Human Physiology - Problem Drill 15: Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow

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1 Human Physiology - Problem Drill 15: Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Question No. 1 of Which of these vessels carry oxygenated blood? Question #01 (A) Aorta (B) Pulmonary vein (C) Arterioles (D) A & C (E) All of the above The aorta does carry oxygen rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. It is not the only vessel. Although most veins carry deoxygenated blood, the pulmonary veins are the only veins that carry oxygen rich blood back to the heart from the lungs. The arterioles do carry oxygen rich blood from the larger arteries to the capillaries. They are not the only vessels. There are more than just two vessels here that carry oxygen rich blood. E. Correct! All of these vessels carry oxygen rich blood. Most arteries and its branches like arterioles carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and to the other parts of the body. The only vein that carries oxygenated blood is the pulmonary vein as it returns to the heart from the lungs. So it should be included in the vessels that have the ability to carry oxygenated blood. The correct answer is (C).

2 Question No. 2 of Which of the following chemicals play a role in smooth muscle contraction? Question #02 (A) Nitric Oxide (B) Histamine (C) Substance P (D) Epinephrine (E) All of the above Nitric oxide is a paracrine mediator that is produced by endothelium of blood vessels that contributes to smooth muscles relaxation. Histamine is a chemical produced by white blood cells that serves to increase blood flow leading to smooth muscles relaxation. C. Correct! Substance P is a chemical that is produced by neurons and helps with platelet aggregation which leads to increasing smooth muscle contraction. Epinephrine is made in the adrenal gland and helps to enhance blood flow which will increase relaxation. Not all of these chemicals help with smooth muscle contraction. Most of these answers contribute to smooth muscle relaxation. These help to increase smooth muscle contraction: Norepinephrine plays a role in the baroreceptor reflexes and is made by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. Endothelin is a paracrine mediator and is made by the endothelium cells of the blood vessels. Serotonin is important for platelet aggregation and is made by various neurons throughout the body. Substance P is important for pain sensitivity and capillary permeability and is made by various neurons. Vasopressin helps to increase blood pressures during hemorrhages and is made by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Angiotensin II is important for increasing blood pressure and is found in the plasma. Finally, prostacyclin helps to minimize blood loss from damaged vessels and is made by the endothelial layer of the blood vessels. These help to increase smooth muscle relaxation: Nitric oxide is a paracrine mediator and is secreted by blood vessesl endothelium. Atrial natriuretic peptide helps to reduce blood pressure and is secreted by myocardium and the brain. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is part of digestive secretion and is secreted by neurons. Histamine helps to increase blood flow and is produced by the WBC. Epinephrine helps to enhance blood flow and is secreted by the adrenal cortex. Bradykinin increases blood flow and is made by a variety of tissues. Adenosine helps to enhance blood flow and is secreted by hypoxic cells. The correct answer is (C).

3 Question No. 3 of Consider the following: Tube A has a high pressure of 130mmHg and a low pressure of 60mmHg, Tube B has a high pressure of 175mmHg and a low pressure of 100mmHg and Tube C has a high pressure of 70mmHg and a low pressure of 15mmHg. Which tube(s) will have the greatest flow rate? Question #03 (A) Tube A (B) Tube B (C) Tube C (D) Tube A & C (E) Impossible to determine ΔP = = 60mmHg. B. Correct! ΔP = = 75mmHg. ΔP = = 55mmHg. ΔP = is different is Tube A and tube C so they cannot have the same flow rate. It is easy to figure out ΔP with the formula and the flow rate is proportional to ΔP. The pressure gradient is ΔP. The flow is proportional to the pressure gradient. ΔP = P1-P2. Flow is dependent on the pressure gradient and not absolute pressure. As long as ΔP is the same the flow will be equal regardless of the pressure in the tube. The correct answer is (B).

4 Question No. 4 of In what vessels is the velocity the lowest? Question #04 (A) Aorta (B) Arteries (C) Veins (D) Inferior vena cava (E) Capillaries The velocity of blood flow is highest in the aorta because it has been directly pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart. The velocity of blood flow is higher in the arterial system than it is in the other blood vessel. The velocity in the venous system increases as it moves toward the heart due to the action of the respiratory pump and the muscles in the wall of the veins. The velocity in the venous system increases as it moves toward the heart due to the action of the respiratory pump and the muscles in the wall of the veins. E. Correct! Velocity of blood flow is lowest in the capillaries to allow for maximum exchange of nutrient between blood and tissues. The capillaries have only endothelium layer that allows for exchange of materials. Arteries carry blood away from heart. They have thick layers of smooth muscle and lots of elastic and fibrous tissue. This allows the artery to expand and stretch as blood moves through. Smooth muscles appear in the veins as they head back to the heart. Velocity of blood flow is lowest in the capillaries to allow for maximum exchange of nutrient between blood and tissues. The correct answer is (E).

5 Question No. 5 of Which of the following is not a factor in determining mean arterial pressure? Question #05 (A) Blood volume (B) Cardiac output (C) Blood distribution (D) Distribution of dissolved gases (E) Resistance The MAP is determined by the blood volume which is determined by the amount of fluid loss and taken in. The fluid loss may be a passive process or regulated by the kidneys. The MAP is determined by the cardiac output which is determined by the heart rate and the stroke volume. The MAP is also determined by the relative distribution of blood between the arteries and the veins in the cardiovascular system. This is determined by the diameter of the veins. D. Correct! The distribution of the dissolved gases has nothing to do with the mean arterial pressure. This is a component of the plasma. The MAP is determined by the resistance of the cardiovascular system to blood flow and this is determined by the diameter of the arterioles. MAP is determined by the balance of blood flow into and out of arteries. If flow in exceeds the flow out, MAP rises. Blood flow into aorta is influenced by peripheral resistance. MAP is a function of cardiac output and resistance of the arterioles. Blood pressure rises when heart pumps more blood and the resistance does not change. It will also increase if the cardiac output remains unchanged but peripheral resistance increases. Changes in total blood volume will affect MAP. An increase in total blood volume can lead to an increase in MAP. The MAP is determined by the blood volume which is determined by the amount of fluid loss and taken in. The fluid loss may be a passive process or regulated by the kidneys. The MAP is determined by the cardiac output which is determined by the heart rate and the stroke volume. The MAP is determined by the resistance of the cardiovascular system to blood flow and this is determined by the diameter of the arterioles. The MAP is also determined by the relative distribution of blood between the arteries and the veins in the cardiovascular system. This is determined by the diameter of the veins. The correct answer is (D).

6 Question No. 6 of In order to decrease blood pressure, one needs to. Question #06 (A) Increase sympathetic output. (B) Increase parasympathetic output. (C) Increase peripheral resistance. (D) Increase force of contraction. (E) All of the above. The sympathetic system deals with fight or flight pathways which will increase heart rate and blood pressure. B. Correct! The parasympathetic system deals with relaxation pathways so increasing its output would lead to lowering the blood pressure. Increasing peripheral resistance will increase how hard the heart must work to pump the blood thus increasing blood pressure. Increasing force of contraction will cause the heart to work harder thus increasing blood pressure. All of these do not serve to help decrease or increase blood pressure. An increase in blood pressure causes an increase of the baroreceptors in the carotid arteries and aorta leading to activation of sensory neurons. The neuron will act on the medulla oblongata and it will decrease the sympathetic output. This leads to vasodilation which will decrease peripheral resistance. The sympathetic output is decreased and this also leads to decrease of force of contraction. The sensory neuron also increases the parasympathetic output which leads to a decrease in heart rate. Couple with the decrease in contraction force will lead to a decrease in cardiac output. Both the decrease of cardiac output and the decrease in peripheral resistance will cause the blood pressure to lower.

7 Question No. 7 of Which of the following is/are function(s) of whole blood? Question #07 (A) Transport of gases and wastes. (B) Defense of body against pathogen and viruses. (C) Stabilization of body temperature. (D) Involved in regulation of ph. (E) All of the above Blood carries O 2, distributes nutrients, carries hormones and absorbs wastes. This is not the only function. Blood also plays a role in defense against toxins and pathogens. This is not the only function. Blood will help with stabilization of body temperature by absorbing heat and redistributing it to other tissues. This is not the only function. Blood is involved in the regulation of ph, including the interstitial fluid ph. E. Correct! All of these functions are correct functions of whole blood. Blood carries O 2, distributes nutrients, carries hormones and absorbs wastes. Blood also regulates the ph and ion composition of interstitial fluid. Blood also facilitate diffusion between blood and interstitial fluid and it also eliminates deficiencies or excess of ions. It absorbs and neutralizes acids Blood helps with restriction of fluid losses at injury sites. Blood has enzymes and factors to initiate clotting. Blood also plays a role in defense against toxins and pathogens. Blood will help with stabilization of body temperature by absorbing heat and redistributing it to other tissues. The correct answer is (E).

8 Question No. 8 of Which blood cells are responsible for releasing histamine and heparin? Question #08 (A) Red blood cells (B) Platelets (C) Lymphocytes (D) Neutrophils (E) None of the above RBC transport O 2 and CO 2. They are biconcave, anucleate cells that are covered with hemoglobin which help with gas transport. Platelets are not cells at all but they are cytoplasmic fragments of large cells called megakaryocytes. They are needed for the blood clotting process that occurs when the blood vessels are ruptured. Lymphocytes are cells with large nucleus surrounded by thin halo of cytoplasm. They provide defense against specific pathogens or toxins. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells. They are multilobed nucleus with difficult to stain granules. E. Correct! Basophils are cells with lobed nucleus with deep purple granules. Their granules release histamine (which causes inflammation) and heparin (prevent blood clotting). RBC transport O 2 and CO 2. They are biconcave, anucleate cells that are covered with hemoglobin which help with gas transport. Platelets are not cells at all but they are cytoplasmic fragments of large cells called megakaryocytes. They are needed for the blood clotting process that occurs when the blood vessels are ruptured. Lymphocytes are cells with large nucleus surrounded by thin halo of cytoplasm. They provide defense against specific pathogens or toxins. They represent 20 to 30% of circulating WBC and have a life span of months to decades. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells. They are multilobed nucleus with difficult to stain granules. They represent 50 to 70% of circulating WBC and have a life span of 10 hours. Basophils are cells with lobed nucleus with deep purple granules. They have granules that release histamine (which causes inflammation) and heparin (prevent blood clotting). They represent less than 1% of circulating WBC and their life span is unknown. The correct answer is (E).

9 Question No. 9 of Which of the following is controlled risk factor of coronary heart disease? Question #09 (A) Obesity (B) Age (C) Gender (D) Family history (E) All of the above A. Correct! Obesity is a controlled risk factor for developing coronary heart disease. Maintaining a proper weight is important for maintaining a healthy heart. Age is not something that can be controlled. Gender is not a factor that can be controlled. Family history is not a factor that can be controlled. Of the choices available not all of them are factors that are under conscious control. Coronary heart disease can result when the heart s blood vessels become blocked by cholesterol, calcium, and blood clots. Unhealthy habits, such as a diet high in cholesterol and other fats, smoking, and lack of exercise accelerate the deposit of fat and calcium within the inner lining of coronary arteries. Some of the uncontrolled risk factors include age, gender and family history and some of the controlled risk factors are smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and untreated hypertension. The correct answer is (A).

10 Question No. 10 of Which of these is a difference between arteries and veins? Question #10 (A) There are fewer veins than arteries. (B) The diameter of veins is smaller than arteries. (C) Arteries run closer to the body surface. (D) Veins have backflow valves. (E) Arteries contain less elastic tissue. There are more veins than arteries. The diameter of veins is larger than the diameter of arteries and this allows a larger volume of blood in the veins. Veins run closer to the body surface and one can see the bluish blood vessels running just underneath the skin. D. Correct! Veins have backflow valves to prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction. Veins have less elastic tissue and this allows the veins to expand easier with blood. There are several differences between arteries and veins. There are more veins than arteries. Diameter of veins is larger than the diameter of arteries and this allows a larger volume of blood in the veins. Veins run closer to the body surface and one can see the bluish blood vessels running just underneath the skin. Veins have less elastic tissue and this allows the veins to expand easier with blood. Veins have backflow valves to prevent blood from flowing in the wrong direction. The correct answer is (D).

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