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1 7K Summary Sheets Forces and their effects Forces are pushes or pulls. Forces can: change the shape or size of an object change the speed things are moving (make them move faster or slower) change the direction of a moving object. The units for measuring force are newtons (N). Friction is a force caused by two things rubbing together. Air resistance and water resistance are kinds of friction. They are sometimes called drag. Upthrust pushes things up. Solid things, like your chair, give you upthrust. Things float in water because of upthrust. Contact forces need to touch the thing that they are affecting. Examples of contact forces are: friction air resistance water resistance upthrust. Some forces do not need to touch the thing that they are affecting. They are called non-contact forces. There are three non-contact forces: magnetism gravity static electricity. Balanced forces The upwards and downwards forces on this balloon are balanced. The balloon will not move. The forces here are balanced. The girl will not move, and neither will the wall!

2 A rocket in space does not need to use its engine to keep moving. There is no air in space, so there is no air resistance to slow it down. If you are floating in a swimming pool, your weight and the upthrust are balanced. Density and floating You can decide if something will float by working out its density. Density is the mass of a certain volume of something, and it can be calculated using this formula: density = The units for density are g/cm 3. The density of water is 1g/cm 3. If an object has a density less than 1g/cm 3 it will float. If its density is greater it will sink. Measuring forces Elastic materials will stretch with a force and then return to their original shape when the force is taken away. Materials like Plasticine will stretch with a force but they will not return to their original shape afterwards. Plasticine is not elastic. Springs are used to measure the size of a force because they are elastic. A big force stretches a spring further than a small force. Force meters have springs inside them. This force meter is measuring a force of 1 N.

3 Weight and mass Your mass is the amount of substance in your body. Your mass is measured in kilograms (kg). Your weight is a force caused by gravity pulling on your body. The newton (N) is the scientific unit used to measure forces, and so it is also used as the unit for weight. Wherever you take an object, its mass will not change but its weight depends on the force of gravity. An object on the Moon would have a smaller weight than on Earth, because the Moon s gravity is not as strong as Earth s. On Earth, gravity pulls on every kilogram of mass with a force of 10 N. Friction Friction is a contact force. Friction can: slow things down wear things away produce heat make a noise. Friction is sometimes helpful, for instance: your shoes grip the floor because of friction tyres and brakes use friction pencils write because of friction. Friction is not always helpful: parts of engines wear away because of friction friction makes bicycles harder to pedal. Friction can be increased by using rough surfaces, or by using materials like rubber that have a lot of friction. Friction can be reduced by using smooth surfaces, or by lubrication. Things like oil or grease are lubricants, and help things to move past each other easily. Speed To measure how fast something is travelling you need to measure the distance it travels and the time taken. Units of speed are km/h or m/s or mph. The units for speed depend on the units you have used to measure the distance and the time. Stopping distances A moving car takes some time to stop. The distance it travels while the driver is deciding whether to stop is called the thinking distance, and the distance it travels while it is slowing down is called the braking distance. If you add the two distances together you get the stopping distance. Stopping distances are longer if the road is wet or icy, if the car has worn tyres, or if the driver is tired or has been drinking alcohol.

4 Distance/time graphs A journey can be shown on a distance/time graph. This graph shows a person running, then stopping for a rest, then walking slowly. The steeper the line on the graph, the faster they are moving. The Solar System and beyond We live on a planet called the Earth. The Earth gets heat and light from the Sun. The Earth spins on its axis once every 24 hours. The side of the Earth facing the Sun has daylight, and it is night on the side facing away from the Sun. The Earth orbits around the Sun. It takes one year to go around once. A year is actually days long, so every four years we have a leap year, when an extra day is added. The Moon is a satellite of the Earth. It orbits the Earth once every 28 days. This is called a lunar month. We can see the Moon because it reflects light from the Sun. The Moon seems to change shape during the month. The different shapes are called phases of the Moon. The phases happen because we cannot always see all of the part that is lit by the Sun. Sometimes the Moon blocks the light from the Sun. When this happens we get a solar eclipse. If the Moon goes into the shadow of the Earth we get a lunar eclipse.

5 A solar eclipse. A lunar eclipse. The Earth s axis is tilted. When the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun it is summer in the UK. Days are longer than nights, and the Sun is higher in the sky. The Sun s rays are more concentrated, so it feels hotter. There are nine planets orbiting the Sun, and lots of asteroids. Most of the planets have moons orbiting around them. The Sun, the planets and their moons, and the asteroids make up the Solar System. The nine planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. You can remember the order of the planets using this sentence My Very Easy Method Just Sums Up Nine Planets.

6 Planets do not make their own light. We can sometimes see the planets because they reflect light from the Sun. The Sun is a star. It is a ball of gas that gives out large amounts of heat and light energy. The Sun is like the stars you can see in the sky at night. The stars do not look very bright because they are a lot further away than the Sun. People often group stars into patterns called constellations. The Sun is one of millions of stars in our galaxy, which is called the Milky Way. There are millions of galaxies in the Universe. The stars are a very long way from Earth. Scientists measure distances to the stars using light years. A light year is the distance that light can travel in one year.

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