SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014)

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1 SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014) 1. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17. Create a Bohr Rutherford diagram of a Cl-35 atom. To achieve a stable arrangement, is this atom most likely to gain or lose one or more electrons? Illustrate the process by which Cl-35 forms an ion. 2. Chlorine has the following naturally occurring isotopes. Cl % Cl % Calculate the atomic mass of chlorine. Show your work. 3. One atom of chlorine contains 17 electrons. Create a Bohr Rutherford diagram and a Lewis symbol for chlorine. Compare and contrast these representations. 4. Describe the relationship between periodic trends in atomic radius and ionization energy. 5. Consider the elements fluorine and bromine. Make a prediction about the relationship between the atomic radii, ionization energies, and electron affinities for these two elements. Give a reason for your predictions. 6. Suppose chlorine gains one electron. What prediction can you make about the ionic radius of the resulting chloride ion? Explain. 7. Sketch a continuum and label it with electronegativity difference values from 0 to 3.0. Mark on the continuum the values at which a bond is likely to be a non-polar covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, or an ionic bond. 8. Draw the Lewis symbols to show the formation of magnesium oxide. Write the chemical formula for the compound produced. 9. Contrast the physical properties of ionic and molecular compounds. 10. Draw a Lewis structure for a molecule of hydrogen cyanide, HCN. Explain the steps for drawing a Lewis structure for a molecular compound. 11. Compare and contrast ionic bonds and covalent bonds. 12. Explain why ionic compounds have relatively high melting points. 13. Create a Lewis structure for the polyatomic ion. 14. Which of the following is likely to form a polar covalent bond: calcium (1.0) and fluorine (4.0) or oxygen (3.4) and hydrogen (2.2)? Electronegativity values are given. Explain your answer. 15. Describe the steps you could follow to determine whether a molecule is polar or non-polar. 16. When a negatively charged material is brought close to a stream of water, the stream will bend toward the material (as shown in the figure). What do you think will occur if a positively charged material is brought close to a stream of water? Explain.

2 17. Examine the Lewis structures and molecular shapes of the following substances: water: carbon dioxide: Explain why one of these is a polar molecule and the other is a non-polar molecule. 18. Compare and contrast dipole dipole forces and London dispersion forces. 19. Describe the two generalizations upon which the activity series of metals is based. 20. What is the law of conservation of mass? 21. Potassium and chlorine react to form potassium chloride, as represented by the following chemical equation: 2 K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s). Which type of chemical reaction is this? Explain. 22. Suppose you are in charge of the disposal of waste chemicals in your high school chemistry lab. From a recent experiment, there is a considerable amount of copper(ii) sulfate in need of disposal. You know this substance is toxic and must determine how it can be made safe. Which type of chemical reaction will you use to aid in making the copper(ii) sulfate safe for disposal? Explain. 23. If magnesium metal is placed in a solution of nickel(ii) sulfate, will a reaction occur? Explain. 24. Suppose solid potassium (K 1+ ) is added to liquid water (H 2 O). Would you expect a reaction to proceed? Explain your answer. If a reaction will proceed, write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. 25. Compare and contrast a single displacement reaction and a double displacement reaction. 26. Explain why a natural gas furnace must be well maintained. 27. Compare and contrast the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon with incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon. 28. Contrast an acid and a base. 29. If nickel has an average atomic mass of u, what is the molar mass of nickel? Explain. 30. Citric acid, C 6 H 8 O 7, is found in many fruits, such as lemons and limes. Calculate the amount of citric acid in 50.0 g. Show your work and explain each step. The molar mass of anhydrous citric acid is g/mol. 31. DDT is a common pesticide. The molecular formula for DDT is C 14 H 9 Cl 5. Calculate the number of molecules in g of DDT. Use the following molar masses in your calculation. Show your work. M C = g/mol M H = 1.01 g/mol M Cl = g/mol 32. When heated, potassium chlorate (KClO 3 ) decomposes into solid potassium chloride (KCl) and oxygen gas (O 2 ). What amount of oxygen is produced from the decomposition of 3.30 mol of potassium chlorate? Show your work and explain each step. 33. Iron (Fe) reacts with sulfur (S 8 ) to produce iron(ii) sulfide (FeS). What amount of sulfur is required to react completely with 2.1 mol of iron? Show your work and explain each step. 34. List four factors that may cause the actual yield in a chemical reaction to be less than the theoretical yield. 35. Compare and contrast limiting and excess reagents. 36. What mass of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is required to prepare 1.5 L of chlorine bleach, if the bleach is a 0.70 mol/l solution of sodium hypochlorite? Show your work and explain each step. The molar mass of sodium hypochlorite is g/mol.

3 37. What is the final concentration when 420 ml of a 12.0 mol/l sodium hydroxide solution is diluted to 2.0 L? Show your work and explain each step. 38. Compare and contrast a total ionic equation and a net ionic equation. 39. Construct a flow chart for the qualitative analysis of a solution that may contain copper ions, Cu + (aq), and/or barium ions, Ba 2+ (aq) g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is dissolved to prepare ml of solution. What is the amount concentration of sodium ions in the solution? The molar mass of sodium hydroxide is g/mol. 41. Joshua was asked to determine the minimum volume of mol/l sodium sulfate, Na 2 SO 4 (aq), that is required to react completely with all the barium ions in ml of a mol/l barium chloride, BaCl 2, solution. His work is shown here. Find and correct Joshua s error. BaCl 2 (aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) CuCO 3 (s) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) = L = mol/l = mol/l 42. Predict the mass of precipitate expected when 2.00 L of mol/l sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is mixed with 1.00 L of a 1.64 mol/l calcium nitrate, Ca(NO 3 ) 2, solution. Show your work and explain each step. The molar mass of Ca(OH) 2 is g/mol. 43. What is the net ionic equation for this total ionic equation? Show your work. 2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + BaSO 4 (s) 44. What evidence lead Arrhenius to conclude that acidic and basic solutions contain ions?

4 45. What is the general formula used to represent an acid? Explain why the state symbol is included in this general formula. 46. Compare and contrast acids and bases according to Arrhenius s theory. 47. Compare and contrast strong and weak acids. 48. How many times more basic is milk of magnesia, with a ph of 10, than pure water at 25 C, with a ph of 7? Explain your answer. 49. What is the net ionic equation that represents a neutralization reaction? Explain ml of mol/l sodium hydroxide, NaOH(aq), is required to titrate ml of a nitric acid solution, HNO 3 (aq), to the endpoint. What is the amount concentration of the nitric acid solution? Show your work and explain each step. 51. Complete the following table showing the name of several acids and the corresponding chemical formulas. Acid name Chemical formula hydrosulfuric acid H 2 SO 3 (aq) HClO 3 (aq) hypochlorous acid HCN(aq) phosphoric acid perchloric acid 52. A solution of sulfuric acid is used to titrate several samples of sodium hydroxide solution. The acceptable data collected from this titration are summarized in the table shown here. What is the average volume of sulfuric acid used? Show your work and explain the steps. Trial final burette volume reading (ml) initial burette volume reading (ml) Compare and contrast the three states of matter. 54. Create a sketch to illustrate each of the three ways in which the entities in matter can move. 55. Examine the illustration of two containers holding equal amounts of the same gas shown here. Heat is added to the second container, which has a movable piston. Pressure on the gasses is held constant. Which gas law is illustrated by this figure? Describe the law.

5 56. The following graph shows the results of an investigation in which the volume of a gas is changed to observe the resulting change in pressure of the gas (if any). For this investigation, the temperature and amount of gas remain constant. Which gas law is represented by this graph? Explain this law. 57. Convert 1250 mm Hg to kpa. Show your work and explain each step. 58. A sample of gas has a volume of 20.0 L at kpa. If the pressure is changed to 88.4 kpa, what is the new volume of gas? Show your work and explain each step. 59. The average January temperature in Ottawa is 10.8 C. Convert this temperature to absolute temperature. Show your work. 60. Determine the volume a gas will occupy at 75 C, if it occupies L at 15 C. Assume the amount of gas and pressure remain constant. Show your work and explain each step. 61. Solve for the missing variable in the following chart: P 1 P 2 V 1 V kpa 125 kpa 7.52 L? 62. Solve for the missing variable in the following chart: P 1 P 2 V 1 V 2? 125 kpa 7.52 L 12.5 L 63. Solve for the missing variable in the following chart: V 1 V 2 T 1 T L 125 L 450 K? 64. Solve for the missing variable in the following chart: V 1 V 2 T 1 T 2 L 125 L 450 K 373 K 65. Consider the following reaction: Barium chloride solution is mixed with potassium sulphate solution to produce a solid precipitate barium sulphate and a solution of potassium chloride. For this reaction, write (a) a balanced chemical equation (b) a total ionic equation (c) a net ionic equation 66. You are given a solution that may contain any or all of acetate, phosphate, and lead ions. Design a flowchart to illustrate your testing for the presence of these ions.

6 67. A ml gas sample at 322 kpa and 25 C was compressed to ml at a temperature of 30 C. Calculate the final pressure. Show your work and explain each step. 68. What volume will 6.0 mol of a gas occupy, if 3.1 mol of the same gas occupies a volume of 47 L? Assume pressure and temperature are kept constant. Show your work and explain each step. 69. Describe the five properties of an ideal gas. 70. If a helium-filled balloon has a volume of 22.0 L at 14 C and kpa, what amount of helium does the balloon contain? Show your work and explain each step. 71. Describe Avogadro s law. What is one application of this law? 72. What is the volume of 72.5 g of chlorine gas, Cl 2 (g), at 104 kpa and 12.0 C? Show your work and explain each step. The molar mass of chlorine gas, M Cl2 is g/mol. 73. Methane gas, CH 4 (g), reacts with oxygen gas, O 2 (g), to produce carbon dioxide, CO 2 (g), and water, H 2 O(g). If both gases are measured at the same temperature and pressure, what volume of carbon dioxide is produced along with 10 L of water? Show your work and explain each step. 74. In the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide, CO 2 (g) reacts with water, H 2 O(g), to produce glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 (g), and oxygen, O 2 (g). What volume of glucose is produced when 7.20 g of carbon dioxide reacts with excess water? All gases are at 34 C and kpa. The molar mass of carbon dioxide, is g/mol. Show your work and explain each step. 75. Potassium chlorate decomposes to form potassium chloride and oxygen gas. What mass of potassium chlorate is required to form g of potassium chloride? 76. Consider the following balanced equation: 2AgNO 3 + CaCl 2 2AgCl + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Calculate the number of moles of AgCl that will be produced when g of calcium chloride are reacted. 77. Iron(III) oxide can be formed by combining iron and oxygen gas. Determine the mass of iron(iii) oxide produced when 48.2 g of oxygen gas is reacted with excess iron. 78. Consider the following balanced equation: CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Determine the limiting reagent when 12.0 g of methane, CH 4, and 20.0 g of oxygen gas are available for reaction g of copper metal is reacted with 2.5 L of 3.0 mol/l nitric acid solution. Calculate how much of the copper metal remains after the reaction is complete. 80. A student mixed ml of a mol/l solution of barium chloride with ml of a mol/l solution of iron(iii) sulphate. The barium sulphate precipitate was filtered, dried, and was measured to have a mass of 2.0 g. Calculate the % yield of the barium sulphate.

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