically stimulate nerve tissue or to record its activity. Removal of tissue within the brain by use of an electrode. Direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue. A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain. Computed tomography scan; a computer-enhanced X-ray image of the brain or body. Magnetic resonance imaging; a computer-enhanced threedimensional representation of the brain or body based on the body s response to a magnetic field. Magnetic resonance imaging that records brain activity. A computer-generated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption in the brain. When a person has a part of their brain touched with the electrode the doctors will study its effects on the patient. Basically the doctors put an insulated electrode, except for the tip, into the patient s brain so that they can burn off sections of the brain without harming other brain tissue. This can also be used the same way as an electrode and ablation. It can bring about great power over people s behaviors. It can cause people to suddenly be aggressive, alert, and to make sudden movements. This gives doctors the ability to record activities in the brain. This can reveal brain tumors, epilepsy and other diseases. This can reveal the effects of many brain disorders. The CT scan will take the X-Rays of the Brain and form it into an image of the brain. With an MRI you can look at any section of the brain you want to because of how it creates a three-dimensional image of the body. By being able to record brain activity the doctors looking at the computer can tell which part of the brain is responsible for certain functions. Because the brain runs on glucose it can show which areas are using energy. This is

5 Handedness Dominant Hemisphere Lateralization A preference for the right or left hand in most activities. A term usually applied to the side of a person s brain that produces language. Differences between the two sides of the body, especially differences in the abilities of the brain hemispheres. important when looking at the brain and its different functions. People are left handed and Right Handed. 90% of people are right handed. Handedness is not based on the strength of either hand. Instead it is based on the motor control your brain has over that hand. There is a slim chance that people will be right brain dominant. For lefties about 19% are right brain dominant. For righties only about 3% are right brain dominant. For lefties they are less lopsided than most right handed people. This goes not only for the brain, but also foot size, fingerprints, and eye dominance. Pathway of Electro-chemical signal 1. Sensory Signal from outside the body 2. signal picked up by dendrite of sensory neuron 3. electrical signal goes down to cell body as it becomes action potential 4. electrical signal travels down axon 5. terminal branches 6. terminal buttons 7. from vesicles, neurotransmitters released 8. neurotransmitters in synapse (synaptic gap) 9. chemical picked up by next neuron s dendrite (used and released; reabsorbed by first neuron) 10. neural pathway to brain processed by brain 11. response sent out by brain what process? 12. neurotransmitter released in parts of brain 13. signal goes down motor neurons and repeats process until there is a behavior A Neuron Prototype

6 An Axon during Action Potential a) Resting membrane potential (RMP). Na+ on outside and K+ on inside of cell b) As depolarization reaches threshold of -50mV, the action potential is triggered and Na+ rushes into cell. Membrane potential reaches +30mV on action potential d) Repolarization occurs with K+ exiting the cell to returns to RMP e) Return of ions (Na+ and K+) to their extracellular and intracellular sites by the sodium potassium (Na+K+) pump A Prototype of a Synapse

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8 Central Nervous System with Peripheral Nervous System Also includes other systems and Nerves Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic

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