# The Book-keeping Method of Irrigation Scheduling and its use for Turfgrass in

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Book-keeping Method of Irrigation Scheduling and its use for Turfgrass in"

## Transcription

1 The Book-keeping Method of Irrigation Scheduling and its use for Turfgrass in Louisiana Document prepared by David Greenland January 18, The book-keeping method of irrigation scheduling is based on the application of the water balance equation on a daily basis to the layer of the soil containing the roots of the crop. The water budget equation for a place and a given time period (daily in this case) and specified depth of soil, is based on the conservation of matter (water) and may be written: P = E + R + ΔS where P is incoming precipitation, E is evaporation, R is runoff and ΔS is change of soil water 1. The steps in the method are as follows. First, the field capacity of the effective soil rooting zone is established or a value for this is assumed. The field capacity (or total evaporable water TEW) is the quantity of water held in the pore spaces of an originally saturated soil after gravity drainage has terminated, and depends upon the depth of the root zone and the soil type. A clay soil can hold more soil water than a sandy soil. The 1 A more realistic expression would involve the concepts of effective precipitation, Pe, and evapotranspiration, ET, such that Pe = P R Perc where Perc is the amount of water that percolates out of the soil beyond the root zone and evapotranspiration is a combination of evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration from plants. Under these circumstances equation 1 could be rewritten as ΔS = P R Perc ET.

2 amount of water leaving the soil by evapotranspiration (ET, a combination of evaporation from the soil surface and the transpiration from plants) is estimated on a day by day basis. The amount of water entering the soil by precipitation is monitored 2. We are interested in the amount of soil water in the soil and available to the roots of the plants on any given day. We are even more interested in soil water deficit i.e. the amount of (irrigation or rain) water required to bring the soil water to its maximum (field capacity) value. In its simplest form, an irrigation schedule involves setting up limits below which the soil water will not be allowed to fall and applying a measured and appropriate amount of water by irrigation to bring the soil water level back to the required level. The graphs and tables below show how this concept could be applied to the soil in the rooting zone of the grass at Ben Hur Agricultural Station near Baton Rouge for the period June 9 through July 14, We obtain our rainfall and evaporation data from the Louisiana Agriclimatic Information System (LAIS see (accessed 11/30/05) and click on Agriclimatic Tools for evaporation and rainfall data). Let us assume that the field capacity of the soil in the soil layers where grass roots penetrate (the rooting zone or layer) is 0.5 inches depth of water. We have chosen to begin on June 9 because we can assume the soil is saturated at this time following a period of several days of rain. We keep an accumulative tally of input (rain) and output (ET) for each day subtracting from that starting amount (0.5 inches) the amount of estimated ET and adding any 2 rainfall amount that might occur. When we reach June 12 (Day # 4), the soil water content becomes negative. Since the soil in the rooting layer can not hold less than zero water now (and on future similar 2 In the simple example described here we will assume that all the rainfall enters the soil. More realistic calculations would involve the use of runoff/rainfall ratios which must be estimated for specific soil types, surface cover, and rainfall intensity. We will suggest how to monitor rainfall later in the discussion.

3 days) we will reset the soil water content to 0.0 inches and keep it at that point until there is some new input of water. When we get to June 17 th (Day # 9) the 0.52 inches of rain that fell this day was not enough to bring the soil water back up to its maximum (because of the loss by ET on that day), but the 2.4 inches of rain that fell on the 18 th (Day # 10) was enough to fully replenish the soil moisture. Without any adjustments our calculations would indicate there was 1.59 inches of soil water available on the 18 th. But our soil can only hold 0.50 inches (excess rain is assumed to run off across the surface and be lost into nearby drains, rivers and streams, or to deep percolation). So we reset our accumulative tally to 0.5 inches on the 18 th and continue our calculations. Table 1. Water balance calculations in inches for Ben Hur, La, in the absence of any irrigation. Date Day No Rain in ETo in Soil Water 09-Jun Jul

4 In this example, even despite some significant rainfalls, the soil water (without any irrigation) is at zero for much of the time examined. Grass would be highly stressed without irrigation. The value 0.5 inches minus the values in the Soil Water column indicates how much irrigation water on any give day should be added to bring the soil to it maximum moisture content. A deeper understanding of the situation may be gained by looking at the data presented graphically as follows.

5 Graph 1. Water balance calculations for Ben Hur, La, in the absence of any irrigation. Water Balance at Ben Hur, LA for 35 days after June 9, Rain in ETo in Soil Water Water in inches Days after June 9 Obviously, in order to keep the grass healthy it would be advantageous to water the turf. But how much water should be applied and when? We will examine two scenarios. In the absence of any water balance concepts we might just decide to water the grass once a week with 2 inches of water. A second scenario would be to irrigate with 0.5 inches of irrigation water every time the soil water would otherwise become less than zero. So first let us now see what effect the provision of 2 inches of irrigation every Monday (weekly irrigation) would have on the soil water status. In this case (see Table 2) we would have to add our irrigation water to the natural rainfall in order to keep our tally of available soil water. Once more, every time the soil water is calculated as exceeding 0.50 inches we enter 0.50 inches for that day and every day the soil water becomes negative we will set the value at 0.0 inches. With the weekly 2 inch watering regime there are still

6 periods of zero soil water but the periods are not as prolonged as in the natural case (Table 2 and Graph 2). Table 2. Soil water status (in inches) under three different irrigation regimes. Date Day No Natural Soil Water Irrig Applied Wkly 2 ins Irrig Irrig Applied Custom 0.5 ins Irrig 09-Jun Jul Total 10 Total 5.5

7 Graph 2. Soil water in inches for Ben Hur, La, under natural conditions and two different irrigation regimes. Soil water at Ben Hur, LA, under different irrigation regimes Natural Soil Water Wkly 2 ins Irrig Custom 0.5 ins Irrig Water in inches Days after June 9 In this last example we used 5 weekly applications of 2 inches each of irrigation water i.e. 10 inches. Could we have used less? Let us try the second scenario - adding 0.5 inches of irrigation water every time the soil water would otherwise become less than zero (Table 2). Once more, every time the soil water is calculated as exceeding 0.50 inches we enter 0.50 inches for that day. In this case we only used a total of 5.5 inches and the procedure kept the soil fairly moist throughout the period. The line with long dashes and square symbols on Graph 2 always falls within the lower and upper limits of soil water and this shows that custom irrigation keeps the soil fairly moist all of the time but, of course, the custom regime uses much less water and therefore potentially saves money.

8 Now these are very simple examples. They raise many questions and contain oversimplifications. The calculations could be improved and made closer to reality in several ways. But the procedure does show a fairly simple way of keeping track of soil moisture and the potential to save money on irrigation water and energy costs. Let us look at some of the questions, oversimplifications, and caveats. First, how do we know how much irrigation water we are adding? We could place an empty coffee can or similar home-made rain gage, or inexpensive commercially available rain gage, under the sprinkler system and observe when water level in the can reaches a depth of whatever amount of irrigation water we have decided to apply 3. Two other important issues are the estimation of soil field capacity and the assumption that the radiation and rainfall values measured at the locations of the Louisiana Agriclimatic Information System (LAIS) also apply to the specific location of interest. Fortunately, the ET values on LAIS refer to a grass surface and so we do not have to adjust them further (with a crop coefficient) as we might with a crop of larger size such as cotton. Possibly the most simple way of approaching the field capacity estimation might be to start with assuming it is 0.5 inches and using the system described above for a while and observing if it seems to be working, or over- or under- estimating. Often there are vertical profiles through the grass such as at sand traps on golf courses or the edges of lawns near pathways, where you can see if the soil under the grass is moist or not. A very useful approximate guide to the field capacity of sandy, loamy, and clayey soils of different depths is given in Figure 1 of the Georgia Extension Service document found at 3 For large areas where flood irrigation is used, the LSU AgCenter is using commercially-available water flow meters to measure water use in flood and furrow irrigation of agronomic crops.

9 (accessed 01/06/06) and reproduced here with permission as Graph 3 below. Graph 3. Approximate amounts of water required to bring varying layers of different soil types to their field capacity. Example: 1 inch of water will wet a clay soil to more than 4 inches deep, a loam soil to 8 inches deep, and a sand soil to more than 15 inches deep. Alternatively, it takes about 0.2 inches of water to wet the top 3 inches of a sandy soil, while for a loam and clay it takes respectively about 0.45 inches and 0.7 inches. The Graph is reproduced with permission of the Georgia Extension Service.

10 In addition, Louisiana Extension Agents have access to Natural Resources Conservation Service/LSU AgCenter-generated parish soil surveys which give soil property values for various locations in their parishes. These surveys often give data on available water capacity in inches/inch(depth) for various soil horizons for each soil 4. A scientific method of estimating the soil field capacity is to take several samples of the soil the day after a major rainfall or irrigation event, place the soil in metal containers, and dry the soil in a laboratory oven (don t try this at home never put metal in a microwave oven!) and weigh the soil sample(s) before and after drying. The difference in weight gives the water lost (and formerly contained) from the weight of the soil sample. The final value has to be adjusted to one cubic inch of volume of soil, so that the value relates to the depth of water in the soil sample 5. Spatial variability of solar radiation (upon which the ET estimates are very dependent) and rainfall are also potential problems. Summer rainfall in Louisiana is very spotty. The values of rainfall from rain gage measurements may not be valid for locations more than ¼ mile away from the point where the rain gage is located. Not much can be done about this unless the user makes measurements of local rainfall and substitutes these local values in the calculations instead of using the LAIS values. The same coffee-can irrigation amount measurers could serve also as rain gages and provide local data. Solar radiation receipt at the surface strongly depends on local cloud cover and the slope of the land. The ET estimates given here are for a horizontal surface at the LAIS 4 A listing of Louisiana soil surveys and their general availability status is given at (accessed 11/30/05) 5 Precise methods of determining the amount of water in a soil using this drying approach is provided in a Purdue University laboratory exercise at (accessed 11/30/05)

11 observing site. A north facing slope would have much less and a south facing slope would have much more radiation. Areas shaded by buildings and vegetation also would have less radiation. Another incorrect assumption made in the above calculations is that the loss of water by evapotranspiration is always at the rate shown in the calculation, i.e. the maximum rate for that day. In reality, if the soil water is below its field capacity, some lesser rate of evapotranspiration will occur. This lesser rate is determined by the drying curve applicable to a particular soil and the ability of the plant roots to access the water and use it. In similar vein, the proportion of rainfall that runs off from the surface of the soil when large rainfalls occur also, to some degree, depends on the soil type. There are numerous steps one could take in order to obtain more accurate estimates of required irrigation amounts. For more detail one could consult the following web document der%20soil%20water%20stress%20conditions (accessed 11/30/05). The Extension Services of other states have also addressed the issue. See for example suggestions from the Florida Extension Service at (accessed 11/30/05). As with most things, there exists a large amount of published research on the topic of estimating irrigation needs and their scheduling. The above approach is meant to be a first, and as simple as possible, step. Acknowledgement I am grateful to Drs. Dan Thomas and Bill Branch for helpful comments on this document.

### Irrigation and Water Use Tom Scherer, NDSU Extension Agricultural Engineer

Irrigation and Water Use Tom Scherer, NDSU Extension Agricultural Engineer For maximum yield potential, dry beans will need 14 to 18 inches of soil moisture during the growing season. With good management,

### TexasET Network Water My Yard Program

TexasET Network Water My Yard Program What is the Water My Yard Program? The WaterMyYard Program (http://watermyyard.org) is a new program and website that solves two of the biggest problems in getting

### Hydrologic Soil Groups

United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Part 630 Hydrology Chapter 7 Rain clouds Cloud formation Precipitation Surface runoff Evaporation from vegetation Transpiration

### IRRIGATION TECH SEMINAR SERIES

AGENDA: WATERIGHT Web-Based Irrigation Scheduling January 15, 2009 Work Shop Registration Welcome Introduction Overview of WATERIGHT Break Example Break More Examples Bill Green, CIT Pete Canessa, CIT

### Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER To explain how to plan and schedule your irrigation program CHAPTER CONTENTS factors affecting irrigation intervals influence of soil water using

### Irrigation Scheduling for Corn Why and How

NATIONAL CORN HANDBOOK WATER MANAGEMENT (IRRIGATION) Irrigation Scheduling for Corn Why and How F. M. Rhoads, University of Florida; and C. D. Yonts, University of Nebraska NCH-20 Reviewers J. E. Hook,

### COTTON WATER RELATIONS

COTTON WATER RELATIONS Dan R. Krieg 1 INTRODUCTION Water is the most abundant substance on the Earth s surface and yet is the most limiting to maximum productivity of nearly all crop plants. Land plants,

### Soil Erosion. Physics. Grade LEARNING OUTCOMES DESCRIPTION READINESS ACTIVITIES MATERIALS. Science

Soil Erosion Science Grade 10-12 Classroom Individual reading DESCRIPTION Soil erosion is a major problem in Agriculture. Tonnes of soil are lost from fields every year. This not only reduces crop production,

### Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer in regional scale climate modeling. R.A. Feddes, K. Metselaar, l.wipfler and J.C. van Dam

Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer in regional scale climate modeling R.A. Feddes, K. Metselaar, l.wipfler and J.C. van Dam Water balance components P E R D root q p Global circulation Atmosphere Processes

### Drain your groundwater problems away

Drain your groundwater problems away A ground breaking solution for flooding and standing water Increased development in urban areas has given rise to land with a larger proportion of non-permeable surfaces,

### Estimating Soil Moisture by Feel and Appearance Revised 8/01

Estimating Soil Moisture by Feel and Appearance Revised 8/01 Evaluating soil moisture using feel and appearance is a simple low cost method that may be used to: Determine when irrigation is needed. Estimate

### GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE

GENERAL WATERING & CARE GUIDE Between 30-60 percent of water applied to lawns and gardens is never absorbed by the plants. Water is often wasted because it is applied too quickly and runs off, evaporates

### 6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B.

1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude

### Figure 1. Rainwater soil storage and infiltration system components.

Rainwater Harvesting: Soil Storage and Infiltration Systems Authors: Justin Mechell, Extension Assistant, and Bruce Lesikar, Professor and Extension Program Leader for Biological and Agricultural Engineering,

### Management Allowed Depletion Irrigation Scheduling. Doug Callison CID-CLIA Senior Product Manager

Management Allowed Depletion Irrigation Scheduling Doug Callison CID-CLIA Senior Product Manager Question? What irrigation controller program day cycle setting should I use? Custom, Odd, Odd31, Even, or

### Core 1 Core 2 Core 3 CLL mean 16.9 20.0 21.9 23.1 24.0 25.7 26.1 18.5 20.7 22.1 23.0 23.5 24.9 25.7 17.9 19.8 21.5 22.3 23.5 25.0 25.

Module 4. Determining Plant Available Water Capacity The neutron moisture meter (NMM) A neutron moisture meter emits fast neutrons which are reflected back at slow speeds to a detector in proportion to

### SOIL MOISTURE MONITORING SYSTEM Reference

SOIL MOISTURE MONITORING SYSTEM Reference THE ISAACS SOIL MOISTURE MONITORING ADVANTAGE The Isaacs Remote Soil Moisture Monitoring System is designed to make tracking soil moisture levels easier and faster

### Irrigation - How Best to Water Your Desert Trees

Irrigation - How Best to Water Your Desert Trees John Eisenhower, ISA Certified Arborist WE-5213A Integrity Tree Service, Inc. 602-788-0005 www.itreeservice.com How much water do my trees need? How much

### Drought Decision-Support Tools: Introducing the Agricultural Reference Index for Drought ARID 1

AE469 Drought Decision-Support Tools: Introducing the Agricultural Reference Index for Drought ARID 1 Clyde W. Fraisse, Eduardo M. Gelcer, and Prem Woli 2 Introduction Agriculture is inherently risky.

### PART VI Soils of Virginia

Soils of Virginia 69 PART VI Soils of Virginia James C. Baker, Extension Soils and Land Use Specialist There are more than 600 soil series mapped in Virginia. These soils show great ranges in properties

### Chapter 2 The hydrological cycle

Chapter 2 The hydrological cycle The hydrologic cycle is a conceptual model that describes the storage and movement of water between the biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and the hydrosphere (see Figure

### Lecture Series in Water, Soil and Atmosphere (315.340) Unit 1: Interaction Soil / Vegetation / Atmosphere

Dept. Water, Soil & Atmosphere Institute of Hydraulics and Rural Water Management University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Lecture Series in Water, Soil and Atmosphere (315.340) Unit 1:

### Maintaining a Healthy Lawn

Maintaining a Healthy Lawn in Western Oregon A.M. VanDerZanden and T. Cook EC 1521 Reprinted February 2001 \$1.50 The typical home lawn is an evolving ecosystem that gets more complex each year. At first,

### Waterwise Landscaping: Designing a Drought-tolerant (and deer-resistant) Landscape and Garden

Waterwise Landscaping: Designing a Drought-tolerant (and deer-resistant) Landscape and Garden Basic principles of xeriscaping How to Design and Implement Plants and Practical Information UCCE Master Gardeners

### Flash Flood Science. Chapter 2. What Is in This Chapter? Flash Flood Processes

Chapter 2 Flash Flood Science A flash flood is generally defined as a rapid onset flood of short duration with a relatively high peak discharge (World Meteorological Organization). The American Meteorological

### Water & Climate Review

Water & Climate Review 1. The cross section below shows the direction of air flowing over a mountain. Points A and B are at the same elevation on opposite sides of the mountain. 4. The graph below shows

### Using Web-based Software for Irrigation and Nitrogen Management in Onion Production: our Research Plan for 2013

Using Web-based Software for Irrigation and Nitrogen Management in Onion Production: our Research Plan for 2013 Andre Biscaro, Farm Advisor UCCE Los Angeles County Michael Cahn, Farm Advisor UCCE Monterey

### Hydrologic Soil Groups

United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Hydrology Chapter 7 Rain clouds Cloud formation Precipitation Transpiration Surface runoff Evaporation from vegetation Transpiration

### TECHNICAL NOTE ON USING HELP MODEL (VER. 3.07) I: INPUT STEPS GUIDE

TECHNICAL NOTE ON USING HELP MODEL (VER. 3.07) I: INPUT STEPS GUIDE The purpose of this document is to help the users of HELP Model through the input procedures, and interpretation of the output results.

### EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION

EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION The Weather Envoy consists of two parts: the Davis Vantage Pro 2 Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) and the

### NCWCD IRRIGATION SCHEDULING PROGRAM - CONVERTING TO A WEB-BASED ACCESSIBLE PROGRAM. James E. Draper 1 ABSTRACT

NCWCD IRRIGATION SCHEDULING PROGRAM - CONVERTING TO A WEB-BASED ACCESSIBLE PROGRAM James E. Draper 1 ABSTRACT In an effort to assist residents with conserving water, Northern Colorado Water Conservancy

### William Northcott Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Michigan State University. NRCS Irrigation Training Feb 2-3 and 9-10, 2010

William Northcott Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Michigan State University NRCS Irrigation Training Feb 2-3 and 9-10, 2010 Irrigation Scheduling Process of maintaining an optimum

### 3.3 Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 3.3.1 NDVI: A non-technical overview

Page 1 of 6 3.3 Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 3.3.1 NDVI: A non-technical overview The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) gives a measure of the vegetative cover on the land

### Influence of Climatic Factors on Stormwater Runoff Reduction of Green Roofs

Influence of Climatic Factors on Stormwater Runoff Reduction of Green Roofs North Temperate Zone Greenskins Lab Runoff Retention / Precipitation (Annual %) Vancouver, BC 29% Malmö, Sweden 47 % Rock Springs,

### CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS

CHAPTER 2 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS SANITARY SEWERS The hydraulic design procedure for sewers requires: 1. Determination of Sewer System Type 2. Determination of Design Flow 3. Selection of Pipe Size 4. Determination

### Soil-Moisture Monitoring

Soil-Moisture Monitoring A Simple Method to Improve Alfalfa and Pasture Management Steve Orloff, Blaine Hanson & Dan Putnam Introduction water is essential for profitable crop production in most of the

### College of Agriculture, P.O. Box 210036 Tucson, Arizona 85721-0036

Irrigating Citrus Trees ISSUED FEBRUARY 2000 BY: Glenn C. Wright Associate Specialist ag.arizona.edu/pubs/ crops/az1151.pdf This information has been reviewed by university faculty. COOPERATIVE EXTENSION

### For all turfgrass areas. Now you can test soil reaction at different levels in the soil profile. Check Soil ph on:

Turf-Tec ph Meter Test soil ph in the mat, thatch and above and below the root zone. ph can be checked, 0" to 4" inch level right on the turfgrass area. Simply insert probe to desired depth, allow to stand

### You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil.

Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You

### Irrigation Scheduling on Small Grains using AZSCHED for Windows - Safford Agricultural Center, 2003

Irrigation Scheduling on Small Grains using AZSCHED for Windows - Safford Agricultural Center, 23 L.J. Clark and K.F. Ellsworth Abstract The AZSCHED irrigation scheduling software was developed in the

### Green Values Stormwater Calculator Methodology

Green Values Stormwater Calculator Methodology The CNT Green Values Stormwater Calculator (greenvalues.cnt.org) is designed to arrive at a first approximation of the hydrologic and financial conditions

### Drip Irrigation for the Yard and Garden

Drip Irrigation for the Yard and Garden R. Troy Peters, Ph.D. WSU Extension Irrigation Engineer Drip irrigation has many advantages over sprinklers. The application efficiency of sprinklers is typically

### CE394K GIS IN WATER RESOURCES TERM PROJECT REPORT

CE394K GIS IN WATER RESOURCES TERM PROJECT REPORT Soil Water Balance in Southern California Cheng-Wei Yu Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program Introduction Historical Drought Condition

### Water Saving Technology

Water Saving Technology Water Demand & Irrigation Miguel Aguila aguila@gemuese-garten.com Prof. Dr. S. Kleisinger Project for Water and Fertilizer Use Efficiency November 6, 2009 EDUCATIONAL AND WORK HISTORY

### Simple Ways to Save Water in the Landscape. Celeste White Orange County University of Florida Extension

Simple Ways to Save Water in the Landscape Celeste White Orange County University of Florida Extension Landscape irrigation accounts for an estimated 50% of total home water use Some Things Are In Your

### Accuracy of Moisture Sensors in Saline Soils

Accuracy of Moisture Sensors in Saline Soils Elena Sevostianova and Bernd Leinauer 28 research report submitted to the New Mexico State University s Water Resources Research Institute Summary A study was

### STORM DRAIN DESIGN STANDARDS SECTION 4

STORM DRAIN DESIGN STANDARDS SECTION 4 4.100 GENERAL All drainage facilities shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering principles, and shall conform to these Design Standards. 4.200 SUBMITTAL

### Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help

September 2012 Prepared by David Minner, extension turfgrass specialist Iowa State University Extension and Outreach Drought Damaged Lawns Need Help While the drought of 2012 may be remembered more for

### IRRIGATOR S HANDBOOK. Working with Volumetric Allocations

IRRIGATOR S HANDBOOK Working with Volumetric Allocations Natural Resources South East 11 Helen Street, Mount Gambier PO Box 1046, Mount Gambier, SA 5290 Telephone National (08) 8735 1177 International+61

### Irrigation System Maintenance

November 2004 HG/Irrigation/2004/01 Irrigation System Maintenance Kelly Kopp, Extension Water Conservation and Turfgrass Specialist, and Jennie Hoover, Water Conservation Specialist, Center for Water Efficient

### Rational Method Hydrologic Calculations with Excel. Rational Method Hydrologic Calculations with Excel, Course #508. Presented by:

Rational Method Hydrologic Calculations with Excel, Course #508 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com Calculation of peak storm water runoff rate from a drainage

### Review of Soil Moisture Calculation Method. 2. Conceptual Model of Soil Moisture Over a Shallow Water Table

1 Review of Soil Moisture Calculation Method 1. Introduction In accordance with the Habitats Directive, the Environment Agency is required to carry out an appropriate assessment when considering applications

### DESCRIPTION OF STORMWATER STRUCTURAL CONTROLS IN MS4 PERMITS

DESCRIPTION OF STORMWATER STRUCTURAL CONTROLS IN MS4 PERMITS Phase I MS4 permits require continuous updating of the stormwater system inventory owned and operated by the MS4. They also include inspection

### In Partnership: 1. Why are farmers installing tile (subsurface) drainage? 2. Do my soils have too much clay to tile drain?

Frequently Asked Questions about Subsurface (Tile) Drainage in the Red River Valley Gary R. Sands, U of M Extension Engineer Hans Kandel, NDSU Extension Agronomist Chris Hay, SDSU Extension Engineer Tom

### Measuring Soil Moisture for Irrigation Water Management

Measuring Soil Moisture for Irrigation Water Management FS 876 by Hal Werner, Extension irrigation engineer Irrigation water management requires timely application of the right amount of water. Competition

### Code of Practice Irrigated Public Open Space

1 Code of Practice Irrigated Public Open Space For Sound Sports Ground Turf and Irrigation Management 2 Acknowledgements Image Courtesy of FFSA Funding Organisations Department of Environment Water and

### EVALUATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION-BASED AND SOIL-MOISTURE- BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL IN TURF

EVALUATION OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION-BASED AND SOIL-MOISTURE- BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL IN TURF Garry L.Grabow 1, Arjun Vasanth 1, Dan Bowman 2, Rodney L. Huffman 1, and Grady L. Miller 2 1 Department of Biological

### Corn Information for Corn Growers

Corn Information for Corn Growers Vernon G. James Research and Extension Center, Plymouth, NC 27962 Irrigation Management in Corn Ron Heiniger Cropping Systems Specialist North Carolina State University

### GCO 2431 Irrigation 1

GCO 2431 Irrigation 1 BASIC HYDRAULICS & SYSTEM DESIGN IRRIGATION INSTRUCTOR Doug Callison Area Specifications Manager 1/4/98 DESIGN TERMINOLOGY Scale = mechanical or engineering measurements. Plan view

### DRI Workshop-2007. R. L. Raddatz U of Winnipeg

DRI Workshop-2007 R. L. Raddatz U of Winnipeg Raddatz,R.L, 2005. Moisture recycling on the Canadian Prairies for summer droughts and pluvials from 1997 to 2003. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 131,

### Soaker Hoses for Trees & Foundations. Patty Sipe Heads Up Sprinkler Company www.headsupsprinkler.com

Soaker Hoses for Trees & Foundations Patty Sipe Heads Up Sprinkler Company www.headsupsprinkler.com U.S. Drought Monitor as of April 1, 2014 Lavon Lake Elevation as of April 7, 2014 2012 2013 2014 BY LAW:

### NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT.

September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5-694.300 MIX DESIGN 5-694.300 NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT. 5-694.301

### Basic Soil Erosion and Types

Basic Soil Erosion and Types 2015 Wisconsin Lakes Convention Stacy Dehne DATCP Engineer Types of Soil Erosion Rain drop or splash erosion: Erosion preceded by the destruction of the crumb structure due

### Landscape Irrigation Design Manual

Landscape Irrigation Design Manual c Contents Forward...v Introduction...vii Step one: Understanding basic hydraulics...3 Static water pressure...4 Dynamic water pressure...6 Exercises on basic hydraulics...9

### Infiltration Assessment

1. The Use of Infiltration The use of infiltration to dispose of stormwater runoff has a number of important benefits: It can reduce the volume of runoff and the peak rates of runoff discharged from the

### PDSI Users Manual Version 2.0

PDSI Users Manual Version 2.0 Nathan Wells National Agricultural Decision Support System http://nadss.unl.edu University of Nebraska-Lincoln nwells@cse.unl.edu July 15, 2003 Contents Introduction... 3

### NITROGEN MANAGEMENT WITH DRIP AND SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

NITROGEN MANAGEMENT WITH DRIP AND SPRINKLER IRRIGATION Clinton C. Shock Malheur Experiment Station, Oregon State University Ontario, Oregon (541) 889-2174 Clinton.Shock@oregonstate.edu INTRODUCTION: EARLY

### GUIDELINES FOR SOIL FILTER MEDIA IN BIORETENTION SYSTEMS (Version 2.01) March 2008

GUIDELINES FOR SOIL FILTER MEDIA IN BIORETENTION SYSTEMS (Version 2.01) March 2008 The following guidelines for soil filter media in bioretention systems have been prepared on behalf of the Facility for

### AZ EGER-PATAK HIDROLÓGIAI VIZSGÁLATA, A FELSZÍNI VÍZKÉSZLETEK VÁRHATÓ VÁLTOZÁSÁBÓL ADÓDÓ MÓDOSULÁSOK AZ ÉGHAJLATVÁLTOZÁS HATÁSÁRA

AZ EGER-PATAK HIDROLÓGIAI VIZSGÁLATA, A FELSZÍNI VÍZKÉSZLETEK VÁRHATÓ VÁLTOZÁSÁBÓL ADÓDÓ MÓDOSULÁSOK AZ ÉGHAJLATVÁLTOZÁS HATÁSÁRA GÁBOR KEVE 1, GÉZA HAJNAL 2, KATALIN BENE 3, PÉTER TORMA 4 EXTRAPOLATING

### GLOBAL CIRCULATION OF WATER

Global Circulation of Water MODULE - 8A 27 GLOBAL CIRCULATION OF WATER More than three-fourths of the earth s surface is covered by water. Water is an odorless, tasteless, substance than can naturally

### The following general requirements will be met for all planter box installations:

Greenville County Technical Specification for: U-LID-02 PLANTER BOX 1.0 Planter Box 1.1 Description Planter boxes are designed to capture and temporarily store storm water runoff. Planter Boxes are intended

### I can build a model to simulate parts of the water cycle. I will be able to recognize and explain the essential elements of the water cycle.

The Water Cycle I can build a model to simulate parts of the water cycle. I will be able to recognize and explain the essential elements of the water cycle. Background Water, in its different forms, cycles

### The Water Cycle Now You See It, Now You Don t

The Water Cycle Now You See It, Now You Don t Unit: Salinity Patterns & the Water Cycle l Grade Level: Elementary l Time Required: Introduction - 30 min. - Activity as groups 45min Wrap Up 20 min l Content

### Rain Gardens: Designing your Landscape to Protect Aquatic Resources. Curtis Hinman WSU Extension Faculty Watershed Ecologist chinman@wsu.

Rain Gardens: Designing your Landscape to Protect Aquatic Resources Curtis Hinman WSU Extension Faculty Watershed Ecologist chinman@wsu.edu Basic Design Characteristics Shallow landscaped depressions that

### 7. Runoff Processes 7-1

7. Runoff Processes 7-1 Rain and snowmelt water take various paths to streams. Each path contributes differently to; - peak and timing of storm runoff - erosion - transport of chemicals into streams Planners

### MONITORING OF DROUGHT ON THE CHMI WEBSITE

MONITORING OF DROUGHT ON THE CHMI WEBSITE Richterová D. 1, 2, Kohut M. 3 1 Department of Applied and Land scape Ecology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech

### Efficient Irrigation via Smart Control. Rick Foster Sr. Product Manager

Efficient Irrigation via Smart Control Rick Foster Sr. Product Manager The World s Water Crisis There is no new water. Current Water Issues The cost of water & power is rising annually As the population

### Water Conservation: responsibility. The principal goals of Earth-Kind include:

Water Conservation: An adequate supply of high quality water has become a critical issue for the future prosperity of Texas. Booming populations have increased the demand on the state s already limited

### VIII. PLANTS AND WATER

VIII. PLANTS AND WATER Plants play a large role in the hydrologic cycle. Transpiration, the evaporative loss of water from leaves of natural and cultivated vegetation, returns to the atmosphere about 60

### WILLOCHRA BASIN GROUNDWATER STATUS REPORT 2009-10

WILLOCHRA BASIN GROUNDWATER STATUS REPORT 2009-10 SUMMARY 2009-10 The Willochra Basin is situated in the southern Flinders Ranges in the Mid-North of South Australia, approximately 50 km east of Port Augusta

### Section 5 CLIMATE TABLES

Section Section CLIMATE SOURCES OF DATA... -1 HISTORICAL CONTEXT... -1 PRECIPITATION... -2 TEMPERATURES... -3 EVAPOTRANSPIRATION... -3 WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION... -4 DEGREE DAYS...-4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...

### Computing Stormwater Runoff Rates and Volumes

New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual February 2004 C H A P T E R 5 Computing Stormwater Runoff Rates and Volumes This chapter discusses the fundamentals of computing stormwater runoff

### Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity

Create Your Own Soil Profile Ac5vity Middle School: 5-8 Task Overview: Soil profile refers to layers of soil. A typical soil profile takes nearly 1,000 to 100,000 years to form. The formation of the soil

### SWAT INPUT DATA:.GW CHAPTER 24

CHAPTER 24 SWAT INPUT DATA:.GW SWAT partitions groundwater into two aquifer systems: a shallow, unconfined aquifer which contributes return flow to streams within the watershed and a deep, confined aquifer

### Drip Irrigation for Agricultural Producers R. Troy Peters, Ph.D., P.E. WSU Extension Irrigation Specialist

Drip Irrigation for Agricultural Producers R. Troy Peters, Ph.D., P.E. WSU Extension Irrigation Specialist Drip irrigation (also trickle or micro irrigation) involves emitting water directly to the soil

### Rogue Valley Weather and Climate. Modified from program by Gregory V. Jones, Southern Oregon University

Rogue Valley Weather and Climate Modified from program by Gregory V. Jones, Southern Oregon University Talk Outline General Weather and Climate Overview Weather and Climate Large Scale Controls Weather

### Water Scarcity in Egypt:

2014 Water Scarcity in Egypt: Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egypt February 2014 I. Introduction Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national

### Basic Hydrology. Time of Concentration Methodology

Basic Hydrology Time of Concentration Methodology By: Paul Schiariti, P.E., CPESC Mercer County Soil Conservation District What is the Time of Concentration? The time it takes for runoff to travel from

### Drought in the Czech Republic in 2015 A preliminary summary

Drought in the Czech Republic in 2015 A preliminary summary October 2015, Prague DISCLAIMER All data used in this preliminary report are operational and might be a subject of change during quality control.

### Profile Lawn & Landscape Porous Ceramic Soil Conditioner AT THE ROOT OF BEAUTIFUL LANDSCAPES

Profile Lawn & Landscape Porous Ceramic Soil Conditioner AT THE ROOT OF BEAUTIFUL LANDSCAPES Introduce Profile Lawn & Landscape Porous Ceramic into Your Soil Hold air, water and nutrients at the root zone.

### Water efficiency in agriculture

CHAPTER 5 Water efficiency in agriculture Water efficiency of irrigation can be improved by making the right decisions regarding: Crop selection Irrigation scheduling Irrigation methods Source of water.

### APPLICATION FOR GRAYWATER IRRIGATION SYSTEM PERMIT SIMPLE RESIDENTIAL GRAVITY SYSTEMS, NO STORAGE

APPLICATION FOR GRAYWATER IRRIGATION SYSTEM PERMIT SIMPLE RESIDENTIAL GRAVITY SYSTEMS, NO STORAGE Please read the California Plumbing Code Chapter 16A-1 Design Requirements before completing this form.

### Hamilton County Rain Garden Infiltration Studies

Hamilton County Rain Garden Infiltration Studies RAIN GARDEN SOILS IN HAMILTON COUNTY Dave Dyke, Commercial Horticulture Educator, OSUE, Hamilton County Following are: 1 ) A discussion of recommendations

### Field instrumentation. Crop and Environmental Sciences Division International Rice Research Institute Los Baños, Philippines

Field instrumentation Crop and Environmental Sciences Division International Rice Research Institute Los Baños, Philippines Field water balance lowland rice Two types of instruments Instruments to measure

### Guidelines for Control of Water Runoff on Small Lots. Revised 6/09

Guidelines for Control of Water Runoff on Small Lots Revised 6/09 Table of Contents Introduction and Purpose 3 Administrative Procedures 3 Plan Submittal Requirements 3 General Design Criteria 4 Dry Wells

### MIKE 21 FLOW MODEL HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN APPLICATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FLOODING AND DRYING

1 MIKE 21 FLOW MODEL HINTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN APPLICATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FLOODING AND DRYING This note is intended as a general guideline to setting up a standard MIKE 21 model for applications

### Efficient Irrigation via Smart Control. Rick Foster Sr. Product Manager

Efficient Irrigation via Smart Control Rick Foster Sr. Product Manager The World s Water Crisis There is no new water. Current Water Issues The cost of water & power is rising annually As the population