Image Formation. CMPT 361 Introduction to Computer Graphics Torsten Möller. Machiraju/Zhang/Möller

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1 Image Formation CMPT 361 Introduction to Computer Graphics Torsten Möller Machiraju/Zhang/Möller

2 Today Input and displays of a graphics system Raster display basics: pixels, the frame buffer, raster scan, LCD displays Historical perspective Image formation The ray tracing algorithm The z-buffer algorithm Readings: Sections , 11.2 (Ray tracing), (z-buffering) Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 2

3 Overview of a graphics system Output device Input devices Image formed and stored in frame buffer Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 3

4 Input devices Pointing/locator devices: indicate location on screen Mouse/trackball/spaceball Data tablet Joystick Touch pad and touch screen Keyboard device: send character input Choice devices: mouse buttons, function keys Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 4

5 More sophisticated interaction Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 5

6 Input devices for CMPT 361 CMPT 361 Use simple keyboard and mouse commands to interact with your OpenGL program Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 6

7 Output: cathode-ray tube (CRT) Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 7

8 CRT basics The screen output is stored in the frame buffer and is converted into voltages across the reflection plates via a digital-to-analog converter (DAG) Light is emitted when electrons hit phosphor But light output from the phosphor decays exponentially with time, typically in microseconds Thus the screen needs to be redrawn or refreshed Refresh rate is typically 60 Hz to avoid flicker ( twinkling ) Flicker: when the eye can no longer integrate individual light pulses from a point on screen, e.g., due to low refresh rate Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 8

9 Shadow-mask color CRTs Three different colored phosphors (R, G, B) dots are arranged in very small groups (triads) on coating We see a mixture of three colors Three electron guns (R, G, B) emit electron beams in a controlled fashion so that only phosphors of the proper colors are excited Shadow-mask CRT Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 9

10 Flat-panel displays CRTs are no longer the most widely used display devices nowadays Flat-panel displays, e.g., LCDs or liquid-crystal displays and plasma displays dominate Flat-panel displays can be emissive (plasma) or nonemissive (LCD) allowing for light to pass through Colors can be produced in using triads (sub-pixels) Screen refresh no longer necessary See pp. 8 of text or Chapter 4 of Foley et al. for more on flat-panel technologies (or check out the wikipedia) Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 10

11 A generic flat-panel display Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 11

12 High Dynamic Range Displays High resolution colour LCD Courtesy: High Dynamic Range Display Low resolution Individually Modulated LED array Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 12

13 Raster display basics The screen is a rectangular array of picture elements, or pixels Resolution: determines the details you can see number of pixels in an image, e.g., , 1280x1024, 1366 x 768, etc. also in ppi or dpi pixel or dot per inch Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 13

14 Raster scan pattern Horizontal scan rate: # scan lines per second Interlaced (TV) vs. non-interlaced displays Scan line Vertical retrace Horizontal retrace Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 14

15 Video display standards NTSC (National Television System Committee): 525 lines, 30 frames/sec interlaced (visual system tricked into thinking that the refresh rate is 60 f/s) 480 lines visible North America, South America, Japan PAL/SECAM: 625 lines, 25 frames/sec interlaced Europe, Russian, Africa, etc. HDTV: 1,080 lines Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 15

16 The frame buffer Stores per-pixel information Depth of a frame buffer: number of bits per pixel E.g. for color representation, 1 bit => 2 colors, 8 bits => 256 colors, 24 bits => true color (16 million colors) Color buffer is only one of many buffers, other information, e.g., depth, can also be used Implemented with special type of memory in standard PCs or on a graphics card for fast redisplay Part of standard memory in earlier systems Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 16

17 Comp Graphics: Computer graphics goes back to the earliest days of computing Strip charts Pen plotters Simple displays using A/D converters to go from computer to calligraphic CRT Cost of refresh for CRT too high Computers slow, expensive, unreliable Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 17 adapted from Angel and Shreiner

18 Comp Graphics: Wireframe graphics Draw only lines Sketchpad Display Processors Storage tube wireframe representation of sun object Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 18

19 Sketchpad Ivan Sutherland s PhD thesis at MIT Recognized the potential of man-machine interaction Loop Display something User moves light pen Computer generates new display Sutherland also created many of the now common algorithms for computer graphics Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 19

20 Comp Graphics: Raster Graphics Beginning of graphics standards IFIPS GKS: European effort Becomes ISO 2D standard Core: North American effort 3D but fails to become ISO standard Workstations and PCs Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 20

21 Raster Graphics Allows us to go from lines and wire frame images to filled polygons Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 21

22 Comp Graphics: Realism comes to computer graphics smooth shading environment mapping bump mapping Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 22

23 Comp Graphics: Special purpose hardware Silicon Graphics geometry engine VLSI implementation of graphics pipeline Industry-based standards PHIGS RenderMan Networked graphics: X Window System Human-Computer Interface (HCI) Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 23

24 Comp Graphics: OpenGL API Completely computer-generated featurelength movies (Toy Story) are successful New hardware capabilities Texture mapping Blending Accumulation, stencil buffers Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 24

25 Computer Graphics: Photorealism Graphics cards for PCs dominate market Nvidia, ATI Game boxes and game players determine direction of market Computer graphics routine in movie industry: Maya, Lightwave Programmable pipelines Machiraju/Zhang/Möller adapted from Angel and Shreiner 25

26 Today Input and displays of a graphics system Raster display basics: pixels, the frame buffer, raster scan, LCD displays Historical perspective Image formation The ray tracing algorithm The z-buffer algorithm Readings: Sections , 11.2 (Ray tracing), (z-buffering) Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 26

27 Image formation (aside) In computer graphics, we form 2D images via a process analogous to how images are formed by physical imaging systems Cameras Microscopes Human visual system Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 27

28 Elements of image formation Object: Exists independent of image formation and viewer defined in its own object space Formed by geometric primitives, e.g., polygons Viewer: Forms the image of the objects via projection onto an image plane Image is produced in 2D, e.g., on retina, film, etc. Objects need to be transformed into the image space Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 28

29 Also, light and color No light => nothing is visible How do we, or the camera, see? Light reflected off objects in the scene, or Light transmitted directly into our eyes, e.g., from light source What is reflected color? Light and object have color When colored light reaches a colored object, some colors are reflected and some absorbed Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 29

30 Light Light is the (visible) part of the electromagnetic spectrum that causes a reaction in our visual systems Generally these are wavelengths in the range of about nm (nanometers) Long wavelengths appear as reds and short wavelengths as blues The electromagnetic spectrum Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 30

31 Simplistic color representation RGB-color system (R: red, G: green, B: blue) Each displayed color has 3 components: R, G, B 8 bits per component in 24-bit true-color display; component value: (R,G,B) = (255,255,255) (0,0,0) (255,0,0) (255,255,0) (0,255,255) In OpenGL, RGB values are in [0,1] More details on lights and colors later in course Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 31

32 Imaging system: pinhole camera Use trigonometry to find projection of point at (x,y,z) x p = dx/z y p = dy/z z p = d Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 32

33 Synthetic camera model projector image plane center of projection Imaging model adopted by 3D computer graphics Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 33

34 First imaging algorithm Directly derived from the synthetic camera model Follow rays of light from a point light source Determine which rays enter the lens of the camera through the imaging window Compute color of projection Why is this not a good idea? Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 34

35 Ray tracing When following light from a light source, many (reflected) rays do not intersect the image window and do not contribute to the scene eye reflected ray pixel Image plane shadow ray refracted ray rays Reverse the process Cast one ray per pixel from the eye and shoot it into the scene Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 35

36 Ray tracing: the basics A point on an object may be illuminated by Light source directly through shadow ray Light reflected off an object through reflected ray Light transmitted through a transparent object through refracted ray eye reflected ray pixel Image plane shadow ray refracted ray Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 36

37 Ray tracing: the algorithm for each pixel on screen determine ray from eye through pixel if ray shoots into infinity, return a background color if ray shoots into light source, return light color appropriately find closest intersection of ray with an object cast off shadow ray (towards light sources) if shadow ray hits a light source, compute light contribution according to some illumination model cast reflected and refracted ray, recursively calculate pixel color contribution return pixel color after some absorption Most expensive Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 37

38 Machiraju/Zhang/Möller The WingsPov Civilisation Museum by Eric Ouvrard 38

39 Ray tracing: pros and cons Pros: Follows (approximately) the physics of optical flow High level of visual realism can model both lightobject interactions and inter-surface reflections and refractions Cons expensive: intersection tests and the levels of recursion (rays generated) Inadequate for modeling non-reflective (dull-looking) objects (why is that?) Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 39

40 Which is the most important ray? eye reflected ray pixel Image plane shadow ray refracted ray Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 40

41 The z-buffer algorithm Per-polygon operations vs. per-pixel for ray tracing Simple and often accelerated with hardware Works regardless of the order in which the polygons are processed no need to sort them back to front A visibility algorithm and not designed to compute colors OpenGL implements this fundamental algorithm glutinitdisplaymode(glut_single GLUT_RGB GLUT_DEPTH); glenable(gl_depth_test); glclear(gl_color_buffer_bit GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT); Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 41

42 The algorithm for each polygon in the scene project its vertices onto viewing (image) plane end if for each pixel inside the polygon formed on viewing plane determine point on polygon corresponding to this pixel get pixel color according to some illumination model get depth value for this pixel (distance from point to plane) if depth value < stored depth value for the pixel end if update pixel color in frame buffer update depth value in depth buffer (z-buffer) Question: What does the depth buffer store after running the z-buffer algorithm for the scene? Does polygon order change depth? Image? Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 42

43 Machiraju/Zhang/Möller 43

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