Basic English Grammar

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Basic English Grammar"

Transcription

1 Next graduate writing workshop Basic English Grammar University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley Department of English Grammar II: Common Writing Problems Wednesday, Nov. 7, 2012: 3:00 4:30 PM Location: Physics 165 (here) This session will review some of the most common problems in English grammar, usage, and punctuation. We ll focus on how to recognize trouble spots and correct your own work. Outline Overview/review of English grammar and grammatical terminology: Parts of speech Parts of a sentence Sentence types Parts of Speech: Nouns Noun: names a person place or thing Types Proper: names of people, places, institutions Common: Concrete: material things (table, house, dog) Abstract: conditions, qualities, ideas (hunger, wisdom) Collective: singular nouns naming groups (family) Countable (students, apples, books) vs. non-countable (grain, water, information)

2 Parts of Speech: Nouns (and their attributes) Number Singular: book, computer, thief Plural: books, computers, thieves Usage problem Plural nouns do not take apostrophes. Parts of Speech: Nouns (and their attributes) Case (grammatical function of a noun) Subject (nominative): book, computer, thief The book was long. Object (accusative): book, computer, thief She enjoyed the book. Possessive (genitive): the book s cover, the computer s keyboard, the thief s mask The book s cover made it seem interesting. Plural possessives Sometimes a usage problem: the students timetables Apostrophe after the s. Omit the second s (not students s). Hence, plural possessives are actually contractions. The apostrophe signals both the possessive form and the contraction. Parts of Speech: Pronouns: substitute for nouns Personal pronouns: substitute for particular people (I, you, he, she, they) Demonstrative Pronouns: substitute for things or things (it, they, this, these, those) Like nouns, pronouns have number and case Number: Singular: I, you, he, she, it Plural: we, you, they Case: Subject (Nominative): I, we, you, he, she, it, they Object (Accusative): me, us, you, him, her, it, them Possessive (Genitive): my, our, your, his, her, their I [subject] gave him [object] your book [possessive].

3 Parts of Speech: Pronouns Types of Pronouns Relative: introduce adjective clauses who, whom, that, which: He is the man whom I love. Interrogative: introduce questions who, whom, which: Which sandwich is that? Indefinite: refer to unspecific people or things each, some, either, anyone, all: All are welcome. Reflexive: indicate that the subject and object are the same himself, herself, myself: I hurt myself. Parts of Speech: Verbs Action Words (and their attributes) Tense (present, past, future) Simple present (fact or repeated or usual action): I go to class Simple past (action started/finished at specific time in past): I went to class Simple future (promise or plan for future): I will go to class Present perfect (action at unspecified time before now): I have gone to class Past perfect (action before another action in past): I had gone to class Future perfect (action before another action in future): I will have gone to class Present progressive (action happening now): I am going to class Past progressive (longer action in the past was interrupted): I was going to class Present perfect progressive (action started in past has continued until now): I have been going to class Past perfect progressive (action started in past has continued until another time in past): I had been going to class Future perfect progressive (action will continue until a particular event or time in future): I will have been going to class Resource: Parts of Speech: Verbs Action Words (and their attributes) Mood Infinitive: to go The verb in the abstract, disconnected from a subject. Can be used as a noun: To err is human Indicative: He goes to class. Used to express facts or opinions. Imperative: Go to class! Used to make demands or give orders. Subjunctive (often used with conditional): If I were to go to class, I would understand the subject. It is important that he go to class. Used to express unreal conditions or urgency. The subjunctive is falling out of use, especially orally. Parts of Speech: Verbs Action Words (and their attributes) Voice Active: We studied samples to determine... Passive: Samples were studied to determine... When you use the passive voice, you reverse the normal positions of subject and object. The performer of the action becomes the object of the sentence.

4 Parts of Speech: Verbals forms of verbs that can function as other parts of speech Verbal nouns (Gerunds): Cycling is my favourite sport. Verbal adjectives (Participles): My cycling friends like to ride on weekends. Problems with verbals Verbals can t function as verbs The reason being that I don t like driving is not a sentence. Verbals (participles) can dangle Parts of Speech: Modifiers modify (describe) other words in the sentence Adjectives: modify (describe) nouns or pronouns I made a careful study of the book. Adverbs: modify (describe) verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs I studied carefully. Some adverb forms are falling out of use in informal speech. Many say close the door tight rather than close the door tightly. Parts of Speech: Prepositions Express location or relationship: in, on, to, into, with, through, under, between, before, etc. Introduce prepositional phrases: In our study, we found... Usage is highly idiomatic (i.e. governed by convention, not by rule) We say Reaction x takes place under certain conditions not Reaction x takes place with certain conditions

5 Parts of Speech: Conjunctions Coordinating: and, yet, but Join equal sentence elements (independent clauses) Road construction can be inconvenient, but it is necessary. Correlative: either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also Always work in pairs to link parallel sentence elements This project not only gave me experience working with others, but also pushed me to think about the complicated nature of today s workplace. Subordinating: although, because, unless, whenever, if, when Introduce subordinate clauses Because he enjoys walking, he often takes backpacking vacations. Conjunctive adverbs: however, therefore, furthermore Indicate the relationship between independent clauses I didn t know which job to take; therefore, I declined both offers. Parts of Speech: Articles (the, a, an) introduce a noun (but not always) Singular countable Definite the book Indefinite a book Plural countable the books books Non-countable the information information Rules for Article use Most English speakers don t even realize there are rules. Complicated, but one easyto-remember rule: singular countable nouns ALWAYS take articles. Rensselaer Polytechnic Centre for Communication Practices Article Usage guide es/article-usage/ Parts of a Sentence The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog s back. Subject: the noun performing the action (and words and phrases associated with it) The quick brown fox Predicate: the verb (and words associated with it) jumped over the lazy dog s back. The object (the noun receiving the action) is part of the predicate: the lazy dog s back

6 Parts of a Sentence: Phrases and Clauses Phrase: a group of words lacking either a subject or a predicate. A phrase can function as any of the main parts of speech: verb phrase, noun phrase, adjective phrase, adverb phrase Parts of a Sentence: Phrases and Clauses Clause: a group of words containing both a subject and a predicate. Independent clause: could stand alone as a sentence. Subordinate clause: could not stand alone as a sentence; needs to be attached to a main clause. A subordinate clause also called a dependent clause will begin with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun after although that which as because before even if whichever who even though if whoever whosever in order that once whom whose provided that rather than whomever since so that than that though unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why Subordinate clauses introduced by relative pronouns (relative clauses) can be either restrictive on non-restrictive A restrictive clause provides essential information about the subject of a sentence: it restricts the meaning of a sentence by identifying the specific qualities of the noun or pronoun. Restrictive: The officer helped the civilians who had been shot. Non-restrictive: The officer helped the civilians, who had been shot.

7 Subordinate clauses introduced by relative pronouns (relative clauses) can be either restrictive on non-restrictive Restrictive clauses usually begin with that The meat that was contaminated with e-coli was removed from stores. Non restrictive clauses usually begin with which and are set off by commas. The meat, which was contaminated with e-coli, was removed from stores. Sentence Types (three basic types, plus combinations) Simple: subject, predicate, and sometimes object: I go to class A string of simple sentences will often make your writing seem simplistic. A paragraph with NO simple sentences will fatigue your reader. Useful for variety and emphasis: Many issues concerning this new model remain unclear. Sentence Types (three basic types, plus combinations) Compound: two (or more) independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction: I go to class, and you go to the lab. Use compound sentences to enumerate related facts (especially in pairs) There are approximately 5.2 million deaths from injuries every year, and non-fatal injuries account for about onetenth of the global burden of disease. Or to present simple contrasts Physical activity brings the risk of injury, but inactivity leads to other health problems. Sentence Types (three basic types, plus combinations) Complex: at least one independent (main) clause and at least one subordinate clause. Whenever I go to class, you go to the lab. Use complex sentences to convey the relationship between related ideas By the time they get support, most of the students will have failed at the most important task, learning to read.

8 Sentence Types: Examples Resources: We use labor income as a proxy for domestic wealth and find empirical support for these predictions. (compound sentence) We test the implications of an international asset pricing model, in which agents have preferences that are exogenously defined over both their own consumption and the contemporaneous average consumption of a reference group, defined in this paper as the agent's countrymen. (complex sentence) General Parts of Speech/Sentences: Online Writing Lab at University of Ottawa These preferences are termed keeping up with the Joneses. (simple sentence) Adapted from: Gómez, Juan-Pedro, Richard Priestley, and Fernando Zapatero Implications of Keeping-up-with-the-Joneses Behavior for the Equilibrium Cross Section of Stock Returns: International Evidence. International Journal of Finance 64:

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication

More information

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Textual features relevant to the second objective of Dimension 2 are described below. These are features that teachers may like to draw on to further

More information

EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6

EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6 EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6 Grammar Committee Representatives: Marcia Captan, Maria Fallon, Ira Fernandez, Myra Redman, Geraldine Walker Developmental Editor: Cynthia M. Schuemann Approved:

More information

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar

More information

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people,

More information

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

More information

Index. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8

Index. 344 Grammar and Language Workbook, Grade 8 Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,

More information

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence

More information

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses A relative (or adjective) clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or occasionally

More information

Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple sentence with a subject and a verb. I can use and to join two clauses

Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple sentence with a subject and a verb. I can use and to join two clauses Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple with a subject and a verb I can use and to join two clauses I can use finger spaces to separate words I can use full stops to end

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

Sentence Variety. Dr. Karen Petit

Sentence Variety. Dr. Karen Petit Sentence Variety Dr. Karen Petit Unvaried Sentences Unvaried sentence structures make ideas sound simplistic and repetitious: The pencil was yellow. The pencil was new. The pencil was rolling off the table.

More information

Writing Common Core KEY WORDS

Writing Common Core KEY WORDS Writing Common Core KEY WORDS An educator's guide to words frequently used in the Common Core State Standards, organized by grade level in order to show the progression of writing Common Core vocabulary

More information

Albert Pye and Ravensmere Schools Grammar Curriculum

Albert Pye and Ravensmere Schools Grammar Curriculum Albert Pye and Ravensmere Schools Grammar Curriculum Introduction The aim of our schools own grammar curriculum is to ensure that all relevant grammar content is introduced within the primary years in

More information

Editing and Proofreading. University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley, Professor of English ron.cooley@usask.ca

Editing and Proofreading. University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley, Professor of English ron.cooley@usask.ca Editing and Proofreading University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley, Professor of English ron.cooley@usask.ca 3-stage writing process (conventional view) 1. Pre-writing Literature review Data

More information

THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS OF PRONOUNS:

THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS OF PRONOUNS: PRONOUNS WHAT IS A PRONOUN? A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun. Example: The high school graduate accepted the diploma proudly. She had worked hard for it. The pronoun

More information

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Diagramming Review WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Sentence Basics The subject of the sentence is the person or thing is performing the action of the sentence or is being described by the sentence.

More information

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words Standard 3: Writing Process 3.1: Prewrite 58-69% 10.LA.3.1.2 Generate a main idea or thesis appropriate to a type of writing. (753.02.b) Items may include a specified purpose, audience, and writing outline.

More information

Written Language Curriculum Planning Manual 3LIT3390

Written Language Curriculum Planning Manual 3LIT3390 Written Language Curriculum Planning Manual 3LIT3390 TABLE OF CONTENTS Language Usage Curriculum... 1 Language Usage I... 2 Language Usage II... 4 Language Usage III... 6 Language Usage IV... 8 Language

More information

What is a noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.

What is a noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Grammar What is a noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. What are the two types of nouns? Common Noun A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place,

More information

Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments

Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments Understanding sentence structure helps in identifying and correcting run-on sentences and sentence fragments. A computer s spell checker does not

More information

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry Independent Clauses An independent clause (IC) contains at least one subject and one verb and can stand by itself as a simple sentence. Here are examples of independent clauses. Because these sentences

More information

are used to show how a text fits

are used to show how a text fits Glossary of terms: Term Definition Example active voice An active verb has its usual pattern of subject and object (in contrast to the passive voice). Active The school arranged a visit. Passive: adverbs

More information

MyReadinessTest for English & Mathematics

MyReadinessTest for English & Mathematics MyReadinessTest for English & Mathematics Writing Content Library Topics & Objectives Module 1) Basic Grammar Topic: 1.1: Parts of Speech, Phrases, Clauses 1. Identify how different parts of speech function

More information

A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers

A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers What s new on the companion Web site? hackerhandbooks.com/writersref The companion Web site for A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition, now

More information

IGCSE English Language

IGCSE English Language IGCSE English Language Technical Skills: Grammar Copyright 2012 Eddis Tutorial Services, LLC Grammar is boring! I don t know why I have to learn grammar, it s so boring and I already know how to write.

More information

Daily Grammar Lessons Workbook

Daily Grammar Lessons Workbook - 1 - Daily Grammar Lessons Workbook Published by Word Place, Inc. 1008 Hidden Cove Drive Taylorsville, UT 84123 http://www.wordplace.com http://www.dailygrammar.com Copyright 2010 Word Place, Inc. All

More information

Table of Contents. Glossary... 459. Index... 467 - 1 -

Table of Contents. Glossary... 459. Index... 467 - 1 - - 1 - Table of Contents Section 1: Parts of Speech... 3 Chapter 1: Verbs... 5 Chapter 2: Nouns... 17 Chapter 3: Pronouns... 21 Chapter 4: Adjectives... 31 Chapter 5: Adverbs... 45 Chapter 6: Prepositions,

More information

This handout will discuss two types of dependent clauses: subordinate clauses and adjective clauses.

This handout will discuss two types of dependent clauses: subordinate clauses and adjective clauses. DEPENDENT CLAUSES All sentences consist of one or more clauses. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Some clauses are independent while others are dependent, and for a sentence

More information

TERMS. Parts of Speech

TERMS. Parts of Speech TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:

More information

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation

English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation English Appendix 2: Vocabulary, grammar and punctuation The grammar of our first language is learnt naturally and implicitly through interactions with other speakers and from reading. Explicit knowledge

More information

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word

Pupil SPAG Card 1. Terminology for pupils. I Can Date Word Pupil SPAG Card 1 1 I know about regular plural noun endings s or es and what they mean (for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes) 2 I know the regular endings that can be added to verbs (e.g. helping, helped,

More information

Language Usage V Grade Level 5

Language Usage V Grade Level 5 Language Usage V Language Usage V introduces students to a variety of topics including: identifying and using nouns, verbs, contractions, conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs in sentences understanding

More information

Little Gaddesden School Grammar, spelling and punctuation workshop

Little Gaddesden School Grammar, spelling and punctuation workshop Little Gaddesden School Grammar, spelling and punctuation workshop Grammar, spelling and punctuation (SPAG) are key areas in the teaching of English. We aim to improve writing through improving sentence

More information

Glossary of literacy terms

Glossary of literacy terms Glossary of literacy terms These terms are used in literacy. You can use them as part of your preparation for the literacy professional skills test. You will not be assessed on definitions of terms during

More information

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language Correlation: English language Learning and Instruction System and the TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language Structure (Grammar) A major aspect of the ability to succeed on the TOEFL examination is

More information

Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences

Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences Name: Block: Date: Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences This week we will be learning about simple sentences with a focus on subject-verb agreement. Follow along as we go through the PowerPoint

More information

Parts of Speech. Skills Team, University of Hull

Parts of Speech. Skills Team, University of Hull Parts of Speech Skills Team, University of Hull Language comes before grammar, which is only an attempt to describe a language. Knowing the grammar of a language does not mean you can speak or write it

More information

Below is a suggested thirteen-week schedule for completing this course.

Below is a suggested thirteen-week schedule for completing this course. Grammar and Style of the Sentence Course Overview Grammar and Style of the Sentence is an online course designed to teach basic principles of grammar and style to improve your writing. New topics are introduced

More information

Clauses and Phrases. For Proper Sentence Structure

Clauses and Phrases. For Proper Sentence Structure Clauses and Phrases For Proper Sentence Structure Purpose: Writing is the primary basis upon which your work, your learning, and your intellect will be judged in college, in the workplace, and in the community.

More information

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Aim This module highlights the difference between compound and complex sentences. It also shows a variety of ways in which complex sentences can be constructed.

More information

SAMPLE. Grammar, punctuation and spelling. Paper 2: short answer questions. English tests KEY STAGE LEVEL. Downloaded from satspapers.org.

SAMPLE. Grammar, punctuation and spelling. Paper 2: short answer questions. English tests KEY STAGE LEVEL. Downloaded from satspapers.org. En KEY STAGE 2 English tests *SAMPLE* LEVEL 6 SAMPLE Grammar, punctuation and spelling Paper 2: short answer questions First name Middle name Last name Date of birth Day Month Year School name DfE number

More information

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases

More information

Grammar Rules: Parts of Speech Words are classed into eight categories according to their uses in a sentence.

Grammar Rules: Parts of Speech Words are classed into eight categories according to their uses in a sentence. Grammar Rules: Parts of Speech Words are classed into eight categories according to their uses in a sentence. 1. Noun Name for a person, animal, thing, place, idea, activity. John, cat, box, desert,, golf

More information

Level 3 Shirley English

Level 3 Shirley English Level 3 Shirley English SEPTEMBER: Chapter 1 Pages 1-9 Lesson 1 Long- term goals and short- term goals Lesson 2 Beginning setup plan for homeschool, WRITING (journal) Lesson 3 SKILLS (synonyms, antonyms,

More information

1. Why do we use adjective clauses?

1. Why do we use adjective clauses? ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 1. Why do we use adjective clauses? to give more information about a noun or noun phrase I saw the movie. ( Which one??? ) to give more specific information about a noun or noun phrase

More information

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings,

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings, Section 9 Foreign Languages I. OVERALL OBJECTIVE To develop students basic communication abilities such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, deepening their understanding of language and culture

More information

Grammar Presentation: The Sentence

Grammar Presentation: The Sentence Grammar Presentation: The Sentence GradWRITE! Initiative Writing Support Centre Student Development Services The rules of English grammar are best understood if you understand the underlying structure

More information

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases Jafar Asgari English Department Kashan University of Medical Sciences Structure of Complex Sentences Every Complex sentence is

More information

TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR REVIEW

TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR REVIEW Page 1 of 15 TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR REVIEW I. Parts of Speech Traditional grammar recognizes eight parts of speech: Part of Speech Definition Example noun A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.

More information

Sentence structure

Sentence structure Semester III Group B Grammar 3 Mrs. Skirdj Sentence structure The subject is a noun, noun phrase or pronoun representing the person or thing that performs the action of the verb. There are two types of

More information

SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE

SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE COMPLEX SENTENCE: a kid of sentence which has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. KINDS OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES: (a) Adverb Clause (b)

More information

The Super Noun. c. Direct Object is found after an action verb, and it receives the action of the v

The Super Noun. c. Direct Object is found after an action verb, and it receives the action of the v 1. A NOUN is a word that names a a. p - b. p - c. t - d. i /quality- The Super Noun 2. In a sentence, a noun functions or acts like a a. s or b. an o 3. Nouns as a Subject a. A s is who or what the sentence

More information

Grammar Kinds of Sentences

Grammar Kinds of Sentences Kinds of Sentences There are four kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory. 1. A declarative sentence makes a statement. It tells something, states a fact or opinion,

More information

Sentence Parts. Abbreviations

Sentence Parts. Abbreviations Sentence Parts Daily Grammar Practice Day 2 Tuesday what do I do with all those labels from Monday? First, don t ignore what you did yesterday. Use Monday s labels as a guide. 1. Label any prepositional

More information

ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE RESOURCES

ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE RESOURCES ONLINE ENGLISH LANGUAGE RESOURCES Developed and updated by C. Samuel for students taking courses at the English and French Language Centre, Faculty of Arts (Links live as at November 2, 2009) Dictionaries

More information

Welcome to the TEACH Trust Grammar and Punctuation Workshop ~ Key Stage 2

Welcome to the TEACH Trust Grammar and Punctuation Workshop ~ Key Stage 2 Welcome to the TEACH Trust Grammar and Punctuation Workshop ~ Key Stage 2 Whilst you are waiting, please have a little go at the warm up quiz on your tables..!! 1. What is grammar and punctuation? 2. What

More information

A Beginner s Guide To English Grammar

A Beginner s Guide To English Grammar A Beginner s Guide To English Grammar Noncredit ESL Glendale Community College Concept by: Deborah Robiglio Created by: Edwin Fallahi, Rocio Fernandez, Glenda Gartman, Robert Mott, and Deborah Robiglio

More information

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences are classified as simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. This designation is based on the clauses used to create the sentence. Clauses: Every clause

More information

Tips for Writing Strong Sentences. by Glynnis Whitwer October 30, 2013

Tips for Writing Strong Sentences. by Glynnis Whitwer October 30, 2013 Tips for Writing Strong Sentences by Glynnis Whitwer October 30, 2013 The basis of good writing Great sentences come in all sizes. Some are great because they are short: Jesus wept. (John 11:35) Some are

More information

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items In this unit we will finish our look at English grammar. Please be aware that you will have only covered the essential basic grammar that is commonly taught

More information

Pronouns. Their different types and roles. Devised by Jo Killmister, Skills Enhancement Program, Newcastle Business School

Pronouns. Their different types and roles. Devised by Jo Killmister, Skills Enhancement Program, Newcastle Business School Pronouns Their different types and roles Definition and role of pronouns Definition of a pronoun: a pronoun is a word that replaces a noun or noun phrase. If we only used nouns to refer to people, animals

More information

Compound Sentences and Coordination

Compound Sentences and Coordination Compound Sentences and Coordination Mary Westervelt Reference: Ann Hogue (2003) The Essentials of English: A Writer s Handbook. New York, Pearson Education, Inc. When two sentences are combined in a way

More information

Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher

Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher Basic Sentence Parts Mr. Brasher Subjects and Predicates Complete Subjects and Predicates Sentence- group of words with two main parts: complete subject and complete predicate. Together, express a complete

More information

NAP. Narrative Assessment Protocol. C Gosse. Laura M Justice. Khara Pence. Ryan Bowles. Carolyn Gosse

NAP. Narrative Assessment Protocol. C Gosse. Laura M Justice. Khara Pence. Ryan Bowles. Carolyn Gosse NAP Narrative Assessment Protocol Laura M Justice Khara Pence Ryan Bowles Carolyn Gosse C Gosse NAP Elicitation Directions 1. Introduce the task: Show the cover of the book to the child. Say: We are going

More information

Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop. Combining Sentences

Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop. Combining Sentences Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop Combining Sentences If you continually use short sentences in your writing, your paragraphs will sound very choppy. Read this paragraph and notice how it

More information

BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL

BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL Year 6 English Medium Term Plans Reading Word Objectives apply their growing knowledge of root words prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed under the spelling

More information

4th Grade Sentence Structures

4th Grade Sentence Structures Name 4th Grade Sentence Structures 1. Complete Sentences A complete sentence is a set of words that contains a subject and a predicate. Here is a basic complete sentence: Fish swim. It is possible to have

More information

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations

ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test. Answers and Explanations ACCUPLACER ESL Language Use Test Answers and Explanations The ESL Language Use test measures your proficiency in using correct grammar in English sentences. There are five content areas measured on this

More information

National Curriculum 2014 Literacy Objectives Spoken language Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6

National Curriculum 2014 Literacy Objectives Spoken language Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Spoken language -structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings ng, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas to comments the interest

More information

This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when to use that or which.

This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when to use that or which. The Writing Center Relative Clauses Like 3 people like this. Relative Clauses This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when

More information

Final Exam Grammar Review. 5. Explain the difference between a proper noun and a common noun.

Final Exam Grammar Review. 5. Explain the difference between a proper noun and a common noun. Final Exam Grammar Review Nouns 1. Definition of a noun: person, place, thing, or idea 2. Give four examples of nouns: 1. teacher 2. lesson 3. classroom 4. hope 3. Definition of compound noun: two nouns

More information

Level 1 Song Lyrics. Well-Ordered Language. Eight Parts of Speech (1 1) Sentence (1 2) Principal Elements (1 3)

Level 1 Song Lyrics. Well-Ordered Language. Eight Parts of Speech (1 1) Sentence (1 2) Principal Elements (1 3) Well-Ordered Language Level 1 Song Lyrics Note: This document contains the lyrics for all of the songs in WOL1A and 1B. Eight Parts of Speech (1 1) The eight parts of speech are classes of words with the

More information

National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY

National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY H National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY EP42/H/02 Mark Spanish Directed Writing FOR OFFICIAL USE Date Not applicable Duration 1 hour and 40 minutes *EP42H02* Fill in these boxes and read what is printed

More information

Scope and Sequence/Essential Questions

Scope and Sequence/Essential Questions Scope and Sequence/Essential Questions Scope and Sequence 8th Grade Language First Six Weeks Week SPI Essential Question Checks for Understanding Week 1 0801.1.5 How can you identify and correctly place

More information

Grammar Core Sentence Parts

Grammar Core Sentence Parts Grammar Core Sentence Parts Simple Subject: noun or pronoun in the sentence that answers the question who? or what? Simple Predicate: the verb/verb phrase in the sentence that answers the question did

More information

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL Year 3 Grammar Guide For Children and Parents A guide to the key grammar skills and understanding that your child will be learning this year with examples and practice questions

More information

Grade 4 Writing Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

Grade 4 Writing Assessment. Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Grade 4 Writing Assessment Eligible Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills STAAR Grade 4 Writing Assessment Reporting Category 1: Composition The student will demonstrate an ability to compose a variety

More information

The following glossary includes all of the technical grammatical terms taught through the national curriculum for English in year 5.

The following glossary includes all of the technical grammatical terms taught through the national curriculum for English in year 5. Year 5 Glossary The following glossary includes all of the technical grammatical terms taught through the national curriculum for English in year 5. The first column indicates the year group in which the

More information

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Objetivos de Habilidades: inglés El objetivo de la prueba es comprobar que el alumno ha adquirido un nivel B1 (dentro

More information

Sample only Oxford University Press ANZ

Sample only Oxford University Press ANZ Word level: the parts of speech Nouns A noun is the name of a person, place, thing or idea. Australia is a noun. Fun is a noun. There are many kinds of nouns. The four main ones are: common nouns, proper

More information

UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center. Parts of a Sentence

UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center. Parts of a Sentence UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center Parts of a Sentence I. SUBJECT The subject is what the sentence is about. Also called the naming part of the sentence, the subject answers the question, "Who or what?"

More information

7th Grade Grammar Review Packet

7th Grade Grammar Review Packet 7th Grade Grammar Review Packet KEY 1. Nouns 1. A noun is defined as a: person, place, thing or idea 2. A proper noun is: a specific person, place, thing or idea 3. A proper noun always starts with a:

More information

Review of Grammar Rules Frequently tested on the ACT

Review of Grammar Rules Frequently tested on the ACT www.methodtestprep.com Review of Grammar Rules Frequently tested on the ACT The English section of the ACT is extremely repetitive. The test makers ask you about the same grammar mistakes on every test.

More information

Clauses and Phrases. How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences!

Clauses and Phrases. How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences! Clauses and Phrases How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences! Why it s important to use them in your writing! What s a CLAUSE? Clauses are clusters of words. Clauses

More information

Phrases and Clauses. Walton College of Business Writing Center

Phrases and Clauses. Walton College of Business Writing Center Phrases and Clauses Walton College of Business Writing Center What is a Clause? A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a verb. Each of the following samples is a clause: The toddler

More information

I. Prepositional Phrases

I. Prepositional Phrases Unit 7 Phrases and Clauses A phrase is a group of words, without a subject and verb, that functions in a sentence as one part of speech. There are several types of phrases, among them prepositional, appositive,

More information

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013 Grade 4 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine the meaning of an unfamiliar

More information

Grammar Academic Review

Grammar Academic Review Name Grammar Academic Review s Hour s are used in place of nouns. s can be singular or plural. I you he she it they we me him her them us Isaac is in the bad. He is in the band. Connor and Brook like to

More information

Preparation Manual for the TSA Writing Skills Assessment. Table of Contents. Table of Contents... ii. Introduction... 1

Preparation Manual for the TSA Writing Skills Assessment. Table of Contents. Table of Contents... ii. Introduction... 1 Table of Contents Page Table of Contents... ii Introduction... 1 Section I Test Taking Tips... 2 Section II Writing Skills Assessment... 3 Practice Questions....19 Practice Answers..22 ii Introduction

More information

English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI]

English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI] English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI] Session 5 Grammar Quiz Quick question from Session 4 If a simple sentence has one independent clause, how do you define a compound sentence? Grammar: two

More information

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. SENTENCE STRUCTURE An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. A dependent clause cannot be a complete sentence on its own. It depends on the independent clause

More information

12TH OECD-JAPAN SEMINAR: GLOBALISATION AND LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: RESPONDING TO DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

12TH OECD-JAPAN SEMINAR: GLOBALISATION AND LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: RESPONDING TO DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS 12TH OECD-JAPAN SEMINAR: GLOBALISATION AND LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: RESPONDING TO DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS ENGLISH EDUCATION AND POLICY IN JAPAN Tetsuya Kashihara Institut d'etudes Politiques

More information

Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something.

Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something. Nouns Section 1.4 Possessive Nouns Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something. Jane s dress is red. The table s legs were

More information

Merced College Prep2Test Workshop

Merced College Prep2Test Workshop Merced College Prep2Test Workshop Prep2Test The purpose of this presentation is to provide future students a brief review before taking the Merced College Accuplacer test. This presentation is not designed

More information

MODULE 15 Diagram the organizational structure of your company.

MODULE 15 Diagram the organizational structure of your company. Student name: Date: MODULE 15 Diagram the organizational structure of your company. Objectives: A. Diagram the organizational chart for your place of business. B. Determine the importance of organization

More information

Monday Simple Sentence

Monday Simple Sentence Monday Simple Sentence Definition: A simple sentence is exactly what it sounds like, simple. It has a tensed verb (past or present), a subject, and expresses a complete thought. A simple sentence is also

More information

A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.

A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. Prepositions A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. Example: after dinner After is the preposition Dinner is the object of the preposition After dinner is the

More information

CHESSWOOD MIDDLE SCHOOL Grammar and punctuation glossary

CHESSWOOD MIDDLE SCHOOL Grammar and punctuation glossary Terminology Definition Example Adjective E.g. big, extensive, vertical Adverb Adverbials/ adverbial phrase Adjectives are sometimes called describing words because they pick out single characteristics

More information

Communication Arts: Informative, persuasive, entertaining, formal, informal

Communication Arts: Informative, persuasive, entertaining, formal, informal Communication Arts: Grade Level: 5 Content Standards Communication Arts Content Standard 1 Speaking and Listening Students know and understand the role of the communication process and demonstrate effective

More information