Cardiac Cycle. Lesson 3.1. Developed by Geran Call as partial fulfillment for Master s plan B NI Automation & Control lesson 3.1

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1 Cardiac Cycle Lesson 3.1 Developed by Geran Call as partial fulfillment for Master s plan B NI Automation & Control lesson 3.1

2 Heart Anatomy: Four Chambers Right Atrium: Receives deoxygenated blood from the body Right Ventricle: Pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs to receive oxygen Left Atrium: Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs Left Ventricle: Pumps oxygenated blood to the body Right Atrium Right Ventricle Left Atrium Left Ventricle

3 Heart Anatomy: Valves Atrioventricular Valves: Allows blood to pass from atria to ventricles and closes to prevent back flow when the ventricle contracts (Right and Left) Semilunar Valves: pump blood between ventricles and associated arteries (right ventricle pumps blood to the pulmonary artery, left ventricle pumps blood to the aorta.) Right semilunar valves Right atrioventricular valves Left atrioventricular valves Aorta Pulmonary artery Left semilunar valves

4 Heart Anatomy: Vessels Pulmonary artery: carries blood to the lungs. Pulmonary veins: carries blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart. Aorta: Carries oxygenated blood to the body. Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary veins

5 Heart Anatomy: Electrical Sinoatrial Node (SA node): known as the pacemaker of the Nodes heart, sets the heart s beating rhythm. Atrioventricular Node (AV node): passes the signal from the SA node to the ventricles, causing a delay in the cardiac cycle. SA Node AV Node

6 Heart Anatomy: Electrical Punkinje Fibers: is muscle fiber that creates a network and carries electrical signals throughout the heart Nodes Punkinje Fibers

7 How the heart pumps blood The circulation of the blood is an endless cycle. For our purpose, let s begin the cycle at the right atrium and left atrium. The blue is deoxygenated blood in the right atrium. The red is oxygenated blood in the left atrium. With the Atrioventricular Valves open blood drains into the ventricles.

8 How the heart pumps blood When the muscles contract around the atria the deoxygenated blood moves through the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles making sure they are full.

9 How the heart pumps blood Once the muscles around the ventricles contract, the deoxygenated and oxygenated blood leaves the ventricles through the semilunar valve.

10 How the heart pumps blood The deoxygenated blood (blue) leaves through the pulmonary arteries traveling to the capillaries contained in the lungs where the blood is oxygenated. Once oxygenated the blood returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins.

11 How the heart pumps blood The oxygenated blood (red) is pushed out the semilunar valve into the aorta. The aorta transports the oxygenated blood to capillaries of the abdominal organs, hind limbs, head, and forelimbs. After the blood is deoxygenated, it returns to the heart.

12 Electrical Activity What drives the cardiac cycle is the sinoatrial node (SA node). The SA node is also known as the pacemaker, which sets the beat of the heart. The SA node is located in the right atrium and triggers an electrical impulse.

13 Electrical Activity The SA Node impulse causes the atria to contract, emptying their blood into the ventricles through the now open atrioventricular valves.

14 Electrical Activity The atrioventricular valves are closed as the impulse reaches the atrioventricular node (AV node). This node acts as a relay station for the electrical impulse sent from the SA node, causing a delay of the impulse reaching the ventricles.

15 Electrical Activity When the pulse is released from the AV node, it travels down the walls of the ventricles on conductive pathways known as Purkinje fibers.

16 Electrical Activity As the pulse travels down the walls it is causing the ventricles to contract from the bottom up, squeezing the blood through the semilunar valves.

17 Electrical Activity Once pulse has ended, the heart relaxes and the chambers of the heart passively fill with blood to await another impulse from the SA node.

18 The End

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