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1 Nerves mp3

2 Test

3 Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment These muscles are primarily flexors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis Flexor retinaculum Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Flexor carpi radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus

4 Table

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6 Muscles of the Anterior Compartment These muscles are the primary toe extensors and ankle dorsiflexors They include the tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, and fibularis tertius Tibia Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius Superior and inferior extensor retinacula

7 Fill in the blanks.

8 Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment These muscles are primarily flexors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis Flexor retinaculum Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Flexor carpi radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus

9 Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment These muscles are primarily flexors of the wrist and fingers Palmar aponeurosis And, they all attach to Flexor retinaculum Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Flexor carpi radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus

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11 Muscles of the Anterior Compartment These muscles are the primary toe extensors and ankle dorsiflexors Tibia Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Fibularis tertius Superior and inferior extensor retinacula

12 These four guys and frontgirl Minnie Satellite create punkrock songs which are garage-y, fast, loud, and tricky. Less catchy than what most other folks would label punk, but still with very well crafted songs. Nerves

13 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue 11 Part A

14 Nervous System The master controlling and communicating system of the body Thoughts, actions, emotions Communicate by electrical and chemical signals Rapid, specific responses

15 Nervous System Functions Sensory input monitoring stimuli occurring inside and outside the body Integration interpretation of sensory input Motor output response to stimuli by activating effector organs

16 Nervous System Sensory input Integration Motor output Or,

17 Nervous System You see that your shoulder is on fire You yell, Ouch look for the water And, throw it on your shoulder

18 Organization of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Integration and command center Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Paired spinal and cranial nerves Spinal nerves carry messages to and from the spinal cord Cranial nerves carry messages to and from the brain

19 Cranial nerves

20 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Two Functional Divisions Sensory (afferent - arriving) division Transmits impulses from the receptors to the CNS Motor (efferent - exit) division Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs

21 Sensory Division: Two Main Parts Sensory (somatic (soma = body)) afferent fibers Carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain Visceral afferent fibers Transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain

22 Motor Division: Two Main Parts Somatic nervous system (aka, voluntary NS) Conscious control of skeletal muscles Autonomic nervous system (ANS) (aka, INvoluntary NS) (think of it as the automatic NS) Regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands Divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic

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28 Components of nervous system

29 Histology of Nerve Tissue The two principal cell types of the nervous system are: Supporting cells cells that surround and wrap neurons (aka = neuroglia or glial cells) Neurons excitable cells that transmit electrical signals

30 Supporting Cells: Neuroglia The supporting cells (neuroglia or glial cells): Provide a supportive scaffolding for neurons Segregate and insulate neurons Guide young neurons to the proper connections Promote health and growth

31 Neuroglia or glial cells CNS Astrocytes Microglia Ependymal cells Oligo-dendro-cytes PNS Satellite cells Schwann cells

32 Astro-cytes

33 Astrocytes Most abundant, versatile, and highly branched glial cells They cling to neurons and their synaptic endings, and cover capillaries Figure 11.3a

34 Astrocytes Figure 11.3a

35 Astrocytes Functionally they: Support and brace neurons Anchor neurons to their nutrient supplies Guide migration of young neurons Control the chemical environment

36 Microglia and Ependymal Cells Microglia small, ovoid cells with spiny processes. Phagocytes that monitor the health of neurons (other immune cells cannot enter CNS) Ependymal cells range in shape from squamous to columnar They line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column csf Figure 11.3b, c

37 Oligodendrocytes Oligodendrocytes: branched cells that wrap CNS nerve fibers creating an insulated cover Myelin sheath Process of oligodendrocyte Nerve fibers

38 PNS Satellite cells Schwann cells

39 Satellite Cells so named because they circle like a satellite around a planet

40 What do you call a glia when it s happy? Schwann cells (forming myelin sheath) Smyelin = smylin = smiling, get it?

41 What do you call a group of brains who form a singing group at school? A glia club

42 Neurons (Nerve Cells) What do neurons use to talk to each other? Billions of cell phones

43 Neurons (Nerve Cells) Structural units of nervous system (billions of em) Composed of a body, axon and dendrites Long-lived (~100 yrs), amitotic (we know what that means, right?) and have a high metabolic rate (need lots of O2 and glucose) Their plasma membrane functions in: Electrical signaling Cell-to-cell signaling during development

44 Neurons (Nerve Cells) Dendrites (receptive regions) Cell body (biosynthetic center and receptive region) Nucleolus Nucleus Nissl bodies Axon hillock Axon (impulse generating and conducting region) Neurilemma Impulse direction Schwann cell (one internode) Terminal branches Node of Ranvier Axon terminals (secretory region)

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46 Nerve Cell Body (Perikaryon or Soma) Contains the nucleus and a nucleolus Has well-developed Nissl bodies (rough ER) Is the focal point for the outgrowth of neuronal processes (embryonic) Dendrites (receptive regions) Cell body (biosynthetic center and receptive region) Nucleolus Contains an axon hillock cone-shaped area from which axons arise Part of the receptive region Nucleus Nissl bodies Axon hillock Axon

47 Nerve Cell Body (Perikaryon or Soma) Has no centrioles (Why not?) Which cliche would a neuron not use Let s make like a tree and leave Let s get the flock out of here Let s bounce Let s split

48 Processes are Armlike extensions from the soma (cell body) CNS contains cell bodies and processes PNS contains chiefly processes (why?) There are two types: dendrites and axons Bundles of axons are called Tracts in the CNS and nerves in the PNS

49 Processes are axons and dendrites Dendrites (receptive regions) Axon

50 Dendrites of Motor Neurons Short, tapering, and diffusely branched processes Dendrites (receptive regions) One neuron usually has many dendrites, up to 10,000 They are the receptive, or input, regions of the neuron Convey info toward the cell

51 Axons: Structure Slender processes of uniform diameter arising from the hillock, carrying information away from the cell Long axons are called nerve fibers One leads from the big toe up the leg, past the cell body near the spinal cord, into the cord and up to the brainstem, a couple meters or more. Usually there is only one unbranched axon per neuron Axonal terminal branched terminus of an axon (aka telodendria) ~10,000 or more terminal branches

52 Axons: Structure Axon (impulse generating and conducting region) Impulse direction Node of Ranvier Axon terminals (secretory region) Neurilemma Schwann cell (one internode) Terminal branches Axons are the conducting region leading to the secretory region Aka axon terminals synaptic knobs or boutons

53 Myelin Sheath Whitish, fatty (protein-lipoid), segmented sheath around most long AXONS NEVER found on dendrites

54 Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma: Formation Formed by Schwann cells in the PNS A Schwann cell: Who does this in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes Envelopes an axon in a trough Encloses the axon with its plasma membrane Has concentric layers of membrane that make up the myelin sheath Neurilemma remaining nucleus and cytoplasm of a Schwann cell

55 Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma: Formation Schwann cell plasma membrane Schwann cell cytoplasm Axon 1 A Schwann cell envelopes an axon. Schwann cell nucleus 2 The Schwann cell then rotates around the axon, wrapping its plasma membrane loosely around it in successive layers. Neurilemma Myelin sheath (a) Myelination of a nerve fiber (axon) 3 The Schwann cell cytoplasm is forced from between the membranes. The tight membrane wrappings surrounding the axon form the myelin sheath.

56 Myelin Sheath and Neurilemma: Formation Myelin sheath Schwann cell cytoplasm Axon Neurilemma (b) Cross-sectional view of a myelinated axon (electron micrograph 24,000 X )

57 Nodes of Ranvier (Neurofibral Nodes) Gaps in the myelin sheath between adjacent Schwann cells

58 Myelin Sheath Neurilemma Node of Ranvier Schwann cell (one internode) Terminal branches Axon terminals (secretory region)

59 Unmyelinated Axons A Schwann cell surrounds nerve fibers but coiling does not take place Schwann cells partially enclose 15 or more axons

60 Axons of the CNS Both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers are present Myelin sheaths are formed by oligodendrocytes Nodes of Ranvier are widely spaced There is no neurilemma, one oli covers many axons

61 Regions of the Brain and Spinal Cord White matter dense collections of myelinated fibers Gray matter mostly soma and unmyelinated fibers

62 Neuron Classification One nerve Two nerve Red nerve Blue nerve

63 Neuron Classification Structural: Multipolar three or more processes Bipolar two processes (1 axon and 1 dendrite) Unipolar single, short process

64 Neuron Classification Functional: Sensory (afferent) transmit impulses toward the CNS Motor (efferent) carry impulses away from the CNS Interneurons (association neurons) shuttle signals through CNS pathways

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66 Common as cars Rare as glass eyes I feel that these are just in between

67 Bad drivers in California are as common as cars multipolar neurons Having a sixth sense is as rare as glass eyes bipolar cells I feel that these are just in between

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69 Neuron animation

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