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1 Abdomen the center of the body where the organs are found. Access the connection to the bloodstream used to perform dialysis (fistula, graft, subclavian catheter, peritoneal catheter). Acute renal failure sudden, but usually temporary, loss of kidney function. Ambulatory able to walk and move around. Anemia fewer than normal red blood cells. Red blood cells are the part of the blood that carries oxygen to your body cells. If you have too few red blood cells, the heart must work harder to get enough oxygen to your body cells and tissues. Arterial line the blood tubing that takes the blood away from the body to the dialyzer. Artery blood moving away from the heart to other parts of the body flows through the arteries. Artificial kidney the dialyzer or device with a membrane that is used to filter the blood during hemodialysis treatments. A-V fistula the surgical connection between an artery and a vein. It is used to place needles for hemodialysis treatment. Sometimes called a Cimino or Bressia fistula. Bath term sometimes used for dialysis solutions. Blood chemistries monthly blood tests to determine how a patient is doing. Blood flow rate speed the blood is pumped through the dialyzer. Blood pressure the pressure of blood against the blood vessel walls. It is shown as one number (systolic-heart contracting) above another (diastolic heart resting). Blood pump part of the dialysis machine that pumps the blood through the dialyzer and back to the body. BUN level of urea nitrogen waste products in the blood.

2 Cadaver donor a person who has irreversible brain death and allowed their kidneys to be transplanted. Calcium a mineral that is important for healthy bones and teeth, blood clotting and nerve function. Carbohydrate a part of foods used for energy or as fuel. Cardiac having to do with the heart. Catheter plastic tube; allows fluid to flow in or out of the body. Clot a lump that forms when blood thickens. If a clot forms in a graft or fistula, it cannot be used for dialysis. Clots can also form in the artificial kidney or dialysis blood lines. Heparin may be given to prevent clotting. Clotting time the amount of time it takes for the blood to clot. Concentrate chemical mix diluted with water to make dialysate. Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) a type of dialysis using the patient s peritoneal membrane to filter out waste products and extra fluid. Dialysate is put in and taken out of the peritoneal cavity several times per day (exchanges) and the patient can go about their normal activities between exchanges. Continuous Cyclic Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD) uses a machine at night to do the exchanges while the patient sleeps. This treatment is similar to CAPD. Cramps tightening of muscles that can be caused by excessive or rapid fluid removal during dialysis. Daily dialysis is a home hemodialysis treatment that utilizes short duration ( hr) treatments, 4-6 times per week. This form of treatment reduces blood pressure, reduces hospital admissions, offers fewer dietary restrictions and often reduces the amount or number of high blood pressure medications. A helper is required to assist with the treatment. Dialysate the fluid used in dialysis to remove waste products. In hemodialysis, it is pumped through the dialyzer to draw out the waste products and extra fluid. In peritoneal

3 dialysis, dialysate is infused into the abdomen, where it sits and absorbs waste products, is drained and replaced with fresh dialysate. This is the same as the bath. Dialysis the removal of a substance from the body through a semi-permeable membrane. When blood is pumped through the membrane of an artificial kidney, it is called hemodialysis. When the dialysate is put into the abdomen and the peritoneal membrane is used, the process is called peritoneal dialysis. Dialyzer an artificial kidney. The dialyzer has blood flowing through one compartment and dialysate flowing through the other compartment. They are separated by a semipermeable membrane, which allows some things (excess water and waste products) to pass through while preventing other things (large protein molecules or blood cells) from passing through. Dehydration when too much water is lost from the body. Symptoms can include dizziness, fainting, cramping and low blood pressure. Dry out remove excess fluid from the body. Dry weight weight when there is no extra fluid in the body. Dwell time the time that dialysate remains in the peritoneal cavity to allow waste products and extra fluid to filter out of the blood into the dialysate. Edema swelling or fluid build up (usually in ankles, hands, eyes). Electrolytes elements like sodium and potassium that are found in the blood and kept at safe levels by dialysis. ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) - when your kidneys no longer work well enough to maintain life without a form of dialysis or transplant. Exchange the process of putting in and draining out dialysate for peritoneal dialysis. Exit site where the PD catheter exits out of the abdomen. Fistula surgical joining of an artery and vein to create a hemodialysis access.

4 Fluid overload when a patient has too much fluid in the body or gains too much fluid weight between dialysis treatments. Fluid overload results in swelling (edema) and/or shortness of breath. Graft a plastic tube placed in the body connecting an artery and a vein. It is used to place needles for hemodialysis treatments. Hematocrit (HCT) the percentage of your blood that is red blood cells. The hematocrit is low when you are anemic. Hemoglobin (Hgb) the red portion of blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body cells. Heparin a medication given before and during dialysis treatments to keep blood from clotting in the dialyzer and blood lines. Hepatitis a swelling of the liver caused by a virus, poison or reaction to medication. There are several types of hepatitis. Hyperparathyroidism a condition where the parathyroid gland makes too much hormone and can result in renal bone disease. Hypertension high blood pressure. Hypotension low blood pressure. Infection tissue reaction to disease caused by organisms such as a virus or bacteria. Infiltration a build up of blood or fluid under the skin. This happens when a needle accidentally slips out of the access into the tissue surrounding the access. Inflammation a swollen, red, warm and/or painful area caused by infection or injury. Kidney bean shaped organs located in back of the abdominal cavity. They control the body s chemical and fluid balance. Kilogram a measure of weight, 2.2. pounds is equal to 1 kilogram. Liter a measure of liquid about equal to a quart or 4 cups.

5 Minerals substances needed for good nutrition and normal body functioning. Negative pressure the pressure applied in the dialyzer by the dialysis machine to help pull off extra fluid during dialysis. Nephrectomy surgical removal of the kidneys. Nephrologist a doctor who specializes in kidney disease. Nephron the small parts of the kidney that do the work. Nocturnal dialysis is a home hemodialysis treatment that is done during the night while you sleep. Treatments last 7-8 hours and are performed 4-6 nights per week, leaving your day time hours free. Advantages include fewer dietary restrictions, fewer blood pressure medications and reduced number of hospital admissions. Parathyroid glands small glands in the neck that produce a hormone to keep calcium and phosphorus in balance. Pericarditis a swelling of the sac structure around the heart. Pericarditis can occur if you are not getting enough dialysis. Peritoneal cavity open spaces around the organs in abdomen. Peritoneal dialysis a type of dialysis where dialysate is put into the peritoneal cavity to draw out wastes and excess fluid. Peritonitis infection causing swelling of the peritoneal membrane. Peritoneum or peritoneal membrane the sac-like structure that lines the cavity around the organs and acts like a dialysis filter. Phosphate binder a medicine taken with meals to absorb phosphorus and allow it to be eliminated in the stool. Binders are necessary to prevent the build up of phosphorus in the blood. Dialysis alone does not remove enough phosphorus. Phosphorus a mineral needed for normal bones and teeth as well as body functioning.

6 Potassium a mineral that needs to be balanced in the body for normal muscle and nerve function. It is found in all foods, but especially high in fresh fruits and vegetables. Priming forcing the air out of the dialyzer and dialysis blood lines with saline. Protein a part of food that is necessary for life. It is used to build and repair tissue. Pruritus itching sometimes caused by high blood phosphorus, calcium, and/or urea levels or when you don t get enough dialysis. Pulse the throb felt in the arteries as the heart beats. Pyrogen an element that causes fever. Red blood cell a blood cell that carries oxygen to the body cells. Renal refers to the kidneys. Saline a salt water solution that has the same level of sodium chloride (salt) as the blood. Saline is used for priming, to treat low blood pressure and to clear the blood lines and dialyzer. Semi-permeable membrane a membrane that allows some things to pass through it, but not others. In the artificial kidney it is made of a substance similar to cellophane. Sodium a mineral that helps control fluid balance; a part of salt. Sodium chloride table salt. Spasm a tightening of a blood vessel that interferes with blood flow. A spasm can occur in the hemodialysis access. Tenckhoff catheter a surgically placed plastic tube used to allow dialysate to flow into and out of the abdomen for PD treatments. Tissue typing matching blood and tissue for a transplant. Tourniquet an elastic strap that is wrapped around the arm to make veins show up for needles to be easily inserted.

7 Toxin poison or substance that is harmful. Waste products that build up in kidney failure are called toxins. Urea a breakdown product of protein that can build up in kidney failure and cause symptoms of uremia. Uremia build up of waste products in kidney failure; symptoms are nausea, vomiting, tiredness, itching and sleeplessness. Ultrafiltration the removal of fluid from the body. Vascular having to do with blood vessels. Vein blood vessels that carry blood from body cells back to the heart. Venipuncture putting needles into a vein to reach the blood. Venous refers to the veins. Venous line tube carrying blood to the body from the dialyzer. Vital signs heart rate, BP, temperature, breathing rate. Waste products substances that are not needed. They come from the metabolism of foods and liquids. White blood cell type of blood cell that fights infection. Xylocaine a local anesthetic used to numb the skin before dialysis needles are placed.

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