Tectonics and motion of the Ryukyu trench

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1 1 8 2 Vol. 18 No ( ) PROGRESS IN GEOPHYSICS June 2003 (, ),,.,.,,. (2Ma ),,.,..,,, P313 A (2003) Tectonics and motion of the Ryukyu trench GAO Xiang2lin ( Institute of Geology, China Seismological Bureau, Beijing , China) Abstract This review summarizes recent progress in studies on the tectonics and motion of Ryukyu trench. This trench, lying be2 tween Kyushu of Japan and Taiwan, is the boundary between the Eurasia plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Along this trench the Philippine Sea plate is subducting under the Ryukyu island arc, as evidenced by the seismic reflection surveys, earthquake source locating results, and fault plane solutions of earthquakes. There have been some indicators including GPS measurements showing that the Ryukyu island arc as well as the Ryukyu trench is retreating toward the ocean. This motion is associated with the backarc spreading in the Okinawa trough. Both the retreating motion and backarc spreading in the last phase very likely began since the late Pliocene time (2Ma ago). The extensional deformation of the backarc basin is perpendicular to the strike of the trough in its southern part and becomes more and more oblique when going northeastward. The southward components of motion and deformation are domi2 nant, in particular in the south part of the island arc and the trough. Beyond the Okinawa trough going to the East Sea of China, the recent deformation seems little. The trench treating or subduction rollback, in relation to backarc basins, is still an enigmatic fea2 ture of converging plate boundaries, although many models have been proposed to explain the mechanism of it. It is popularly ac2 cepted that the dynamic nonbalance of the subducting slab and interaction between the slab and neighboring mantle are the important factors for the lateral migration of a subduction slab. Keywords Ryukyu trench ; subduction ; trench retreating, backarc spreading 0,, 1000 km., 6000 m, (7507 m) m( 1).. (126 E ) NE, (126E 123 E ) EW, 123 E NWW2SEE.,,.,,.,, ; ( ).,,1947,1990,.

2 ,., ( 1)., [1 ],. GPS [2,3 ], [4 ], ( 2).,? 20 70,. [5 ], 3 4 cm/ a [6 ].,,,?., ,, [7,8 ] ( 3a).,., V,, 4,, 10 km.,, ( 3b)., 12 km,,,, ( 3c). ( ), ( Ma),, 20 mgal., 1 Fig. 1 Geographical location of the Ryukyu trench

3 2 : Ma, 300 mgal, [7,8 ].,,. 2, 5 6., 300 km, km., km [9 ]., 29 N,, 70 ;, 55, ( 4). 4, T, 5 E 18, NW,, NW - SE.,, P NW2SE, (126 E,NE ) NW2SE. (25 29 N),,, [10,11 ] ( 5). (126 E,24 N ),,.,,, [12 ]. 3,.,., 2 GPS ( ) ( [4 ]) Fig. 2 Horizontal velocity vectors relative to stable Eurasia obtained from GPS measurements from 1995 to 1998 (from [4 ])

4 (a) (b) A - A (c) B - B 3 ( P (km/ s) ). Fig. 3 Crustal structure from the seismic profiles cross the Ryukyu trench. Numbers in the figure are P wave velocity (km/ s)

5 2 : 297 4, (a) (b) 29 N. Fig. 4 Distribution of hypocenters projected on the verticl planes normal to the Ryukyu trench and islands arc. The northern ( a) and southern ( b) sections are bounded by the Tokara channel (nearby 29 N). 3 4 cm/ a [6 ], 2 cm/ a [13 ].. 5, (, ), ( 2 ), ( ), ( ) ( ).,,,, [14 ] GPS,, cm/ a,, [15 ] GPS [4 ], ( 6). 1 3.,., /, /. (1. 9 cm/ a), :, ;, ( 6) ,, 1. 4 cm/ a, EW, [16 ].,,EW,. 5 (25 29 N). Fig. 5 Distribution of principal stress axes on the verti2 cal profile normal to the middle section (25 29 N) of the Ryukyu trench., (2 Ma ), GPS Table 1 GPS data ( ) of three sites on the NS EW Ryukyu Islands and Taibei :,, :cm/ a ( [4 ])

6 GPS ( [4 ]) Fig. 6 Results of GPS measurements on several sites on the Ryukyu islands and its adjacent areas (from [4 ]) 7 ( [17 ]) Fig. 7 Plate kinematics of areas around the southern Ryukyu arc and Taiwan.,, 2 Ma,, (collapse),,

7 2 : 299 [17 ] ( 7). 4,,. :, ( ), ;,,,., ( 8). 8 :1 GPS ;2 ;3 ;4 ;5 Fig. 8 Schematic picture showing the overall motion and deformation around the Ryukyu arc system. Legend : 1 velocity from GPS;2 plate motion ;3 extension ;4 fault ;5 speculated mantle flow, 2, NE, NW., N20 W [18 ].,,,. 10Ma., N150 E,, [18 ].,,,, km.,.,.? 20 80,, [19 ], [20 ], [21 ],.., GPS,,,

8 , NNE.,,,, ( ) [22 ], 5,, NE,,.,,,, [23 ],, Ma,.,,,,,., ( ).,.,. 5,, , [23 ]., ( ),,.,,, 3. 1,,, ( 9a) ; 2, ( 9b) ; 3, Flower, (mantle extrusion) ( 9c),,, [24 ].,,,.,,. [25 ],, 9 ( ) Fig. 9 Models to explain the mechanisms of trench retreat. (References) : [1 ] Molnar P, Tapponnier P. Cenozoic tectonics of Asia : Effects of a con2 tinental collision[j ]. Science, 1975,189 : [ 2 ] Shen Z K, Zhao C, Yin A, et al. Contemporary crustal deformation in east Asia constrained by Global Positioning System measurements[j ]. J Geophys Res, 2000, 105 : [3 ] Wang Q, Zhang P, Freymueller J T, et al. Present - day crustal de2 formation in China constrained by Global Positioning System measure2 ments[j ]. Science, 2001, 294 : [4 ] Kotake Y. Study of the tectonics of western Pacific region derived from

9 2 : 301 GPS data Analysis[J ]. Bull Earthq Res Inst Univ Tokyo, 2000, 75 : (in Japanese). [5 ] Takmaki K, Honza E. Global tectonics and formation of marginal basins : Role of the western Pacific[J ]. Episodes, 1991, 14 (3) : [6 ] Otsuki K. Empirical relationships among the convergence rate of plates, rollback rate of trench axis and island2arc tectonics : laws of convergence rate of plates [J ]. Tectonophysics, 1989,159 : [7 ] Iwasaki T, Hirata N, Kanazawa T, et al. Crustal and upper mantle structure in the Ryukyu Island Arc deduced from deep seismic sounding [J ]. Geophys J Int,1992, 102 : [8 ] Kodaira S, Iwasaki T, Urabe T, et al. Crustal structure across the Ryukyu trench obtained from ocean bottom seismographic data [ J ]. Tectonophysics, 1996, 263 : [9 ] Fukao Y, Obayashi M, Inoue H, et al. Subduction slabs stagnant in the mantle transition zone [J ]. J Geophys Res, 1992, 97 : [10 ],,. Benioff [J ].,1989,11 (2) : [11 ],,. [J ].,1994,16 (4) : [12 ] Kao H, Jian P. Seismogenic pattern in the Taiwan region : insights from source parameter inversion of BATS data [J ]. Tectonophysics, 2001, 333 : [ 13 ] Garfunkel Z, Anderson C A, Suhubert G. Mantle circulation and lat2 eral migration of subducted slabs [J ]. J Geophys Res, 1986, 91 : [14 ]. [J ]. ( ),1987,57 (2) : [15 ] Imanishi M, Kimata F, Inamori N, et al. Horizontal displacements by GPS measurements at the Okinawa2Sakishima Islands ( ) [J ]. J Seismol Soc Jap, 1996, 49 (3) : [16 ]. [J ].,1985, (5) : [17 ] Teng L S. Extensional collapse of the northern Taiwan mountain belt [J ]. Geology, 1996, 24 : [ 18 ] Fournier M, Fabbri O, Angelier J, et al. Regional seismicity and on2 land deformation in the Ryukyu arc : Implications for the kinematics of opening of the Okinawa Trough [J ]. J Geophys Res, 2001, 106 : [19 ]. 1 :400 [ M]. :,1987,67. [20 ],. [J ].,1997,40 (6) : [21 ],. [J ].,2002,45 (2) : [22 ],,. [J ].,1999,21 (5) : [23 ],. [J ].,1988,8 (1) :9 21. [24 ] Flower M F J, Russo R M, Tamaki K, et al. Mantle contamination and the Izu2Boni2Mariana ( IBM) high2tide mark : evidence for mantle extrusion caused by Tethyan closure. [ J ]. Tectonophysics, 2001, 333 :9 34. [25 ] Fein J B, Jurdy D M. Plate motion controls on back2arc spreading [J ]. Geophys Res Let, 1986, 13 :

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