# Introduction to Java CS 1124, Media Computation November 10, 2008 Steve Harrison

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1 Introduction to Java CS 1124, Media Computation November 10, 2008 Steve Harrison

2 DrJava? DrJava is a free integrated development environment for doing Java programming From Rice University It is written in Java It has several window panes in it For creating programs (definitions pane) For trying out Java code (interactions pane) Listing of open files (files pane)

3 Math Operators in Java (+ * / - %) Addition: Multiplication: 3 * 4 Division: 3 / 4 Subtraction: 3 4 Negation: - 4 Modulo (Remainder): 10 % 2 and 11 % 2

4 Math Operators Exercise Open DrJava and do the following in the interactions pane Subtract 7 from 9 Add 7 to 3 Divide 3 by 2 Divide 4.6 by 2 Multiply 5 by 10 Find the remainder when you divide 10 by 3

5 Why is the result of 3 / 2 = 1? Java is a strongly typed language Each value has a type associated with it Tells the computer how to interpret the number It is an integer, floating point, letter, etc The compiler determines the type if it isn t specified (literals) 3 is an integer 3.0 is a floating point number (has a fractional part) The result of an operation is in the same type as the operands 3 and 2 are integers so the answer is an integer 1

6 Casting There are other ways to solve the problem of 3 / 2 has a result of 1 You can make one of the values floating point by adding / 2 3 / 2.0 The result type will then be floating point Or you can cast one of the values to the primitive types: float or double (double) 3 / 2 3 / (float) 2

7 Casting Exercise Use casting to get the values right for splitting up a bill for 3 people of 19 dollars. Try it first with a calculator Try it in DrJava without casting Try it in DrJava with casting

8 Java Primitive Types Integers (numbers without fractional parts) are represented by The types: int or short or long 235, -2, , etc Floating point numbers (numbers with fractional parts) are represented by The types: double or float , etc A single character is represented by The type: char a b A etc True and false values are represented by The type: boolean true or false

9 Why so Many Different Types? They take up different amounts of space They have different precisions Usually use int, double, and boolean byte uses 8 bits (1 byte) 2 s compliment short uses 16 bits (2 bytes) 2 s compliment int uses 32 bits (4 bytes) 2 s compliment long uses 64 bits (8 bytes) 2 s compliment float uses 32 bits (4 bytes) IEEE 754 double uses 64 bits (8 bytes) IEEE 754 char uses 16 bits (2 bytes) Unicode format

10 Sizes of Primitive Types byte short int long float double char 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits

11 Types Exercise Which type(s) take up the most space? Which type(s) take up the least space? What type would you use for The number of people in your family A grade The price of an item The answer to do you have insurance The number of people in the class The number of people in your school The number of people in your state

12 Floating Point Numbers Numbers with a fractional part Stored as binary numbers in scientific notation is x 10 2 The sign (1 bit) The digits in the number (mantissa) The exponent (8 bits) Two types float 6-7 significant digits accuracy double significant digits accuracy

13 Comparison (Relational) Operators Greater than > 4 > 3 is true 3 > 3 is false 3 > 4 is false Less than < 2 < 3 is true 3 < 2 is false Equal == 3 == 3 is true 3 == 4 is false Not equal!= 3!= 4 is true 3!= 3 is false Greater than or equal >= 3 >= 4 is true 3 >= 3 is true 2 >= 4 is false Less than or equal <= 2 <= 3 is true 2 <= 2 is true 4 <= 2 is false

14 Comparison Operators Exercise In DrJava Try out the comparison operators in the interactions pane with numbers 3 < 4 4 <= 4 5 < 4 6 == 6.0 with characters (single alphabet letter) Put single quote around a character a < b b < a a == a

15 Operator Order The default evaluation order is Negation - Multiplication * Division / Modulo (remainder) % Addition + Subtraction - The default order can be changed By using parenthesis (3 + 4) * 2 versus * 2

16 Math Operator Order Exercise Try * Add parentheses to make it clear what is happening first How do you change it so that happens first? How do you change it so that it multiplies the result of and the result of 4 + 5?

17 Printing Output to the Console One of the things you often want to do in a program is output the value of something In Java the way to print to the console is to use System.out.println(); Will print out the value of the thing in the parentheses and a new line System.out.print(); To print just the thing in the parentheses without a new line

18 A Semicolon (;) ends a Statement Java programs are made up of statements Like sentences in English Java statements end in a semicolon not a period The period is used to send a message to an object System.out.println() Or access data in the object System.out.println() DrJava s interaction pane prints the result of statements without a semicolon but not the result of statements with a semicolon Use System.out.println(); to force output

19 Console Output Exercise Use System.out.println() to print the results of expression to the console System.out.println(3 * 28); System.out.println(14 7); System.out.println(10 / 2); System.out.println( ); System.out.println("Hi" + "There"); System.out.println(" "); Try using System.out.print() instead What is the difference?

20 Strings Java has a type called: String A string is an object that has a sequence of characters in Unicode It can have no characters (the null string "") It can have many characters "This is one long string with spaces in it. Everything in a string will be printed out as it was entered Even math operations Java knows how to add strings It returns a new string with the characters of the second string after the characters of the first With no added space

21 Methods Two Types Object method Sent as a message to an object Implicitly passed the current object Class method Sent as a message to a class

22 Method Exercise In DrJava s interaction pane try these Object methods "HI".toLowerCase() "This is a string".indexof("is") " This is ".trim() Class methods Math.abs(13) Math.abs(-13) Math.min(3,4) Character.getNumericValue('A')

23 Message Always Have Parenthesis You can tell that out.println() is sending a message Because of the () Messages always have () Even if there are no parameters (arguments) If you are sending data along with a message it goes inside the parentheses Separated by commas Math.min(3,4);

24 Common Errors Did you make any mistakes when you typed in the examples? If you use the wrong case it won t work > math.abs(-3) Error: Undefined class 'math If you misspell something it won t work > Mat.abs(-3) Error: Undefined class 'Mat > Math.ab(-3) Error: No 'ab' method in 'java.lang.math' Use the up arrow key in DrJava to bring up the previous statement and fix it

25 "Hi" is a String Object The compiler turns literal strings into string objects Objects of the String class In package java.lang Object methods are invoked by sending a message with the same name as the method the same type, number, and order of input parameters to the object

26 API Exercise The Classes defined as part of the Java language are documented in the API Find the documentation for the following classes String and Math Find documentation for the methods used in the previous exercise Try out some other methods for these classes

27 Java Packages Java groups related classes into packages Common Packages java.lang Contains basic classes for the language System, Math, Object, java.io Contains classes for input and output java.awt Contains basic user interface classes javax.swing Contains more advanced user interface classes

28 Class Methods versus Object Methods In the API documentation how can you tell which are class methods and which are object methods? Look for the keyword static on the method If it has the keyword static then it is a class method If there is no keyword static then it is an object method

29 What do Objects Look Like? Objects are created with space for their data Objects have a reference to the object that represents the class Object of the class Class Fries: Food Name = Fries Price = 1.99 Food : Class Name = Food Fields = Name, Price Methods = getname, setname, getprice, setprice, getcalories Waffles: Food Name = Waffles Price = 2.99

30 Java is Case Sensitive Some programming languages are case sensitive Meaning that double isn t the same as Double Or string isn t the same as String In Java primitive types are all lowercase double, float, int, Class names start with an uppercase letter So String and System are the names of classes

31 Java Naming Conventions In Java only Class names start with an uppercase letter System, BufferedImage, Picture All other names start with lowercase letters but uppercase the first letter of each additional word picture, filename, thisisalongname

32 Identifying Classes Exercise Which of these are primitive types, and which are the names of classes? int Picture char Double Math double Integer String

33 Turtle Graphics Try the following in your codepad World w = new World(); Turtle t = new Turtle(w); t

34 Manipulating the turtle Right click on turtle1 and see the methods available Can you make your turtle draw a square? forward(), backward(), clearpath(), getxpos(), getypos(), moveto(), pendown(), penup(), turn(), turnleft(), turnright(), setcolor(), setname()

35 Turtle Graphics Create a new project, with a new class TurtleWorld Create a variable in the class of type World and name it w Create a variable in the class of type Turtle and call it t Create a constructor and in it create a World object and a Turtle Object Lets create some method in our TurtleWorld: square() - make it draw a square

36 Turtle Graphics What if you wanted to have many turtles? Lets create an array and put all turtles there. Lets create a method that adds turtles to the end of the array. Lets modify the square() method to take an index identifying the turtle Can you create a method that moves all turtles at once?

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