Assessing the life cycle impacts of mobility in Europe

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1 Assessing the life cycle impacts of mobility in Europe André Pina 15 th June 2015 Work performed for the 1

2 1. Objectives 1. Analyse the structure of the consumption of the products that relate to the general category of mobility 2. Select the products that are representative for the average environmental impact per EU citizen including the analysis of the availability of life cycle data. 3. Quantify the life cycle inventory by product and life cycle stage for the consumption of the products that relate to the general category of mobility 4. Assess the average environmental impact per EU citizen of the consumption of the products that relate to the general category of mobility. 2

3 Energy consumption (PJ) Mobility Life Cycle Indicators 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 The road transportation sub-sector is the largest energy consumer in the transportation sector, accounting for 82% ofthe final energy consumption. The two other largest sub-sectors are aviation, accounting for 14%, and rail responsible for 2%. Due to the small energy consumption of the maritime sub-sector and given that it is mainly used for goods transport, this sub-sector was not considered Total Road Rail Aviation Maritime Unspecified 0.8% 0.4% 7.0% 8.6% 83.2% Passenger cars Buses Rail Aviation Maritime 0 Eurostat, 2014 EU27 passenger split per transport mode in 2010 (Eurostat, 2014) 3

4 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 The analysis of mobility considered 2 main transport groups: 1. Private road transport - transportation service not available to the general public, which is divided in: Passenger cars; and Two wheelers (2W, including mopeds and motorcycles). 2. Mass transit - shared passenger transport service available to the general public, which is divided in the following categories: Buses (including Urban buses, mainly used for urban transport, and coaches for long distance transport); Rail; and Air. For each country, we estimated: Fleet size by fuel type, engine displacement, age and other characteristics; Level of service for each type of transport (km and pkm); Energy consumption for each type of transport (MJ/km). 4

5 Gasoline <1.4l Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Analysis per country Gasoline 1.4l - 2l Gasoline >2l Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Light duty vehicles Diesel <2l Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Diesel >2l Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Private transport Road transport LPG Mopeds 2-stroke Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Conventional, Euros 1, 2 and 3 Two wheelers Motorcycles <250cm 3 Conventional, Euros 1, 2, and 3 Motorcycles >250cm 3 Conventional, Euros 1, 2, and 3 Diesel Urban buses Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Buses Diesel Coaches Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Fleet composition CNG Urban buses Conventional, Euros 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Rail transport Railcars Electric Diesel Electric Mass transit Locomotives Diesel Steam Air transport 4 Aircraft types Aircraft type 1... Aircraft type 4 5

6 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 Analysis per country Road transport Driving conditions, vkm and average speed Average occupancy factors Highway Rural Urban Level of service Rail transport Train kilometers Passenger kilometers Air transport 68 Types of aircraft models Distance travelled and occupancy factors National flights EU flights Extra EU flights 6

7 Diesel >2,0 l Diesel 1,4-2,0 l Gasoline >2,0 l Gasoline 0,8-1,4 l Gasoline 1,4-2,0 l LPG Coaches Urban Buses Urban CNG Buses 2-stroke <50 cm³ Motorcycles 2-stroke >50 cm³ 4-stroke <250 cm³ 4-stroke >750 cm³ 4-stroke cm³ National flights Intra-EU flights Extra-EU flights Electric Diesel Million pkm Mobility Life Cycle Indicators 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 The total EU mobility service provided for the selected transports is quantified in passenger.kilometers (pkm): 56% passenger cars 32% aviation 5% buses 5% rail 2% two-wheelers Passengers cars Buses 2W Aviation Train 7

8 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 The energy consumption (MJ/km or MJ/pkm) was estimated from the level of service and international reference sources. Road transport Tier 3 energy consumption calculation based on COPERT and EMEP-inventory-guidebook methodology, including weather conditions, type of road (urban, rural, highway) and average speed. Rail transport Estimated from energy consumption data on the rail sector from Eurostat statistics Air transport Based on EMEP-inventory-guidebook methodology for 75 aircraft models and flight types and distances (national, intra-eu, extra-eu) 8

9 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 The energy consumption (MJ/km or MJ/pkm) was estimated from the level of service and international reference sources. Analysis per country Road transport Driving conditions, VKT and average speed Highway Rural Urban Average occupancy factors COPERT Level of service Rail transport Train kilometers Passenger kilometers Eurostat National flights 68 Types of aircraft models EU flights Air transport Extra EU flights Distance travelled and occupancy factors EEA 9

10 Diesel Gasoline LPG 2W Buses Electric Diesel National Intra-EU Extra-EU Diesel Gasoline LPG 2W Buses Electric Diesel National Intra-EU Extra-EU Road transport energy consumption (MJ/km) Others energy consumption (MJ/km) Energy consumption (MJ/p-km) Mobility Life Cycle Indicators 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 The energy consumption (MJ/km or MJ/pkm) was estimated from the level of service and international reference sources. Estimated EU average energy consumption by grouped sub-products in line with literature values. The MJ/pkm analysis shows closer values between the road transport and other types of transport, due to the higher occupancy factors of rail and air transport MJ/km Road transport 1.0 Others MJ/pkm Road Transport Others Passenger cars 2W Buses Rail Aviation Passenger cars 2W Buses Rail Aviation 10

11 2. Characterizing mobility in the EU27 Per capita energy consumption by transportation mode for each EU country Average energy consumption per capita (MJ per capita) for the vehicle usage stage per mobility sub-product, in 2010 Country Passenger cars Rail Aviation 2W Buses Diesel Gasoline LPG Electric Diesel National Intra-EU Extra-EU Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Unted Kingdom

12 3. Quantifying the LCI by product and life stage The emissions inventory and impacts assessment were calculated for the EU using the Ecoinvent 3 database in Simapro, based on the analysis performed at a country level: Sub-product energy consumption values adjusted for calculated EU average Basket-of-products Analysis per country Fleet composition Energy consumption Fleet level of service EU27 fleet characterization and emissions inventory: Production of infrastructure Production of vehicles Vehicle maintenance Vehicle end-of-life EU27 Energy consumption and emissions inventory: Fuel production Vehicle usage Total EU27 Impacts Assessment EU27 12

13 3. Quantifying the LCI by product and life stage The life cycle inventories were quantified for each product and considering three life stages: Production, Use and End-of-Life. Production Infrastructure Vehicle Production Basket-of-products Fleet composition Fuel production pathway Combustion emissions Use Brake wear emissions Vehicle Usage Fleet level of service Tire wear emissions Road wear emissions Vehicle Maintenance Reuse End-of-life Vehicle dismantling Recycling Recovery End-of-life Landfill 13

14 3. Quantifying the LCI by product and life stage The 76 categories were aggregated in 27 Simapro processes for Use and 11 for Production and End of Life, due to data availability. Number of processes Basket-of-products Production Use and End-of-life Passenger Cars 16 2 Mopeds 3 2 Buses 3 2 Rail Transport 2 1 Air Transport 3 4 Total For passenger cars Production and End of Life, weight correction factors were applied for engine displacement differences in sub-products (proxy for vehicle size). 14

15 3. Quantifying the LCI by product and life stage Summarized assumptions Production: Production Infrastructure production Vehicle production Use Fuel production pathway Vehicle usage Vehicle Maintenance End-of-life Dismantling, treatment, recycling, reuse, incineration or landfill of vehicle components Vehicle production: Material composition of each vehicle type modelled in Simapro (percentage) Material type Passenger cars 2W Bus Train Aircraft Aluminium Coppers Ferro metals Glass LO Non-ferro Others Paint PE PET Plastics PP PUR PVC Rubber Steel Textile Zincs Based on ecoinvent,

16 3. Quantifying the LCI by product and life stage Summarized assumptions End-of-life: Production Infrastructure production Vehicle production Use Fuel production pathway Vehicle usage Vehicle Maintenance End-of-life Dismantling, treatment, recycling, reuse, incineration or landfill of vehicle components End-of-life: For each material type, the shares of materials that go through waste processes are: Waste scenario modelled in Simapro (percentage) Material type Reuse Recycling Recovery Landfill Aluminium Coppers Ferro metals Glass Lubricating oils Non-ferro Others Paint PE PET Plastics PP PUR PVC Rubber Steel Textile Zincs Total reuse, recycling, recovery and landfill rates per vehicle type (percentage) Vehicle type Reuse Recycling Recovery Landfill Passenger car W Bus Train Aircraft Based on GHK, BIS,

17 Climate change Ozone depletion Human toxicity, cancer effects Human toxicity, non-cancer effects Particulate matter Ionizing radiation HH Ionizing radiation E (interim) Photochemical ozone formation Acidification Terrestrial eutrophication Freshwater eutrophication Marine eutrophication Freshwater ecotoxicity Land use Water resource depletion Mineral, fossil & ren resource depletion Percentage of impacts Mobility Life Cycle Indicators 3. Quantifying the LCI by product and life stage Life-cycle impacts Total mobility impacts: The Use stage dominates in most impact categories, with the Production stage being still very relevant in several impact categories 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% -20% End-of-life [EOL] Vehicle maintenance [Use] Vehicle usage [Use] Fuel production pathway [Use] Vehicle production [Production] Infrastructure [Production] -40% -60% 17

18 Climate change Ozone depletion Human toxicity, cancer effects Human toxicity, non-cancer effects Particulate matter Ionizing radiation HH Ionizing radiation E (interim) Photochemical ozone formation Acidification Terrestrial eutrophication Freshwater eutrophication Marine eutrophication Freshwater ecotoxicity Land use Water resource depletion Mineral, fossil & ren resource depletion Percentage of impacts Mobility Life Cycle Indicators 3. Quantifying the LCI by product and life stage Life-cycle impacts Total mobility impacts: The passenger cars transport is the main responsible in most environmental categories, followed by air transport 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Air Rail Buses 2W Passenger cars 18

19 4. Conclusions The assessment of the environmental impacts due to mobility considered five products: passenger cars, two wheelers, buses, rail and air. The Use stage is responsible for between 10% and 88% of different environmental impacts of the total EU27 mobility needs, while the End-of-life stage was found to enable the avoidance of up to 36% of the environmental impacts in some categories. Passenger cars were found to have the largest share of the total environmental impacts (40 to 97%), followed by air transport (1 to 42%) and rail transport (1 to 28%). 19

20 5. Future work Policy options for improving the sustainability of mobility Production stage: Light-weighting and more sustainable materials, to reduce the impact of vehicle manufacturing More efficient vehicle production facilities Use stage: Improve fuel efficiency, in line with the current CO 2 reduction targets Reduce vkm either through promoting the increase of vehicle occupancy or the use of alternative transportation modes (rail, biking and walking) End-of-life stage: Stricter end-of-life waste treatment guidelines, which points to a 95% reduction and reuse target for 2015 However, some policy options might have a slow effect due to fleet turnovers lasting for several decades. 20

21 Assessing the life cycle impacts of mobility in Europe André Pina 15 th June 2015 Work performed for the 21

22 Information sources and assumptions Summary of data sources: Large data gaps on usage of sub-products Simapro databases with reduced vehicle categories Data sources for the mobility basket-of-products Product group Road Rail Air Representative product(s) Passenger cars Two wheelers Buses Trains Flight type Representative dataset Number of vehicles per country per fuel type and engine displacement, pkm per vehicle type, vkm travelled per vehicle type and type of road, occupancy factors [5], vehicles average efficiencies [11] Number of vehicles per country, vkm travelled per vehicle type, pkm travelled per vehicle type, passengers transported, rail energy consumption [5] Number of vehicles per country, number of flights per flight type and aircraft model, passengers transported, aircrafts fuel consumption [12] [5] EUROSTAT, Eurostat Transport Data Navigation Tree, 2014 [cited June 2014]. [11] Gkatzoflias, D., C. Kouridis, L. Ntziachristos, and Samaras. Z., COPERT 4, computer programme to calculate emissions from road transport, 2014, ETC/AEM. [12] EEA, EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook 2013, 2013, European Environment Agency. 22

23 Summary of representative products Information sources and assumptions Representative product Passenger cars Two wheelers Buses Rail Air Infrastructure Based on data of Swiss motorways and Class 1, 2 & 3 roads. A value of 5.37E-04 m*y per gross ton vehicle km was applied. Based on average conditions in Switzerland and specific conditions in Germany. Data refers to the conditions at the Zurich airport in Switzerland. Production Vehicle Based on averages over passenger car technologies spanning from 2000 to 2010, for vehicles of 1234 kg for gasoline and 1314 kg for diesel. Considers the vehicle factory. 50 cm 3 scooter containing an ICE motor. Data for manufacturing in Asia and retail in Europe. Manufacturing data for one average lorry with a net weight kg taken from one production site in Germany. Based on the "IC 2000" long-distance train from Switzerland, with a life span of 40 years and a life time performance of vkm. Production of medium haul aircraft, based on an "Airbus A 320" with a max. zero fuel weight of 61 t and a Fuel production pathway Modeling of all fuel production chain. For diesel, 6% (weight) incorporation of biodiesel was considered. Modeling of all fuel production chain. For electricity, the mix was calculated based on 22 EU countries. Modeling of all fuel production chain. Use Vehicle usage Energy consumption estimated for Conventional and Euro 1 to 5, based on country level fleet composition, average driving conditions. Emissions estimated for Euro 3, 4 and 5 per vkm. Emissions for Conventional and Euro 1 and 2 were estimated as Euro 3. Emissions estimated for electric and other trains per pkm assuming 0.49 MJ/pkm for electric trains and 0.82 MJ/pkm for other trains. Other trains assumed to use only diesel. Energy consumption estimated per country based on number of flights and flight type per Vehicle maintenance Data are based on an LCI analysis of standard car (Golf A4, 1240 kg). The dataset was scaled to match the mass of the vehicle fulfilling the transport service. Data based on a 50 cm 3 scooter with 90 kg. Data for an average bus based on Swiss conditions. Data represents train maintenance in Switzerland. Data not available. End-of-life Considers the vehicle dismantling and the reuse, recycling, recovery and landfill of the materials. Considers the vehicle dismantling and the reuse, recycling, recovery and landfill of the materials. Considers the reuse, recycling, recovery and landfill of the materials that compose the vehicle. Considers the reuse, recycling, recovery and landfill of the materials that compose the vehicle. Considers the reuse, recycling, recovery and landfill of the materials 23

24 Summary of Simapro processes for end-oflife treatment / disposal options Information sources and assumptions Material type Aluminium Coppers Ferro metals Glass Lubricating oils Recycling Recovery Landfill Aluminium waste treatment Copper waste treatment Based on Steel and Iron waste treatment Glass waste treatment N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Based on waste mineral oil incineration Non-ferro Based on lead waste treatment N/A Others N/A N/A Paint N/A N/A PE PET Plastics PP PUR PVC Rubber Steel PE waste treatment PET waste treatment Mixed plastics waste treatment PP waste treatment Based on polyurethane waste treatment PVC waste treatment Based on waster rubber treatment Steel and iron waste treatment Based on polyethylene waste incineration Based on polyethylene terephthalate waste incineration Based on waste plastic mixture incineration Based on polypropylene waste incineration Based on polyurethane waste incineration Based on polyvinylchloride waste incineration Based on waster rubber incineration N/A Based on treatment of municipal solid waste for landfill 24

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