HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

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1 C H A P T E R 1 11 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM & NERVOUS TISSUE

2 C H A P T E R 1 PART I HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM & NERVOUS TISSUE ORGANIZATION OF THE THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM BODY: AN & ORIENTATION HISTOLOGY OF NERVOUS TISSUE

3 I. INTRODUCTION A. The Nervous System master controlling and communicating system of the body B. General Functions 1. Sensory Input monitors changes occurring both inside and outside the body (stimuli) 2. Integration processes and interprets sensory input and decides response 3. Motor Output response to stimuli

4 B. GENERAL FUNCTIONS

5 II. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Integration and command center; interprets sensory input and dictates motor output Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Spinal and cranial nerves Carries messages CNS çè body

6 II. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Sensory (Afferent) Division Conducts impulses sensory receptors è CNS Motor (Efferent) Division Conducts impulses CNS è effector organs (muscles and glands)

7 II. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic Nervous System Voluntarily conducts impulses CNS è skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System Involuntarily conducts impulses CNS è smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands

8 II. ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Sympathetic Division Fight-or-Flight ; mobilizes body systems during emergency situations Parasympathetic Division Rest-and-Digest ; conserves energy during nonemergency functions

9 THE NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS THREE OVERLAPPING FUNCTIONS. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REPRESENTS A LOGICAL SEQUENCE OF THESE THREE FUNCTIONS? sensory input, motor output, integration motor output, integration, sensory input sensory input, integration, motor output integration, sensory input, motor output

10 WHILE STUDYING FOR AN EXAM, YOU REACH FOR A BEVERAGE. TO EXTEND YOUR ARM, YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM IS ACTIVATED afferent autonomic sympathetic somatic

11 THE DOOR SLAMS SHUT LOUDLY AND YOU FLINCH. AFTER A FEW SECONDS, YOU REALIZE THAT YOUR HEART IS BEATING VERY RAPIDLY AND FORCEFULLY. THIS RESPONSE IS THE RESULT OF YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM afferent sympathetic central somatic

12 III. HISTOLOGY OF NERVOUS TISSUE A. Neuroglia/Glial Cells smaller cells that support, protect, and wrap neurons 1. Neuroglia in the CNS a. Astrocytes star-shaped cells that cling to neurons; support and brace neurons to capillaries

13 1. NEUROGLIA IN THE CNS b. c. Microglia small phagocytes that monitor the health of neurons and ingest foreign particles Ependymal cells line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column; form barrier around CNS

14 1. NEUROGLIA IN THE CNS d. Oligodendrocytes wrap and insulate CNS nerve fibers with myelin sheath

15 2. NEUROGLIA IN THE PNS a. Satellite Cells surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia (collection of nerve cell bodies outside brain and spinal cord) b. Schwann cells surround fibers of the PNS and form myelin sheaths

16 III. HISTOLOGY OF NERVOUS TISSUE B. Neurons (Nerve Cells) structural units of the nervous system 1. Special Characteristics a. Excitable conduct nerve impulses (messages) from one part of the body to another b. Extreme longevity function optimally for a lifetime c. Amitotic lack ability to divide à cannot replace themselves if destroyed d. High metabolic rate high maintenance ; require continuous and abundant supplies of oxygen and nutrients

17 B. NEURONS (NERVE CELLS) 2. Structure a. Perikaryon/Soma neuron cell body; contains organelles b. Dendrites short processes; receive nerve impulses c. Axon long, slender process; generate and transmit nerve impulses

18 B. NEURONS (NERVE CELLS) 2. Structure e. Axonal Terminals/Synaptic Knobs knoblike distal endings of axon; secrete neurotransmitters f. Myelin sheath whitish, fatty substance protecting and electrically insulating axon; increases speed of nerve impulse transmission g. Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath between Schwann cells

19 3. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS a. Sensory (Afferent) Neurons transmit impulses sensory receptors è CNS b. Motor (Efferent) Neurons carry impulses CNS è effector organs (muscles or glands) c. Interneurons (Association Neurons) lie between motor and sensory neurons; shuttle signals through CNS pathways

20 C H A P T E R 1 PART II HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION NEUROPHYSIOLOGY & RESTING POTENTIAL

21 COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING ANALOGY: ELECTRICAL WIRE IS TO ELECTRICAL TAPE AS PERIPHERAL NEURONS ARE TO Schwann cells oligodendrocytes astrocytes ependymal cells

22 YOU ARE A SCIENTIST THAT IS STUDYING SECRETORY PRODUCTS OF SNAIL NEURONS. WHICH NEURON COMPONENT IS CRITICAL TO PRODUCTION OF ITS SECRETORY PRODUCTS? the axon terminals the cell body the axon the dendrites

23 MYELIN SHEATHS IN THE CNS ARE PRODUCED BY THE astrocytes microglia oligodendrocytes schwann cells

24 NEUROGLIAL CELLS THAT LINE THE CAVITIES OF THE BRAIN ARE THE astrocytes ependymal cells microglia schwann cells

25 I. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS A. Membrane Potential Membrane potential is the difference in charge (measured in millivolts) between the outside and inside of a neuron s cell membrane. Membrane potential reflects differences in ion concentration across the neuron s cell membrane as a result of membrane ion channels and ion flow.

26 1. ROLE OF MEMBRANE ION CHANNELS a. Types of Channels i. Leakage (Non-Gated) always open ii. Gated Ligand-Gated open with binding of a specific ligand or neurotransmitter Voltage-Gated open and close in response to changes in membrane potential

27 LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL

28 VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNEL

29 2. ION FLOW In the body, electrical currents reflect the flow of ions across neuron cell membranes. When ion channels are open, ions diffuse quickly across the membrane following their electrochemical gradients.

30 2. ION FLOW a. Electrochemical Gradient rules governing passive ion flow i. Chemical Concentration Gradient passive diffusion from an area of the ion s higher concentration to an area of lower concentration ii. Electrical Gradient passive diffusion of ions toward an area of opposite electrical charge

31 II. RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (V R ) A. Description potential difference ( 70 mv) across the membrane of a resting neuron 1. Concentration Gradients a. K + inside > K+ outside b. Na + outside > Na+ inside How? Active transport via the Na + /K + pump; 3 Na + : 2 K + 2. Polarized inside of the membrane is negatively charged relative to the outside Why? Active transport via the Na + /K + pump; 3 Na + : 2 K +

32 RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (V R )

33 C H A P T E R 1 PART III HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM MEMBRANE THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION POTENTIALS THAT ACT AS SIGNALS

34 THE VOLTAGE DISPLAYED ACROSS A RESTING NEURON MEMBRANE IS TERMED THE action potential excitatory potential resting membrane potential depolarized potential

35 RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL IS POSSIBLE DUE TO: ATP expenditure of the neuron. the actions of the sodium-potassium pump. potassium ions spontaneously crossing to the interior of the neuron. 4 both 1 and 2

36 AT REST A NEURON WILL HAVE MORE IONS ON THE INSIDE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE sodium chloride potassium calcium

37 AT REST A NEURON WILL BE RELATIVELY NEGATIVELY CHARGED ON THE OF THE MEMBRANE Inside Outside Neither inside or outside Both inside and outside

38 A. CHANGES IN MEMBRANE POTENTIAL Neurons use changes in their membrane potential as communication signals for receiving, integrating, and sending information. Changes are caused by three events: Depolarization inside of the membrane becomes less negative than resting potential Repolarization inside of the membrane returns to resting membrane potential Hyperpolarization inside of the membrane becomes more negative than resting potential

39 ACTION POTENTIALS (APS) The principle means of neural communication is by generating and propagating action potentials. 1. Definition brief reversal of membrane potential with a change in voltage from resting -70 mv to +30 mv

40 GENERATION OF AN ACTION POTENTIAL: RESTING STATE RESTING STATE: All gated Na + and K + channels are closed (é[na + ] outside cell; é[k + ] inside cell)

41 GENERATION OF AN ACTION POTENTIAL: DEPOLARIZATION DEPOLARIZATION: Na + channels open à Na + influx

42 GENERATION OF AN ACTION POTENTIAL: REPOLARIZATION REPOLARIZATION: Na + channels close; K + channels open à K + efflux

43 GENERATION OF AN ACTION POTENTIAL: HYPERPOLARIZATION HYPERPOLARIZATION: K + channels remain open à more K + efflux

44 PHASES OF THE ACTION POTENTIAL

45 B. ACTION POTENTIALS b. Threshold depolarization must reach -55 mv for an action potential to occur; if threshold is not reached, NO action potential will occur c. Role of the Sodium-Potassium Pump i. Repolarization restores the resting electrical conditions (-70 mv) of the neuron BUT does not restore the resting ionic conditions (é[na + ] outside; é[k + ] inside) ii. Reestablishment of resting ion concentration gradients is restored via active transport of the sodium-potassium pump

46 B. ACTION POTENTIALS d. All-or-none phenomenon action potentials either happen completely, or not at all e. Refractory Periods i. Absolute Refractory Period time period when a neuron! generate new action potential (Na + channels open à Na + channels close) ii. Relative Refractory Period time period when only an EXCEPTIONALLY strong stimulus can cause new action potential; after the absolute refractory period when repolarization is occurring

47 AT REST, A NEURON WILL HAVE MORE IONS ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE sodium chloride potassium calcium

48 IF A MEMBRANE HAS A POTENTIAL OF -90MV IT IS SAID TO BE depolarized polarized hyperpolarized unresponsive

49 DURING MEMBRANE REPOLARIZATION, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ION FLOWS IS OBSERVED? Potassium influx Sodium efflux Potassium efflux Sodium influx

50 DEPOLARIZATION OF THE NEURON REFERS TO: the membrane potential becoming more positive than at rest due to sodium efflux. the membrane potential becoming more negative than at rest due to potassium influx. the membrane potential becoming more positive than at rest due to sodium influx. the membrane potential becoming more negative than at rest due to potassium efflux.

51 HYPERPOLARIZATION IS DUE TO WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING: 1 2 slow sodium channels. slow potassium channels. 3 both 1 and 2 4 neither 1 nor 2

52 DURING THE RELATIVE REFRACTORY PERIOD no action potentials can be generated. weak stimuli could trigger action potentials. exceptionally strong stimuli could trigger action potentials. none of the above

53 C H A P T E R 1 PART IV HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION THE SYNAPSE

54 I. THE SYNAPSE The operation of the nervous system depends on the flow of information through chains of neurons functionally connected by synapses. A. Definition junction that mediates information transfer from one neuron to the next or from one neuron to an effector cell

55 I. THE SYNAPSE B. Components 1. Presynaptic Neuron conducts impulses toward the synapse; information sender 2. Postsynaptic Neuron transmits impulses away from the synapse; information receiver 3. Synaptic Cleft space separating the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons 4. Synaptic Vesicles tiny sacs containing neurotransmitter; found in axonal terminal of presynaptic neuron

56 C. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION When a nerve impulse reaches the axonal terminal, it sets into motion a chain of events that triggers neurotransmitter release.

57 1. STEPS i. Ca 2+ channels open in the presynaptic axon terminal. Ca 2+ rushes into presynaptic axon terminal ii. Neurotransmitter is released. Synaptic vesicles fuse with axon membrane and empty neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft iii. Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron.

58 SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION: STEPS Ion channels open in the postsynaptic membrane. Ions rush into postsynaptic cell Neurotransmitter effects are terminated.

59 SYNAPTIC CLEFT: INFORMATION TRANSFER 1 Ca 2+ Axon terminal of presynaptic neuron Axon of presynaptic neuron

60 SYNAPTIC CLEFT: INFORMATION TRANSFER 1 Ca 2+ Axon terminal of presynaptic neuron Axon of presynaptic neuron Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules 2

61 SYNAPTIC CLEFT: INFORMATION TRANSFER 1 Ca 2+ Axon terminal of presynaptic neuron Axon of presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic membrane Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules 2 Synaptic cleft 3 Ion channel (closed) Ion channel (open)

62 SYNAPTIC CLEFT: INFORMATION TRANSFER 1 Ca 2+ Axon terminal of presynaptic neuron Neurotransmitter Receptor Na + Axon of presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic membrane Postsynaptic membrane Ion channel open Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules 2 Synaptic cleft 3 4 Ion channel (closed) Ion channel (open)

63 SYNAPTIC CLEFT: INFORMATION TRANSFER 1 Ca 2+ Axon terminal of presynaptic neuron Neurotransmitter Receptor Na + Axon of presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic membrane Postsynaptic membrane Ion channel open Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules 2 Degraded neurotransmitter 5 Synaptic cleft 3 4 Ion channel (closed) Ion channel (open) Ion channel closed

64 THE SPACE BETWEEN THE PRESYNAPTIC AND POSTSYNAPTIC NEURONS IS CALLED THE synaptic cleft neurotransmitter synaptic delay synaptic vesicle

65 THE PRESYNAPTIC NEURON RELEASES NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN RESPONSE TO AN INFLUX OF IONS sodium potassium calcium sodium and potassium

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