Introduction on -Mark Directive 94/9/EC and standards

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1 Introduction on -Mark Directive 94/9/EC and standards Dr. Frank Hauert 4 goals of the EU 1. Free movement of people 2. Free movement of capital 3. Free movement of service 4. Free movement of goods 1

2 CHINA Instruments of the legislation Directives: are addressed at the member states -> transposing in national law required e.g. 94/9/EC Regulations: for special target groups are obligatory in every member state (-> no national transpose) Standards: are addressed directly to the manufacturer Compliance of standards is voluntary At disregard the manufacturer has to proof that all requirements are met 2

3 History of the European Union EGKS EWG EUROATOM /2002 Treaty of Rome 1957 Single European Act Majority qualified - Art 100a/118a - Parliament stabilization Treaty of Maastrich 1992 Start of single market 1993 EGKS EG EUROATOM + Foreign /domestic-/justice-/defence (security) politics European Union (EU) Treaty of Amsterdam 1999 Treaty of Nice 2002 Enlargement to east Revision of treaty of Maastricht - renumbering - Development of foreign and security politics - Negotiations of accession for new Member States - New allocation of seats in the parliament, new commission distribution - Security- and defence politics, coordination of the economic policy - Environmental protection, European Social Agenda 10 countries will become new members of EU Why 94/9/EC? Why ATEX 100a? ATEX = Atmosphère explosible Same! Why ATEX 95? Article 95 (100a) Requirements for products with Conformity assessment procedure machinery directive 98/37/EC 2006/42/EC use of equipment 94/9/EC (ATEX100a) It is not allowed to add national requirements! 3

4 Relevant Articles of the EU-Treaty Article 95 (100a) Requirements for products with Conformity assessment procedure machinery directive 98/37/EC use of equipment 94/9/EC (ATEX100a) Article 175 (130s) Environmental protection Seveso II- directive Article 137 (118a) Protect health and safety of workers framework directive health and safety requirements für work 89/391/EWG Directive on use of work equipment 89/655/EWG 1999/92/EC Requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres Directives according Article 95 and 137 4

5 New European Approach in explosions protection Requirements for manufacturer 94/9/EC must fulfill Requirements for user 1999/92/EC ATEX 100a (95) National law transposed nationally ATEX 137 National law user Flow Chart Is looking for manufacturer depending on category for fork lift offers and considers makes zoning considers Conformity assessment procedure Intended Use Instructions The requirements acc. Annex 2 take into account -marking... National Law z.b. Instruction delivers 5

6 Consequences for the manufacturer 1. The directive covers equipment and protective systems 2. The manufacturer is responsible for the warranty of fitness of his equipment or protective system for the use in explosive atmosphere ( Intended use ) 3. They are suitable if they comply the essential health and safety requirements of the directive 94/9/EG (Annex II) He will mark the product with + 94/9/EC Annnex II Essential health and safety requirements of the directive 94/9/EC (Summary) - Principles of integrated explosion safety -Marking - Instructions - Selection of materials - Design and construction - Potential ignition sources - Requirements in respect of safety-related devices 6

7 Meaning of CE - Mark is not a safety sign (because normally the safety is not tested or verified) is a kind of European passport Marked equipment = conformity with all relevant directives e.g. ATEX 95 + Machinery Directive Intended use Intended use: Dryer for Grain (ZT>300 C) Dryer temp.: T max = 120 C no additional measures to limit the temperature But: Measures to limit the temperature for drying of chemicals with < 80 C are necessary 7

8 Instructions 94/9/EG Anh. II guide 1.06 Intended Use Sensible way foreseeable misuse (Particulars of possible misuse which experience has shown might occur) same instructions as in the case of the marking (except serial number) Instructions for safe putting into service, use, assembling and dismantling, maintenance, installation, adjustment where necessary, training instructions; electrical and pressure parameters, maximum surface temperatures and other limit values; 94/9/EG Art. 1 Is the equipment covered by ATEX? intended use in potentially explosive atmosphere under atmospheric conditions or equipment is connected to the explosive atmosphere 8

9 Explosive atmosphere for dusts Product depending! Explosible area 0,01 0, Conzentration [g/m³] Atmospheric Conditions 94/9/EG guide Temperature [ C] ,5-0,8-20 0,7 1,1 1,5 pressure [bar] -40 9

10 94/9/EG Art. 1 Is the equipment covered by ATEX? intended use in potentially explosive atmosphere under atmospheric conditions or equipment is connected to the explosive atmosphere Production, Transmission, Storage, Modification of energy own potential (effective) ignition source is present (13 types of ignition sources in total -> EN ) ATEX guideline to ATEX 100a Scope of 94/9/EC for equipment Own potential ignition source? =>ZGB => AFTER ignition hazard assessment not to expect for mechanical watches simple mechanical level indicator simple manually operated armatures without stored energies simple doors (as principle, but always individual case decision!) In these cases there are also no EC type examination etc. 10

11 1. Hot surfaces, 2. Flames and hot gases 3. Mechanically generated sparks 4. Electrical apparatus 5. Stray electric currents, cathodic corrosion protection 6. Static electricity 7. Lightning 8. Electromagnetic waves from von 10 4 Hz to Hz 9. Electromagnetic waves from 3 x to 3 x Hz, 10. Ionizing radiation, 11. Ultrasonics 12. Adiabatic compression and shock waves 13. Exothermic reactions, including selfignition of dusts DIN EN Example Agitator possible ignition sources 1. Hot surfaces, 2. Flames and hot gases 3. Mechanically generated sparks 4. Electrical apparatus 5. Stray electric currents, cathodic corrosion protection 6. Static electricity 7. Lightning 8. Electromagnetic waves from von 10 4 Hz to Hz 9. Electromagnetic waves from 3 x to 3 x Hz, 10. Ionizing radiation, 11. Ultrasonics 12. Adiabatic compression and shock waves 13. Exothermic reactions, including selfignition of dusts Example Agitator relevant ignition sources DIN EN

12 Example Agitator: Hot surface Coupling of equipment with heat sources Release of agitating energy Dynamic seals Heating up of attached equipment Ignition hazard hot surfaces Friction energy of moving parts [M. Beyer] Bearing failure overload (transmission, propulsion etc.) Grinding contact of agitating organ and wall Grinding contact of two agitating organs [M. Beyer] Example Agitator: mechanical sparks Grinding contact of agitator and housing Bearing failure Defective materials - Corrosion Ignition hazard mechanical sparks Penetrate from foreign matters Vibrations - Critical rotational speed l Dry running of dynamic seals Break of lever collar 12

13 Grinding contact of agitating organ and wall Grinding contact of two agitating organs [M. Beyer] Example Agitator: mechanical sparks Grinding contact of agitator and housing Bearing failure Defective materials - Corrosion Ignition hazard mechanical sparks Penetrate from foreign matters Vibrations - Critical rotational speed l Dry running of dynamic seals Break of lever collar 94/9/EG An.1 Classification of equipment and components Category Sufficient safety level must be provided... 1 even in the event of rare incidents relating to equipment (rare malfunctions) (very high level of protection) 2 if malfunctions or equipment faults occur frequently (expected malfunctions) (high level of protection) 3 in normal operation (normal level of protection) 13

14 Zone - Category dust Zone 20 gas Zone 0 Category 1 Zone 21 Zone 1 Category 2 Zone 22 Zone 2 Category 3 Dust Zone 20 A place in which an explosive Category atmosphere 1 in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is present continuously, or for long periods or frequently. Zone 21 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible Category dust in air 2is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally. Zone 22 A place in which an explosive atmosphere in the form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does Category occur, will 3 persist for a short period only. 14

15 Gas Zone 0 A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of flammable substances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is Category present continuously 1 or for long periods or frequently. Zone 1 A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air or flammable substances in the form of gas, Category 2 vapour or mist is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally. Zone 2 A place in which an explosive atmosphere consisting of a mixture with air of flammable substances in the form of gas, Category 3 vapour or mist is not likely to occur in normal operation but, if it does occur, will persist for a short period only. A ATEX guide 4 Is the equipment covered by directive 94/9/EC? N 2 N 2 Explosive Atmosphere Potential ignition source Equipment is not covered by directive 94/9/EC 15

16 B Zone 2 ATEX guide 4 Is the equipment covered by directive 94/9/EC? N 2 N 2 Zone 2 Explosive Atmosphere Potential ignition source Equipment is not covered by directive 94/9/EC C ATEX guide 4 Is the equipment covered by directive 94/9/EC? Zone 2 Zone 0, 1, 2 Zone 0 Zone 1 Zone 2 Explosive Atmosphere Potential ignition source Equipment is not covered by directive 94/9/EC 16

17 D Zone 2 ATEX Leitf Is the equipment covered by directive 94/9/EC? Zone 0, 1, 2 Zone 0 Zone 1 Category 1 Zone 2 Category 2 Category 3 Explosive Atmosphere Potential ignition source Equipment is covered by directive 94/9/EC with different categories E ATEX guide 4 Is the equipment covered by directive 94/9/EC? Zone 0, 1, 2 Zone 0 Zone 1 Explosive Atmosphere Potential ignition source Equipment is not covered by the directive Conditions only INSIDE fullfilled 17

18 Sieving machine Use in potentially explosive atmosphere potential ignition sources (outside): safety switch, outboard bearing permanent potentially explosive atmosphere inside potential ignition sources (inside): hot surfaces, mechanical sparks Equipment is covered by directive 94/9/EC Cat 3D Cat 1D Tubes ATEX guide dust gas vapour Use in potentially explosive atmosphere Possible ignition source: electrostatics Ignition source only arise through operating, i.e. no own ignition source Tubes are not covered by directive 94/9/EC User responsibility acc. 1999/92/EC 18

19 Lifting tackle Ignition hazard analysis comes to: No effective ignition-source present Equipment is not covered by directive 94/9/EC Elevator Zone 21 Zone 21 Ev Category 2D Ev inside no ignition sources during expected malfunctions 19

20 Elevator Zone 21 Ev Category 1D Ev inside no ignition sources during rare malfunctions Zone 20 => aditionally constructional explosion protection necessary Where is this information available? 94/9/EC: ATEX Guideline to 94/9/EC: How to apply the Directive, further Considerations by the ATEX Standing Committee s Working Group: 20

21 Protective systems at the silo Pressure venting (protective system) separately placed on the market CE-marked Self construction Pressure venting device must be also examined + marked Filter Units and Vented Silo bins Silo is not covered by directive 94/9/EC Venting doors 21

22 Conformity Assessment Procedures acc. 94/9/EC 94/9/EG Art. 8 Equipment-group I & II Category 1+ Protective Systems Equipment-group I & II Category 2 Equipment-group II Category 3 EC type examination Yes Internal combustion engine or electrical equipment? No Internal control of production and EC type examination Internal control of production Production QA or Product Verification Conformity to type and or Product QA and Communicate a documentation to a Notified Body Or EC-unit verification Combination with the Machinery-Directive Machinery-Directive 98/37/EC Annex Explosion Machinery must be designed and constructed to avoid any risk of explosion posed by the machinery itself or by gases, liquids, dust, vapours or other substances produced or used by the machinery. To that end the manufacturer must take steps to avoid a dangerous concentration of products, prevent combustion of the potentially explosive atmosphere, minimise any explosion which may occur so that it does not endanger the surroundings. The same precautions must be taken if the manufacturer foresees the use of the machinery in a potentially explosive atmosphere. Electrical equipment forming part of the machinery must conform, as far as the risk from explosion is concerned, to the provision of the specific Directives in force. 22

23 Combination with the Machinery-Directive Machinery-Directive 2006/42/EC Annex Explosion Machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way as to avoid any risk of explosion posed by the machinery itself or by gases, liquids, dust, vapours or other substances produced or used by the machinery. Machinery must comply, as far as the risk of explosion due to its use in a potentially explosive atmosphere is concerned, with the provisions of the specific Community Directives. Conformity with all directives Marking Example 0558 manufacturer, address designation of type/serial number year of construction Information to the safe use Marking of explosion protection II 2 G Identification number of the not. Group Gas/Dust Body, the QA completes Category protection system, EC-type examination certificates number temperature class... type examination certificates number: FSA 03 ATEX 1502 X Further marking with electrical operational funds T2 k Temp.class Type of protection with application e.g: DIN EN13463-x 23

24 Example for marking Instruments of the legislation Directives: are addressed at the member states -> transposing in national law required Regulations: for special target groups are obligatory in every member state (-> no national transpose) Standards: are addressed directly to the manufacturer Compliance of standards is voluntary At disregard the manufacturer has to proof that all requirements are met 24

25 Harmonised Standards 1. The application of a harmonised standard causes the assumption that the Essential Health- and Safety Requirements (so far applicable) are fulfilled. => Standard series with CEN and CENELEC. ( 2. No harmonised standards available. => suitable national standards, technical specifications etc. can be used. Harmonised Standards 1. The application of a harmonised standard causes the assumption that the Essential Health- and Safety Requirements (so far applicable) are fulfilled. => Standard series with CEN and CENELEC. ( 2. No harmonised standards available. => suitable national standards, technical specifications etc. can be used. 25

26 Harmonised Standards => Standard series with CEN and CENELEC. ( 2. No harmonised standards available. => suitable national standards, technical specifications etc. can be used. CEN - Classification A-type standards These deal with the basic methodology and philosophy needed to undertake the mandatory risk based approach. EN Basic concepts and methodology EN Parts 1 and 2 Safety of Machinery B-type standards These deal with a variety of topics that are common to the design of most machines. These enable a designer to obtain information about a wide range of risks of hazards and the means to deal with the risk reduction process. EN Determination of minimum ignition energy of dust/air mixtures EN Determination of the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) for flammable gases and vapours EN14460 Explosion resistant equipment EN Explosion venting devices 26

27 CEN - Klassification C-type standards These deal with a specific equipment/machine or class of equipment and give a presumption of conformity for the EHSRs covered in the standard. EN 14986: Design of fans working in potentially explosive atmospheres EN 1755: explosion proof fork lifts A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Structure of CEN Central Secretariat Leading: secretary-general General assembly chairmanship: president CMC administrative board chairmanship: president Technical Board chairmanship: president Programme- Committees Dill (G) National mirror group (dt: DIN) National point of view TC 305 Explosive atmospheres chairmanship: Radandt Plenary WG 1 convenor: Betty WG 2 convenor: Tydesly WG 3 convenor: van Wingerden WG 4 convenor: Hauert WG 5 convenor: Fuchs DIN 27

28 CEN / TC 305 POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES - EXPLOSION PREVENTION AND PROTECTION WG 1: Test methods for determining the flammability characteristics of substances WG 2: Equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres WG 3: Devices and systems for explosion prevention and protection WG 4: Terminology and Methodology WG 5: Equipment and protection systems for mining CEN/TC 305/WG 1 Test methods to determining potentially explosive atmospheres-explosion prevention and protection Maximum explosion pressure Rate of pressure rise Limiting oxygen concentration Minimum ignition energy Minimum ignition temperature Lower explosion limit for dusts and gases (see. VDI 2263 Bl. 1) 28

29 TC WG1 EN :2004 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure pmax of dust clouds EN :2006 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise (dp/dt)max of dust clouds EN :2006 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds Part 3: Determination of the lower explosion limit LEL of dust clouds EN :2004 Determination of explosion characteristics of dust clouds Part 4: Determination of the limiting oxygen concentration LOC of dust clouds EN 13821:2002 Potentially explosive atmospheres Explosion prevention and protection Determination of minimum ignition energy of dust/air mixtures EN 1839:2003 Determination of explosion limits of gases and vapours EN :2003 Determination of the maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise of gases and vapours Part 1:Determination of the maximum explosion Pressure EN :2005 Determination of maximum explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise of gases and vapours Part 2: Determination of the maximum rate of explosion pressure rise EN 14522:2005 Determination of the auto ignition temperature of gases and vapours EN 14756:2006 Determination of the limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) for flammable gases and vapours EN 15188:2007 Determination of the spontaneous ignition behaviour of dust accumulations Types of ignition protection for non-electrical equipment EN Protective measures Ensure that the ignition source cannot arise Ensure that the ignition source cannot become active Prevent the explosive, atmosphere from reaching ignition source Contain the Explosion and prevent flame propagation Constructional safety c Inherent safety g Control of ignition sources b Flow restricting enclosures fr (Kat.3) Pressurisationp Liquid immersion k Flameproof enclosures d Product standards: Explosion-proof internal combustion engine DIN EN (2000) Explosion-proof fork lifts DIN EN 1755 (2000) Explosion-proof fans DIN EN

30 CEN/TC 305/WG 2 EN : 2001 Basic method and requirements EN : Protection by flow restricting enclosure EN : Protection by flameproof enclosure EN : Protection by Inherent Safety EN : Protection by Constructional Safety EN : Protection by Control of Ignition Sources EN : Protection by Pressurisation EN : Protection by liquid immersion EN 14986: Design of fans working in potentially explosive atmospheres EN : Explosion-proof internal combustion engine EN 1755 Explosion-proof fork lifts Bases and Requirements EN Assessment of ignition hazard ( =>Schema) Electrostatic requirements Test method for impact test Sequence of the protective measures: Ignition source cannot develop Ignition source cannot become active Ex- atmosphere does not reach ignition source contain the explosion and prevent flame propagation 30

31 Protective measure: Keep Ex-atmosphere away from ignition source Flow restricting enclosures (EN ) => Only Category 3 Conz. < LEL Pressurisation (EN ) Strong support at EN , there no differences of the protection principle Inertgas Protection measure: contain the ignition source and prevent flame propagation (EN ) Flameproof enclosures Explosion is closely included in the housing Categories 1 and 2 dust and gas draft very strongly modelled on electrical standard EN predominantly reference technology on EN => not to use without EN

32 Constructional Safety EN Basic: Many years of experience and knowledge of manufacturers and users Possibility for malfunctions by good, proven construction keeps sufficiently small (see increased safety with electrical equipment) avoids by constructional measures at moved parts hot surfaces, sparks and adiabatic compressions, this one can become an ignition source covers categories 1 and 2 G/D (also without additional ignition enclosures) in addition, can be combined Constructional Safety EN Special attention of the moved parts Requirements to bearing Requirements to power transmission systems (Gear-)drives (=> liquid immersion) Belt drives Chain drives Hydrostatic/pneumatic systems couplings Brakes Service brakes Emergency brakes Parking brakes Springs Conveyor belts 32

33 Monitoring of ignition sources EN Detector Basic idea: ignition sources are switched off by measuring- and controlling means/ monitor facility, before they can get active (temperature-, level-, rotational speed-, oscillation guardian...) Reliability level of the attachment depends on probability of the supervised ignition source and the desired category Protective measure: Separate Ex-atmosphere from ignition source + to cool/lubricate liquid immersion EN Support at EN , extended for mechanical equipment, also conductive liquids not only submersing, but also coating Example submersible pumps Liquid hydraulic pumps and motors, fluid couplings Oil-filled gear boxes (also without complete filling) 33

34 Product Standards Design of fans working in potentially explosive atmospheres EN 14986: 2004 Explosion-proof internal combustion engine DIN EN , -2, -3:2000 Explosion-proof industrial trucks (fork lift) DIN EN 1755:2000 CEN/TC 305/WG 3 Devices and protective systems Explosion suppression systems Explosion venting devices Flame arresters (EN 12874) Devices for explosion pressure venting (see. VDI 3673 for dust) Explosion barriers (Inertisation) probably as guideline 34

35 CEN/TC 305/WG 3 EN 12874: Flame arresters EN 14373: Explosion suppression systems EN 14797: Explosion venting devices EN 14460: Explosion resistant equipment EN 14491: Dust explosion venting protective systems EN 14994: Gas explosion venting protective systems CEN/TR Inertisation -Guide CEN/TC 305/WG 4 Terminology und Methodology mixed working programme EN Terms and definitions for equipment, protective systems and components intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres Requirements of quality systems Methodology for risk assessment of equipment and protective systems 35

36 CEN/TC 305/WG 4 EN : 2007 Explosive atmosphere- Explosion prevention and protection Part1 Basic concepts and methodology EN 13237: Terms and definitions for equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmosphere EN15198:2007 Methodology for the ignition hazard assessment of non-electrical equipment and components for intended use in potentially explosive atmospheres EN15233:2007 Methodology for functional safety assessment of protective systems for potentially explosive atmospheres EN 13980: Explosive atmosphere - Requirements of quality systems CEN/TC 305/WG 5 Equipment and protection systems for mining EN :2002, explosion protection bases and methodology in mines further standards for equipment and protection systems for mining 36

37 Questions? 37

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