Further linear algebra. Chapter I. Integers.

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1 Further linear algebra. Chapter I. Integers. Andrei Yafaev Number theory is the theory of Z = {0, ±1, ±2,...}. 1 Euclid s algorithm, Bézout s identity and the greatest common divisor. We say that a Z divides b Z iff there exists c Z such that b = ac. We write a b. A common divisor of a and b is an integer d that divides both a and b. Suppose for simplicity that a and b strictly positive. The greatest common divisor (sometimes called the highest common factor) of a and b is a common divisor d of a and b such that any other common divisor is smaller than d. This is written d = gcd(a,b). Every a Z is a divisor of 0, since 0 = 0 a, therefore it makes sense to define gcd(a, 0) = a if a > 0. However gcd(0, 0) does not exist as any integer is a common factor of 0 and 0. The following obvious remark : any divisor of a 0 is smaller or equal to a, is often used in the proofs. Let a b > 0 be two integers. When a is not divisible by b, one can still divide with the remainder. For example: a = 5,b = 2,a = 2b + 1 a = 20,b = 3,a = 6b + 2 etc.. This leads to the following (fundamental) theorem. 1

2 Theorem 1.1 (Euclidean divison) Let a b > 0 be two integers. There exists a UNIQUE pair of integers (q,r) satisfying and 0 r < b. a = qb + r Proof. Two things need to be proved : the existence of (q,r) and its uniqueness. Let us prove the existence. Consider the set S = {x,x integer 0 : a xb 0} The set S is not empty : 1 belongs to S. The set S is bounded : any element x of S satisfies x a. Therefore, S being a bounded set of positive b integers, S is finite and hence contains a maximal element. Let q be this maximal element and let r := a qb. We need to prove that 0 r < b. By definition r 0 (it belongs to S). To prove that r < b, let us argue by contradiction. Suppose that r b. As r = a qb, we get a (q + 1)b 0 This means that q + 1 S but q + 1 > q. This contradicts the maximality of q. Therefore r < b and the existence is proved. Let us now prove the uniqueness. Again we argue by contradiction. Suppose that there exists a pair (q,r ) satisfying a = q b + r with 0 r < b and such that q q. By subtracting the inequality 0 r < b to this inequality, we get b < r r < b i.e. r r < b Now by subtracting a = q b + r to a = qb + r and taking the modulus, we get r r = q q b By assumption q q, hence q q 1 and we get the inequality r r b The two inequalities satisfied by r r contradict each other, hence q = q. Now r r = q q b = 0, hence r = r. The uniqueness is proved. 2

3 Theorem 1.2 Let a b > 0 be two integers and (q, r) such that a = bq + r, 0 r < b Then gcd(a,b) = gcd(b,r). Proof. Let A := gcd(a,b) and B := gcd(b,r). As r = a bq and A divides a and b, A divides r. Therefore A is a common factor of b and r. As B is the highest common divisor of b and r, A B. In exactly the same way, one proves (left to the reader), that B A and therefore A = B. This leads to the following algorithm (the so-called Euclid s algorithm). Let a b > 0 be two integers. We wish to calculate gcd(a,b). The method is this: Set r 1 = a and r 2 = b. We have r 1 = r 2 q 1 + r 3 with, by he above proposition, gcd(a,b) = gcd(r 1,r 2 ) = gcd(r 2,r 3 ) with 0 r 3 < r 2. If r 3 = 0, then gcd(r 2,r 3 ) = r 2 and we are done. If r 3 0, then divide r 2 by r 3 : r 2 = r 3 q 2 + r 4 with 0 r 4 < r 3. Again, if r 4 = 0, then gcd(a,b) = r 3, otherwise carry on... This was one constructs a sequence: where 0 r i+2 < r i+1. r i = r i+1 q i + r i+2 Notice that r i+2 goes strictly down hence one must at some point find r i+2 = 0 and then gcd(a,b) = r i+1. Remark 1.3 When performing Euclid s algorithm, be very careful not to divide q i by r i. This is a mistake very easy to make. 3

4 Example 1.4 Take a = 27 and b = 7. We have Therefore Another example: 27 = r 1 = 27, r 2 = 7,r 3 = 6 7 = , r 3 = 6,r 4 = 1 6 = r 5 = 0 gcd(27, 7) = gcd(7, 6) = gcd(6, 1) = gcd(1, 0) = = = = = = = gcd(555, 155) = 5 Euclid s algorithm is and algorithm meaning that no matter what the initial data is, it will yield a gcd in a finite number of steps. It is easy to implement on a computer. Suppose that you have some standard computer language (Basic, Pascal, Fortran,...) and that it has an instruction r := a mod b which returns the remainder of the Euclidean division of a by b. The implementation of the algorithm would be something like this: Procedure gcd(a,b) If a < b then Swap(a, b) While b 0 Begin r := a mod b a := b b := r End Return a End 4

5 The following lemma is very important for what will follow. It is essentially the Euclid s algorithm run backwards. Theorem 1.5 (Bézout s Identity) As usual, let a b > 0 be integers. Let d = gcd(a, b). Then there are integers h, k Z such that d = ha + kb. Note that in this lemma, the integers h and k are not positive, in fact exactly one of them is negative or zero. Prove it! Proof. Consider the sequence given by Euclid s algorithm: r i = r i+1 q i + r i+2 where 0 r i+2 < r i+1 with r 1 = a,r 2 = b. We will show that each r i can be expressed as h i a + k i b with h i,k i Z. In particular, as by Euclid s algorithm, gcd(a,b) is some r i, the result will follow. This is certainly true for i = 1, 2 since r 1 = 1 a+0 b and r 2 = 0 a+1 b. For the inductive step, assume it is the case for r i 1 and r i 2, i.e. r i 1 = ha + bk, r i 2 = h a + k b. We have Therefore r i 2 = q i 2 r i 1 + r i. r i = h a + k b q i 2 (ha + kb) = (h q i 2 h)a + (k q i 2 k)b. Example 1.6 Again we take a = 27 and b = = = = Therefore 1 = = 7 1 (27 3 7) = So we take h = 1 and k = 4. 5

6 Another example Example 1.7 Take a = 819 and b = = = = 3 2 Therefore ( ( 4)) + ( 26)( ( 1)) = ( 30) + 159(26) = ( 30) + ( ( 4))(26) = So we take h = 27 and k = (27) + 165( 134) 3 = ( 26)6 = Définition 1.1 Two integers a and b are coprime if gcd(a,b) = 1. Proposition 1.8 a and b are coprime if and only if there exist integers k and h such that ha + kb = 1. Proof. If a and b are coprime, then it s just the Bézout s identity. Suppose that there exist integers k and h such that ha + kb = 1. Let d = gcd(a,b). Then d divides ha + kb, hence d divides 1, hence d = 1. For example, for any positive integer k, 6 (7k + 6) + ( 7) (6k + 5) = 1, hence gcd(7k + 6, 6k + 5) = 1. One has the following properties of the gcd. if ha + kb = m for some integers h,k, then gcd(a,b) divides m. gcd(ca,cb) = c gcd(a,b) If d divides a and b, then gcd(a/d,b/d) = gcd(a,b)/d. In particular, if d = gcd(a,b), then gcd(a/d,a/b) = 1. 6

7 The first property is obvious. For the second, write the Bézout s identity ha + kb = d with d = gcd(a,b). Hence cd = hac + kbc and hence any common divisor of ac and bc divides cd and hence smaller or equal to cd. In addition, cd divides ac and bc hence gcd(ca,cb) = cd. The next property follows from this. We now apply the Euclid s algorithm and Bézout s identity to the solution of linear diophantine equations. Let a, b, c be three positive integers. A linear diophantine equation (in two variables) is the equation ax + by = c A solution is a pair (x, y) of integers (not necessarily positive) that satisfy this relation. Such an equation may or may not have solutions. For example, consider 2x+4y = 5. Quite clearly, if there was a solution, then 2 will divide the right hand side, which is 5. This is not the case, therefore, this equation does not have a solution. On the other hand, the equation 2x + 4y = 6 has many solutions : (1, 1), (5, 1),... This suggests that the existence of solutions depends on whether or not c is divisible by the gcd(a,b) and that if such is the case, there are many solutions to the equation. This indeed is the case, as shown in the following theorem. Theorem 1.9 Suppose that a bc and a and b are coprime. Then a c. In particular, if p is a prime and p ab then p a or p b. Proof. a and b are coprime, hence there exist h and k such that ha+kb = 1. Multiply by c and get c = hac + kbc. a divides ac and bc, hence a divides the right hand side. It follows that a divides c. The second statement follows trivially as if p does not divide a, then a and p are coprime. Theorem 1.10 (Solution to linear diophantine equations) Let a,b,c be three positive integers, let d := gcd(a,b) and consider the equation ax + by = c 1. This equation has a solution if and only if d divides c 7

8 2. Suppose that d c and let (x 0,y 0 ) be a solution. The set of all solutions is (x 0 + n b,y d 0 n a ) where n runs through the set of all integers (positive d and negative). Proof. For the if part : Suppose there is a solution (x,y). Then d divides ax + by. But, as ax + by = c, d divides c. For the only if part : Suppose that d divides c and write c = dm for some integer m. By Bézout s lemma there exist integers h,k such that Multiply this relation by m and get d = ha + kb c = dm = (mh)a + (mk)b This shows that (x 0 = mh,y 0 = mk) is a solution to the equation. That finishes the only if part. Let us now suppose that the equation has a solution (in particular d divides c) (x 0,y 0 ). Let (x,y) be any other solution. Subtract ax + by = c from ax 0 + by 0 = c to get a(x 0 x) + b(y 0 y) = 0 Divide by d to get a d (x 0 x) = b d (y 0 y) This relation shows that a divides b(y d d 0 y) but the integers a and b are d d coprime hence a divides y d 0 y (by 1.9) Therefore, there exists an integer n such that y = y 0 n a d Now plug this into the equality a d (x 0 x) = b d (y 0 y) to get that x = x 0 + n b d The proof of this theorem gives a procedure for finding solutions, it is as follows: 8

9 1. Calculate d = gcd(a,b). If d does not divide c, then there are no solutions and you re done. If d divides c, c = md then there are solutions. 2. Run Euclid s algorithm backwards to find h,k such that d = ha + kb. Then (x 0 = mh,y 0 = mk) is a solution. 3. All solutions are (x 0 + n b d,y 0 n a d ) where n runs through all integers. Example 1.11 Take a = 27,b = 7,c = 5. We have found that gcd(a,b) = 1 (in particular there will be solutions with any c) and that 1 = hence h = 1 and k = 4. Our procedure gives a particular solution : ( 5, 20) and the general one ( 5 + 7n, 20 27n). Take a = 666,b = 153,c = 43. We have found that gcd(a,b) = 9, it does not divide 43, hence no solutions. Take c = 45 = 5 9. There will be solutions. We had 9 = A particular solution is (15, 65) and the general one is ( n, 65 74n). (in particular there will be solutions with any c) and that 1 = hence h = 1 and k = 4. Our procedure gives a particular solution : ( 5, 20) and the general one is ( 5 + 7n, 20 27n). 2 Factorisation into primes. Définition 2.1 An integer p 2 is prime iff the only divisors of p are 1 and p. Lemma 2.1 If p a 1 a n then there exists 1 i n such that p a i. Proof. One proceeds by induction. True for i = 1, 2 so suppose true for n 1 and suppose that p a 1 a n. Let A = a 1 a n 1 and B = a n then p AB implies p A or p B. In the latter case we are done and in the former case the inductive hypothesis implies that p a i for some 1 i n 1. 9

10 Theorem 2.2 (Unique Factorisation Theorem) If a 2 is an integer then there are primes p i > 0 such that a = p 1 p 2 p s. Moreover this factorisation is unique in the sense that if for primes q j > 0 then and a = q 1 q 2 q t s = t {p 1,...,p s } = {q 1,...,q s } (equality of sets) In other words, the p i s and the q i s are the same prime numbers up to reodering. Proof. For existence suppose the result does not hold. Then there an integer which can not be written as a product of primes. Among all those integers, there is a smallest one (the integers under consideration are greater than two!). Let a be this smallest integer which is not a product of primes. Certainly a is not prime so a = bc with 1 < b,c < a. As b abd c are stricly smaller than a, they are products of primes. Write and hence b = p 1 p k c = p k+1 p l a = p 1 p l, This contradicts the definition of a hence the factorisation exists. For uniqueness suppose that we have an example where there are two distinct factorisations. Again we can choose a smallest integer with two diffrent factorisations a = p 1 p s = q 1 q t. Then p 1 q 1 q t so by lemma 2.1 we have p 1 q j for some 1 j t then since p 1 and q j are primes we have p 1 = q j. But then dividing a by p 1 we have a smaller integer with two distinct factorisations, a contradiction. 10

11 Remark 2.3 Of course, the primes in the factorisation a = p 1 p s need not be distinct. For example : 4 = 2 2, here p 1 = p 2 = 2. Similarly 8 = 2 3,p 1 = p 2 = p 3 = 3. Also 12 = 3 2 2,p 1 = 3,p 2 = p 3 = 2 In fact we have that for any integer a 2, there exist s distinct primes p 1,...,p s and t integers e i 1 such that Examples of factorisations: a = p e 1 1 p et s 1000 = = = Factoring a given integer is hard as there is no procedure like Euclidean algorithm. One unsually does it by trial and error. The following trivial lemma helps. Lemma 2.4 (Square root test) Let n be a composite (not prime) integer. Then n has a prime divisor n. Proof. Write n = ab with 1 < a,b < n. Suppose that a n, then n = ab nb hence b n and therefore any prime divisor of b is n. For example, suppose you were to factor Clearly it s divisible by 2 : 3372 = Now, 1686 is again divisible by two : 1686 = and 3372 = Now we notice that 3 divides 843 = Now the primes < 281 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 and 281 is not divisible by any of these. Hence 281 is prime and we get a factorisation: 3372 = How many primes there are? Here is the answer. Theorem 2.5 (Euclid s Theorem) There exist infinitely many primes. 11

12 Proof. Suppose not, let p 1,...p n be all the primes there are. Consider Q = p 1 p 2 p n +1. Since Q has a prime factorisation, there is a prime p that divides Q. This prime p has to belong to our list, after reordering we can assume that p = p 1. Then p 1 divides Q p 1 p n = 1 which is not possible because p 1 is prime. The idea we used here is this : suppose the set of all primes is finite, we construct an integer that is not divisible by any of the primes from this set. This is a contradiction. Can we use the same idea to prove that there are infinitely many primes of a certain form? In some cases yes. Quite clearly Euclid s theorem shows that there are infinitely many odd primes since the only even prime is 2. Put in another way, it shows that there are infinitely many primes of the form 2k + 1. Let s look at primes of the form 4k+3. Are there infinitely many of them? Suppose there are finitely many and list them p 1,...,p r. Note that p 1 = 3. Consider Q = 4p 2 p r + 3 (note that we started at p 2!!!). The integer Q is clearly not divisible by 3 (otherwise 3 would divide p 2 p r and p i 3 for all i > 1). None of the p i, i > 2 divides Q. Indeed suppose some p i, i > 2 divides Q. Then 4p 2 p r + 3 = p i k which shows that p i divides 3 which is not the case. To get a contradiction, we need to prove that Q is divisible by a prime of the form 4k + 3, for it will have necessarily be one of the p i s and they do not divide Q. Thisis precisely what we are proving. Lemma 2.6 Every integer of the form 4k+3 has a prime factor of the form 4k + 3. Proof. Let N = 4k + 3. The smallest positive integer of this form is 3 which is prime, hence the property holds for 3. Suppose that the property holds for all integers < N of the form 4k + 3. If N is prime, then take for the factor N itself. 12

13 We can and do assume that N is composite. Write N = N 1 N 2 with 1 < N i < N. As N is odd, N 1 and N 2 are odd. Any odd number is of the form 4k + 1 or 4k + 3. Suppose N 1 = 4a + 1 and N 2 = 4b + 1. Then N = N 1 N 2 = (4a + 1)(4b + 1) = 4(4ab + a + b) + 1 is of the form 4k + 1 which contradicts the fact that N is of the form 4k + 3. Hence one of the N i s, N 1 say has a prime factor of the form 4k + 3. As N 1 < N, by induction assumption, N 1 and hence N has a prime factor of the form 4k + 3. This finishes the proof. Note that the proof does not work if you try to prove that there are infinitely many primes of the form 4k + 1. This is where it fails. The first prime of this form is 5 = but when you try to construct your Q, you get Q = = 21 = 3 7. The divisors of Q are of the form 4k +3, not 4k In other words, the method fails because the divisors of Q can have no divisor of the form 4k + 1. It is however true that there are infinitely many primes of the form 4k+1, in fact, there is the following spectacular theorem : Theorem 2.7 (Dirichlet s theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions) Let a and d be two coprime integers. There exist infinitely many primes of the form a + kd. The proof of this theorem is well beyond the scope of this course. 2.1 Congruences. We define a b mod m iff m (a b) in other words iff there exists an integer k Z such that a = b + km. We say a is congruent to b modulo m. The congruency class of a is the set of numbers congruent to a modulo m. This is written [a]. In other words [a] = {a + km : k Z} Every integer is congruent to one of the numbers 0, 1,...,m 1 (can be seen using Euclidean division), so the set of all congruency classes is Z/mZ = {[0],...,[m 1]} 13

14 Ex. Take m = 3, them [8] = [5] = [2] = [ 1] = [ 4] =... For an integer k, 4k mod 4, 4k mod 4 and 4k 0 mod 4. An integer is even if and only if it is zero mod 2. An integer is odd if and only if it is one mod 2. Let a b be two positive integers and let (q,r) be such that a = bq + r. Then a r mod b. It may help to think of congruences as the remainders of the Euclidean division. Another trivial but useful observation is that if a b mod m and d divides a,b and m, then a d b d mod m d. Proposition 2.8 If a b mod m then b a mod m. If a a mod m and b b mod m then a + b a + b mod m and ab a b mod m. Proof. trivial We can rewrite this proposition by simply saying: [a] + [b] = [a + b] and [a][b] = [ab] The proposition says that these operations + and are well defined operations on Z/mZ. Ex. Write down addition and multiplication tables in Z/3Z, Z/4Z and Z/6Z. By an inverse of a modulo m we mean a number c such that ac 1 mod m. This is written c a 1 mod m. An element may or may not have an inverse mod m. Take m = 6. [5] has an inverse in Z/6Z : [5] [5] = [25] = [1] While [3] does not have an inverse : in Z/6Z we have [3][2] = [6] = [0]. So if [3] had an inverse, say [a], we would have [3][a] = [1], and by miltiplying by [2] we would get [0] = [2] which is not the case. This suggests that the existence of the inverse of a mod m has something to do with common factors of a and m. This is indeed the case as shown in the following lemma. Lemma 2.9 An integer a has an inverse modulo m if and only if a and m are coprime (gcd(a, m) = 1). 14

15 Proof. The integer a has an inverse mod m if and only if the equation ax + my = 1 has a solution. This equation has a solution if and only if gcd(a,m) divides 1 which is only possible if gcd(a,m) = 1. As usual, the proof of the lemma gives a procedure for finding inverses. Use Euclidean algorithm to calculate gcd(a, m). If it s not one, there is inverse. If it is one run the algorithm backwards to find h and k such that ah + mk = 1 and [a] 1 = [h] Notice in particular that if p is a prime number, then any class [x] [0] is invertible. The set Z/pZ is a field and it is denoted F p. Example 2.10 Find 43 1 mod 7. Euclid s algorithm : 43 = They are coprime and 1 = Hence 43 1 = 1 mod 7 Same with 32 1 mod = = = And 1 = (1 4)+( 1 3) = ( 1 7)+(2 4) = (2 32)+( 9 7) = ( 9 7)+(2 32) Hence 32 1 = 2 mod 7. Same with 49 1 mod = = =

16 And get 1 = (1 4)+( 1 3) = ( 1 15)+(4 4) = (4 49)+( 13 15) = ( 13 15)+(4 49) Hence 49 1 mod 15 = 4. The equation ax b mod m. More generally, suppose we want to solve an equation ax = b mod m By this we mean, find all integers x mod m that satisfy the equation. The equation is equivalent to the existence of an integer y such that ax + my = b And we know how to solve this! This equation has a solution if and only if d = gcd(a,b) divides b and we know how to find all the solutions. In particular, the equation has solutions if and only if d divides b. If this is the case, then to solve the equation, divide it by d, let a = a/d, = m/d,c = c/d. Write a x + m y = b. Bézout s identity gives (h,k) such that a h + m k = 1. By the theorem on solutions of linear diophantine equations, all values of x are {b h + nm } and the solutions of the equation are the {[b h + nm ]}. Notice that there are exactly d of them. Let s see a few examples. 2x 4 mod 10. We have gcd(2, 10) = 2, it divides 4, there are solutions. Dividing by 2 we get x 2 mod 5 i.e x = 2 + 5n. Now the solutions are {[2], [7]} (classes mod 10). The equation 2x = 4 mod 5 has no solutions. Another example: 3x 6 mod 18 gcd(3, 18) = 3 divides 6. We find x 2 mod 6. Solutions are {[2], [8], [14]}. Another: 10x 14 mod 18. We have gcd(10, 14) = 2, divides 14, we ll find 2 solutions. Euclid s algorithm gives: 18 = = =

17 and Bézout s identity: hence 2 = 10 + ( 1) 8) = ( 1) ) 14 = The general solution is x = n. The solutions to the congruence are {[14], [5]}. Notice that when a and m are coprime, then there is a unique solution and it is given by [a] 1 [b]. For example, solve 99x 100 mod and 101 are coprime, hence there is a unique solution. Euclid s algorithm gives: Bézout s identity: 101 = = = = (1 99) + ( 49 2) = ( ) + (50 99) One finds [99] 1 = [50]. The unique solution is [50] [100] = [5000] = [51]. Corollary 2.11 F p = {[1], [2],...,[p 1]} is a group with the operation of multiplication. Proof. A group is a set with a binary operation (in this case multiplication), such that (i) the operation is associative; (ii) there is an identity element; (iii) every element has an inverse. Clearly [1] is the identity element, and the every element has an inverse because 1, 2, 3...,p 1 are coprime with p. Recall that Lagrange s theorem states that if G is a finite group and H is a subgroup, then H divides G. The corrolary of this theorem is that if a G and k 0 is the smallest integer such that a k = 1, then k divides G. Theorem 2.12 (Fermat s Little Theorem) If p is prime and a Z then a p a mod p. 17

18 Hence if p a then a p 1 1 mod p. Proof. If p a then a 0 mod p and a p 0 mod p so suppose p does not divide a, and so a F p. Recall that by a corollary to Lagrange s Theorem, the order of an element of a group divides the order of the group. Let n be the order of a, so a n 1. But by the corollary to Lagrange s theorem, n p 1. Let s look at an example. What is mod 23? 23 is prime so mod 23. How about mod 103? Well 103 is prime so mod 103 So mod 103. To find 3 1 mod 103 use Euclid s algorithm. 103 = So mod 103. Hence mod 103. Another example : 32 6 mod 7. We know that 32 7 mod 32 mod 7. It follows that 32 7 = 32 1 mod 7. It suffices to calculate 32 1 mod 7. We get 32 = = = and 1 = (1 4)+( 1 3) = ( 1 7)+(2 4) = (2 32)+( 9 7) = ( 9 7)+(2 32) Hence mod 7 and mod 7. Yet another example : mod 13. We have 13 2 = 26 and mod 13. Hence, as 35 = , we have = = mod 13. As = 1 mod 13, we have = 45 1 mod 13 We need to calculate 45 1 mod 13. Eucledian algorithm : We get 45 = =

19 and 1 = (1 13) + ( 2 6) = ( 2 45) + (7 13) = (7 13) + ( 2 45) Hence mod mod 13. Let s do mod 13. We have mod 13. Hence mod 13.Now 43 mod 13 4 mod 13. Hence mod 13. Now 4 2 = 16 = 3 mod 13 Hence 4 6 = 4 23 = 3 3 = 27 mod 13 = 1 mod 13 Hence mod 1 mod 13. And now we get to yet another application of the Bézout s lemma. We would like to find integers z that satisfy two congruences: z x mod m and z y mod n. This is not always possible as the example z 3 mod 4 and z 5 mod 8 shows. If such a z existed, one would get 0 = 1 mod 8 which is not the case. The reason is that 4 and 8 are not coprime. However, when n and m are coprime, we have the following theorem. Theorem 2.13 (Chinese Remainder Theorem) Suppose m and n are coprime; let x and y be two integers. Then there is a unique [z] Z/nm such that z x mod m and z y mod n. Proof. (existence) By Bezout s Lemma, we can find h,k Z such that hn + km = 1. Notice that hn 1 mod m and km 1 mod n. Given x,y we choose z by z = hnx + kmy. Clearly z hnx x mod m and z y mod n. (uniqueness) For uniqueness, suppose z is another solution. Then z z mod n and z z mod m. Hence there exist integers r,s such that Since hn + km = 1 we have z z = nr = ms. z z = (z z )hn + (z z )km = mshn + nrkm = nm(sh + rk). Hence z z (nm). 19

20 As usual the proof gives you a procedure to find z. To find z, find h and k as in the Bézouts lemma (run Euclidean algorithm backwards). Then z is hnx + kmy. Find the unique solution of x 3 mod 7 and x 9 mod 11 satisfying 0 x 76. Solution find h,k such that 7h + 11k = 1 using Euclid: 11=7+4 7=4+3 4=3+1 So 1=4-3=4-(7-4)=2.4-7=2.(11-7)-7= Hence let h = 3 and k = 2 so take x = = = mod

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