Migration and Current Challenges to the EU Alpeuregio Summer School in Institutions and Policies of the EU 13 July 2016

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1 International Organization for Migration Migration and Current Challenges to the EU Alpeuregio Summer School in Institutions and Policies of the EU 13 July 2016

2 Migration and Current Challenges to the EU International Organization for Migration (IOM) 13 July 2016 I. Introduction: IOM at a glance II. The Crisis, Setting the Scene: Data, Trends, Challenges, Perspective III. EU Response IV. Resettlement and Relocation V. Conclusions International Implications

3 IOM AT A GLANCE WHO WE ARE The International Organization for Migration is the leading intergovernmental organization in the field of migration. OUR MISSION Migration for the benefit of all IOM is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and societies. IOM, 1960 One hundred and thirty four Czech refugees depart Rome for Australia on 20 June 1962.

4 IOM AT A GLANCE WHAT WE DO IOM acts with its partners in the international community to: Assist in meeting the growing operational challenges of migration management. Advance understanding of migration issues. Encourage social and economic development through migration. IOM, 2014 Khalil Ibrahim, 48, a Syrian refugee from Aleppo and one of the beneficiaries of the tents donated by the Japanese government. Uphold the human dignity and wellbeing of migrants.

5 IOM MEMBER STATES From 67 in 1998 to 165 today

6 IOM AT A GLANCE IOM REGIONAL OFFICE IN BRUSSELS Acts as IOM s liaison and coordination office to the European Union (EU) institutions and other key Brussels-based stakeholders. Supports IOM offices worldwide on EU-related policy, programmes, legislation and cooperation. Provides policy, programme and resource management support to 29 IOM Country Offices covering the EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland. Web eea.iom.int

7 IOM Presence along the Migratory Routes

8 The Migrant & Refugee Crisis II. Setting the Scene

9 What are we seeing? Fluid and fast changing situation Mixed nature and composition of the migration flows Large numbers of vulnerable migrants High volume of movements expected to continue

10 Since January 2016 Over 238,934 arrivals to Europe 230,885 by sea 8,049 by land At least 2,920 people dead or missing in the Mediterranean

11 61,665 stranded migrants and refugees in Greece, fyrom, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Hungary (as of 6 July 2016)

12 Comprehensive Online Data Platform: migration.iom.int/europe/

13 Who are arriving? Complex Migration Flows: groups with different immediate needs who fall under different protection frameworks Includes: Migrant workers, smuggled migrants, trafficked persons, unaccompanied and separated children, environmental migrants, stranded migrants, pregnant women, victims of exploitation and abuse, as well as refugees, asylum-seekers, and individuals seeking to re-unite with their families.

14 Who are arriving? Migrant & Refugee Profiles along the two main routes Central Mediterranean Route from Africa Nigerians and Eritreans represent the largest numbers with respectively 12,000 and 9,000 arrivals in together with significant numbers of Gambians, Ivorians and Guineans. Compared to 2015, there is an increasing number of women and children, including separated or unaccompanied children. Alerting number of Egyptian minors arrived in Italy this year Eastern Mediterranean Route and Western Balkans Syrians, Afghans, and Iraqis predominated, followed by migrants from Pakistan, Iran Arrivals on this route have severely decreased since end March

15 What is driving them? Main push factors Security Drivers protracted violence and insecurity caused by civil wars, armed groups, extremists & terrorists Economic Drivers high unemployment, few job prospects, especially for youth Political Drivers - political persecution, poor governance and rule of law, states that fail or deprive its citizens, e.g. lack of rights protection. Social Drivers - Lack or difficulty in access to social services, education & healthcare often exacerbated by rapid, unmanaged urbanization. Some cultural traditions also see migration as a rite of passage. Environment / Climate-Related Drivers environmental degradation due to mismanagement and exacerbated by climate instability: water shortages, drought, desertification, erosion, flooding and landslides

16 The Migrant & Refugee Crisis III. EU Institutions Response

17 I want to appeal to all potential illegal economic migrants wherever you are from: do not come to Europe. Do not believe the smugglers. Do not risk your lives and your money. It's all for nothing." European Council president Donald Tusk, March 3rd

18 European Union Response: towards a comprehensive solution EU-Turkey Agreement and Joint Action Plan European Agenda on Migration Western Balkans 17-point plan of action Valletta Summit: Plan of Action and European Union Trust Fund for Africa Syria Regional (Madad) Trust Fund Regional Development & Protection Programmes (RDPPs) for Horn of Africa & North Africa EU Relocation and Resettlement European Union Action Plan on Return Hotspots in Italy and Greece Planned EU border and coast guard

19 New Partnership Framework with 3 rd countries under the European Agenda on Migration (7 June 2016) short term: saving lives; increasing the rate of returns; enabling migrants and refugees to stay close to home and to avoid taking dangerous journeys Long term: reduce the root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement by addressing political, social and economic factors Migration compacts combining different policy elements within EU competence (ENP, trade, energy, )

20 Review of the European Neighbourhood Policy 2015 ENP: Reinforce relations with neighbouring countries to the east and south in order to promote prosperity, stability and security at the EU s borders Key sectors Review: o Inclusive economic and social development o Security sector, conflict prevention, counter-terrorism, anti-radicalisation border security o Safe and legal mobility tackling irregular migration, human trafficking, smuggling o Energy security and climate action

21 The Migrant & Refugee Crisis IV. Resettlement and Relocation

22 Resettlement & protection Definition (UNHCR): The selection and transfer of refugees from a state in which they have sought protection to a third state that has agreed to receive them as refugees with a permanent residence status Part of the emergency response Available to refugees recognized by UNHCR Around 1% of recognized refugees Other important forms of protection: humanitarian admission; family reunification; individual sponsorship

23 IOM and Refugee Resettlement Article 1 of the IOM Constitution mandates the Organization to: concern itself with the organized transfer of refugees, displaced persons and other individuals in need of international migration services for whom arrangements may be made between the Organization and the States concerned, including those States undertaking to receive them.

24 IOM s involvement in resettlement Long tradition of resettlement assistance Active around the world in sending and in receiving countries Supporting refugees from pre-departure information to post-arrival integration Programmes vary from country to country

25 1. Case Processing 2. Health Assessments 3. Pre-departure cultural orientation Training 4. Movement Management IOM s Package of Resettlement Services 5. Post-Arrival Orientation & Integration 4 a) Pre-embarkation Briefing 4 c) Arrival Formalities 4 b) Transit Assistance

26 Resettled refugees 2015 IOM resettled approximately 1 person every 5 minutes In total, IOM facilitated the resettlement of 107,557 14,265 of those were resettled to Europe People were resettled out of 50 countries of first refuge to 23 countries of resettlement IOM has ongoing programmes in 17 European countries currently expanding

27 International Organization for Migration IOM Resettlement flights on 9 September 2015

28 EU policy development Some EU Member States have longstanding experience in resettlement July 2015: first EU resettlement scheme (22,504 people until 2017) December 2015: Voluntary Humanitarian Admission Scheme with Turkey March 2016: resettlement part of EU Turkey Agreement ( 1-for-1 ) Permanent EU resettlement scheme?

29 Relocation Transfer of asylum files from one EU Member State to another Expression of solidarity with Greece and Italy For a fairer distribution of asylum applicants (up to) 160,000 people from 2015 to 2017 Permanent relocation scheme ( fairness mechanism )? IOM provides: Case processing Pre-departure assistance (health assessment & cultural orientation) Movement assistance

30

31 The Migrant & Refugee Crisis V. Conclusions: International Implications

32 Conclusions: International Implications The situation draws more urgency and attention to The need for increased international responsibility sharing & solidarity, most clearly represented by refugee resettlement. This is not only an EU challenge but multiregional and global The need to address the problems at the root: peacebuilding, stability, global governance, addressing systemic imbalances The need to address long term Development issues. Migration is recognized as an important element of the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which can tackle root causes The implications for radicalism, terrorism, social cohesion and the need to place more priority and energy on welcome & integration; The need for a coherent, comprehensive & balanced approach to achieve the longer term objective of regular, humane and orderly flows. The opportunity for the EU and its 28 Member States to use this current migrant challenge to achieve that objective of a common, comprehensive, long-term EU migration policy/system.

33 Thank you! Layla El Khadraoui Philipp Freudenthaler

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