John B. Horrigan, PhD. October Updated December Prepared for the Alliance for Excellent Education and the LEAD Commission

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1 SCHOOLS AND BROADBAND SPEEDS: AN ANALYSIS OF GAPS IN ACCESS TO HIGH-SPEED INTERNET FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN, LATINO, LOW-INCOME, AND RURAL STUDENTS John B. Horrigan, PhD October 2014 Updated December 2014 Prepared for the Alliance for Excellent Education and the LEAD Commission 1

2 Summary and Key Data Points 34.2 percent of K 12 students attend public where the internet speed is percent of K 12 students attend public where the internet speed is between 50 Mbps and percent of students attend public where the internet speed is between 10 Mbps and percent of all students attend public where the internet speed is 10 Mbps or less. 1 These figures include all K 12 students in public for which the National Broadband Map reports advertised internet speeds. The subject of this report is the state of access for low-income,,, and rural students. How do they compare with the rest of America? Are, for instance, too many poor students attending where the internet speed is relatively slow (10 Mbps or less)? Are poor or minority students less likely to be in where the speed is fast ( )? (See Appendix A for a state-by-state analysis of access for low-income,, and students) In what follows, analysis of students and their advertised internet speeds shows that there are significant gaps for low-income,,, and rural students. in each of these categories are likely to be in with slow internet speeds and less likely to attend with the fastest speeds. The analysis compares low-income students to their counterparts, s and s to white students, and rural to non-rural students. For low-income students: 2 If the share of low-income students in with internet speeds of matched the share of students with access to speeds of, approximately 580,000 low-income students would have access to the internet in school at speeds of. 3 At the other end of the spectrum, low-income students are disproportionately found in with speeds of 10 Mbps or less. Nearly one-quarter (23.3 percent) of all low-income students only have access to slow internet in their producing a gap of approximately 2,180,000 students. That is, if the share of low-income students in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less equaled the share of students with those speeds, the number of poor students with speeds of 10 Mbps or less would fall by than 2 million. 1 The percentage total does not add up to 100 percent due to rounding. 2 The report defines low-income student as a student eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act. 3 The report defines relatively students as those students in with less than 25 percent of students qualifying for the free or reduced-price lunch program under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act. 2

3 This places the overall access gap at than 2.75 million for poor students. Compared to students, 12.3 percent of all low-income students either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. 4 For students: If the percentage of students in with network speeds of were to equal the percentage for white students attending such, approximately 770,000 students would be in a school with network speeds. students are also likely than whites to be in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less, by a 25.7 percent to 17.3 percent gap, or 8.4 percentage points. If that gap were erased, approximately 980,000 fewer students would be served by internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less in their. This places the overall access gap at 1.75 million for students. Compared to whites, approximately 15 percent of all students either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. For students: If the percentage of students in with network speeds of or were to equal the percentage for white students attending such, approximately 645,000 students would be in a school with speeds of. As with low-income and students, students are overrepresented in with access speeds of 10 Mbps or less as than one-fifth (22.8 percent) of students attend such. This gap comes to approximately 430,000 students. That is, 430,000 fewer students would be in with slow internet service if the rate at which students attended with slow internet service were equal to the rate for white students. This places the overall access gap at nearly 1.1 million for students. This comes to 13.8 percent of all students who, compared to whites, either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. Where there are heavily or heavily, the differences are striking. For with than 30 percent or of or students: 28.7 percent of all students in heavily have access to internet speeds of 100 Mbps or percent of all students in heavily have access to internet speeds of. This gap contrasts with 39 percent of all students in that are heavily white having internet speeds of greater. 4 Speed tiers are defined on page 6. 3

4 Schools with larger proportions of minority students show even wider gaps. In where 75 percent or of students are either or, there is less access to fast speeds and access to slow speeds. In these : 22.8 percent of all students in these have access to network speeds of a gap of 16.2 percentage points compared with the 39.0 percent figure for students in heavily white (those with at least 75 percent white students). More of these students also experience slower internet speeds. Some 28.0 percent of students in heavily minority have access speeds of 10 Mbps or less; this contrasts with the 17.2 percent of all students with speeds of 10 Mbps or less in heavily white. Similar gaps are evident when focusing on with a high share of poor students, that is, students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. In where 75 percent or of students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch: 29.3 percent of all students in these have access to network speeds of a gap of 6.0 percentage points relative to the 35.3 percent figure for all students in relatively (that is, where 25 percent or fewer of students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch). More of these students also experience slower internet speeds. Some 29.4 percent of all students in with many low-income students are in where internet speeds are 10 Mbps or less. This is than twice the rate for students in with 25 percent or fewer students eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program; just 13.6 percent of all students in those have access at 10 Mbps or less, a 15.8 percentage point gap. Using the same approach that was employed in analyzing low-income,, and students, a comparison of rural students to non-rural students found a significant access gap: If the share of students in rural with internet speeds of matched the share of non-rural students with access to speeds of, approximately 760,000 rural students would have access to the internet at the threshold of 100 Mbps or. Rural students are found disproportionately in with speeds of 10 Mbps or less. The gap here is approximately 325,000 students. If the share of rural students with network access speeds of 10 Mbps or less were equal to the share of non-rural students with this speed, the number of rural students with slow network speeds would fall by 325,000. This places the overall access gap at approximately 1.1 million for rural students. This means that 9 percent of all rural students either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. Another way to assess rural is to note that gaps are wide when comparing large suburbs to remote rural areas percent of students in large suburban have access to internet speeds of 100 Mbps or. 4

5 17.9 percent of students in remote rural have access to internet speeds of or. Just 15.3 percent of students in large suburban are served by network speeds of 10 Mbps or less, while than twice as many students in remote rural, or 35.5 percent, have access speeds of 10 Mbps or less. I. Introduction The internet is playing a growing role in education in. Online applications are routinely folded into lesson plans, and carrying out assignments and school projects invariably means that students must log on to the internet, either at school or at home. Since 1996, the federal government has aided in obtaining internet access through the E-Rate program. The result has been widespread connectivity: nearly all now have internet service. As the internet s role in education deepens, two factors loom large in policy debates. One is speed. Increasing demand for in-school access and evolving educational applications place a premium on having enough capacity to serve students bandwidth needs. The other factor is equity. With education dependent on internet access than ever before, ensuring that there are not systematic gaps in access to adequate speed grows in importance. This report explores access to the internet at by examining available network speeds to, with specific focus on access for low-income,, and students. It also looks at access in rural and among students in rural. II. Data and Definitions To undertake this inquiry, the report relies on two data sources: the Common Core of Data compiled by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education (for the school year, the most recent year for which data is available), and the National Broadband Map (NBM), which is compiled by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration and the Federal Communications Commission. NBM data is from mid-2013 and is based of end-of-2012 data collection. NCES data provides information on the number of students in K 12, the number of students in a school, the number of students who are and, and the number of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. eligible for free lunch live in households with incomes at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level (for the school year used in this analysis). eligible for reduced-price lunch live in households with incomes above 130 percent of the poverty level but below 185 percent of the federal poverty level. These thresholds, for the purposes of analysis for this report, serve as proxies for lowincome or poor students. 5

6 The NBM data on K 12 includes an identifier of the individual school and, among other data fields, the advertised speed that the school reports for its broadband service. The speed categories the NBM gather are as follows: 1. Greater than 200 Kbps and less than 768 Kbps 2. Greater than 768 Kbps and less than 1.5 Mbps 3. Greater than 1.5 Mbps and less than 3 Mbps 4. Greater than 3 Mbps and less than 6 Mbps 5. Greater than 6 Mbps and less than 10 Mbps 6. Greater than 10 Mbps and less than 25 Mbps 7. Greater than 25 Mbps and less than 8. Greater than and less than 9. Greater than and less than 1 Gbps 10. Greater than 1 Gbps For purposes of this analysis, those categories collapse into four tiers, though results reported will also focus solely on the share of with network speeds greater than 1 Mbps: 10 Mbps or less (the first five tiers listed directly above) (tiers six and seven listed above) (tier eight listed above) (tiers nine and ten listed above) Much of the analysis that follows concentrates on speeds at either end of the ranges specified in the four tiers above. in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less are characterized as those at a disadvantage in contrast to others due to the relatively slow speeds they experience at school. in whose internet speeds are are at an advantage relative to others, in that they enjoy fast online speeds at school. In merging the two data sets, it would be ideal if all data fields in each data file were filled out completely. However, the NBM has than 70,000 public and private in its system, not all of which have complete records on all fields. Additionally, due to the relative novelty of the NBM (it has been in existence since 2010) and challenges in data collection, not all may report to the NBM. The NCES has nearly 99,000 public in its database, not all of which have entered data for fields of interest (e.g., students eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program). The upshot is that merging the two data sets results in a set of public for analysis that is smaller than the total number of public in the United States. For the latest year for which data is available (2011), there are 98,817 public K 12 in the country, serving 49,256,120 students. For this report, the merged data set contains 32,544 K 12 public, serving 17,416,092 students. Those 32,544 contained fields usable for analysis, that is, information on number of students, location of school, students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch, and the advertised network speed for its internet service. This means that the data reported here rests on a non-random sample of that contain 35.4 percent of K 12 public school students and 33.2 percent of K 12 public. The following table shows the breakout of students and served for the database used for the report s analysis. These figures are for that reported internet speed data to the NBM. 6

7 Table 1 Percentage of 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 24.4% 33.5% 32.7% 12.1% 10.8% 34.2% 32.1% Percentage of Schools The median network speed that reported was in the 25 Mbps and range. This means that the bottom two rows in the table represent and students with access to internet speeds above what is typically available in public. III. Findings Table 1 shows the share of students who go to with fast internet speeds, that is, speeds of. That figure is 34.2 percent. Another 12.1 percent of students attend with above the median speeds of between and. Note also that the table shows the share of students whose school has the slowest speeds the 20.3 percent of students whose school has internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less. A. Impacts by Race and Ethnicity The combined NCES and NBM database permits analysis of the advertised speed tiers by characteristics of interest, such as students race and income status (with free or reducedprice lunch eligibility serving as a proxy for income). For purposes of examining gaps among populations of interest, the analysis will compare against white students, the cohort most likely to have access to fast speeds and least likely to have access to slow speeds. In other words, the analysis will compare the 28.8 percent of s and 30.4 percent of s with access to to the 37 percent figure for whites (see Table 2 below). For speeds of 10 Mbps or less, the points of comparison will be the 17.3 percent of white students in served by that speed versus 22.8 percent for s and 25.7 percent for s. Table 2 shows results for s and s. The findings show that, when looking at the fastest speed threshold of, s and, to a somewhat lesser extent, s are less likely to be in with speeds of than white students. At the same time, s (especially) and s are likely than whites to be in that have internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less. 7

8 Table 2 All 10 Mbps or less 17.3% 25.7% 22.8% 20.3% 33.9% 31.2% 37.0% 33.5% 11.7% 12.7% 11.5% 12.1% 37.0% 30.4% 28.8% 34.2% To understand how these differences for s and s translate into the number of students impacted, the percentage differences that the merged NCES and NBM databases reveal are scaled to the total number of K 12 students reported by NCES. For instance, NCES s latest data shows that there are approximately 11.7 million K 12 students. A 6.6 percentage point gap, relative to white students, in access to network speeds means 770,000 students would have access to speeds of if s likelihood of having access to speeds of equaled that of white students. students are also likely than whites to be in where the internet speeds are relatively slow, at 10 Mbps or less. Using this approach to characterize gaps for s and s shows the following. First, for s: If the percentage of students in with network speeds of were to equal the percentage for white students attending such, approximately 770,000 students would be in a school with network speeds. students are also likely than whites to be in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less, by a 25.7 percent to 17.3 percent gap. If that gap were erased, approximately 980,000 fewer students would be served by speeds of 10 Mbps or less in their. This places the overall access gap at 1.75 million for students. The access gap comes to approximately 15 percent of all students who either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. 8

9 For s: If the percentage of students in with network speeds of 100 Mbps or were to equal the percentage for white students attending such, approximately 645,000 students would be in a school with speeds of. As with low-income and students, students are overrepresented in with access speeds of 10 Mbps or less as than one-fifth (22.8 percent) of students attend such school. This gap comes to approximately 430,000 students. That is, 430,000 fewer students would be in with slow internet service if the rate at which students attended with slow internet service were equal to the rate for white students. This places the overall access gap at approximately 1.1 million for students. This means that 13.8 percent of all students either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. Another way to look at differences between,, and white students is to examine with high concentrations of students in those groups. That means looking at with high percentages of students in each group and determining advertised network speeds in those. The analysis below uses heavily white as the basis for comparison. This part of the analysis focuses on (and then the students that attend them) that fit the following conditions: Heavily have a student body whose population is 30% or. The heavily account for 5,884, or 17.9 percent of the considered in the analysis. Heavily have a student body whose population is 30 percent or. The heavily account for 6,603, or 20.1 percent of considered in the analysis. Heavily minority have student bodies where 75 percent or of the student body is either Hispanic or. This comes to 5,824 or 17.7% of all in this report s analysis fit this criterion. 5 Heavily white, given their larger share in the general population, have a higher break point of 75 percent or. The total number of heavily white (i.e., where 75 percent or students are white) comes to 13,450, or 41.0% of in the analysis. 5 The sets of in each of the three racial categories (heavily, heavily, at least 75% or ) are not mutually exclusive, meaning there may be some in each of the three groupings common to each other. 9

10 Each of the three break points resulted in about 60 percent of students in each race or ethnic category being included in the analysis. Schools defined as having heavily minority student bodies contain about 42% of all students and 49% of all students. As Table 3 shows, the differences are clear when looking at students in these with access to the fastest speeds ( ) and slowest speeds (10 Mbps or less). In the table below, the percentages reported refer to the share of all students in with particular characteristics defined above. Table 3 Share of students with access to internet speeds Heavily white 39.0% 17.2% Heavily 26.8% 24.5% Heavily 28.7% 28.3% Heavily minority (high percentage of s and s) 22.8% 28.0% Share of students with access to 10 Mbps or less internet speeds At least when it comes to internet speeds, it is much better to be a student in a heavily white school than one in a school with a large share of minority students by a margin that approaches 2:1 (39.0 percent versus 22.8 percent). Note also that, even with the gaps identified in aggregate figures for all students in Table 2, a or student is generally likely to be found in a school with fast internet ( ) than to be found in a school with slow internet (10 Mbps or less). But the story is different for with lots of students of color. Where at least 75 percent of a school s student body is either or, it is likely that a student there will have access to slow internet speeds than a fast one. For with a high proportion of s, the likelihood is about the same; students in heavily are only slightly likely to have access to fast Internet speeds than slow ones. B. A similar exercise is possible for understanding impacts for low-income students. As noted, eligibility for the free or reduced-priced lunch program is a proxy for low-income students in the following analysis. In Table 4, the most relevant rows are the top one (10 Mbps or less) and the bottom one ( ). Here the comparison is between speeds available to students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch with speeds available in that have a student base, defined as students in that have 25 percent or fewer students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. 10

11 Table 4 Percentage of Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch 10 Mbps or less 23.3% 13.6% Percentage of in Schools with 25 Percent or Fewer Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch 33.1% 36.1% 10.9% 15.0% 32.7% 35.3% The number of students affected by these gaps is sizable. Defining low-income students as those eligible for free or reduced-price lunch shows that: If the share of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch in with internet speeds of matched the share of students with access to speeds of, approximately 580,000 low-income students would have access to the internet at speeds of. Focusing on the lowest speed tier, low-income students are found disproportionately in with speeds of 10 Mbps or less. The gap here is roughly 2,180,000 students. That is, if the share of low-income students in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less equaled the share of students with this speed, the number of lowincome students with network speeds of 10 Mbps or less would fall by just over 2 million. This places the overall access gap at than 2.75 million for poor students. This means that 12.3 percent of all low-income students, compared to students, either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. As is the case in with high shares of s or s, that have a large percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch are less likely to have fast internet speeds and likely to have slow ones. The contrast is particularly striking when comparing to that have relatively few low-income students. Where 75 percent or of students in a school are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch: 29.3 percent of all students in these have access to network speeds of or a gap of 6.0 percentage points relative to the 35.3 percent figure for all students in relatively (that is, where 25 percent or fewer of students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch). 11

12 More of these students also experience slower internet speeds. Some 29.4 percent are of all students in with many low-income students where internet speeds are 10 Mbps or less. This is than twice the rate for students in with 25 percent or fewer students eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program; just 13.6 percent of all students in those have access at 10 Mbps or less, a 15.8 percentage point gap. C. School Location The speed of a school s internet connection varies depending on where it is located. Deploying high-speed networks to densely populated urban areas is easier and cheaper than to rural or remote areas. The NCES places into one of ten categories that correspond to cities, suburbs, towns, and rural areas. This offers an opportunity to investigate speeds available to and students, with particular attention on rural areas. The following set of tables (Tables 5 through 7) contains results for the number of students in the in question. Table 5:, Networks Speeds, and Location: City Schools Large City Midsize City Small City 10 Mbps or less 34.5% 4.0% 12.5% 50 Mbps 100 Mbps 28.7% 26.6% 24.4% 8.8% 19.3% 11.3% 28.0% 41.2% 51.8% Table 6:, Networks Speeds, and Location: Suburbs and Towns Large Suburb Small Suburb Fringe Town Distant Town Remote Town 10 Mbps or less 15.3% 16.3% 13.8% 17.1% 25.5% 50 Mbps 100 Mbps 36.8% 26.9% 33.7% 35.5% 28.6% 14.6% 13.6% 12.1% 12.2% 6.7% 33.3% 43.2% 40.3% 35.2% 39.1% 12

13 Table 7:, Networks Speeds, and Location: Rural Areas Fringe Rural Distant Rural Remote Rural 10 Mbps or less 17.4% 27.2% 35.5% 50 Mbps 100 Mbps 39.4% 36.5% 39% 11.2% 9.2% 7.6% 32.0% 27.1% 17.9% To focus the discussion, it is worth comparing remote rural areas with large suburbs, denoted in red in Table 7 and Table 6, respectively. Large suburbs contain nearly one-third (29 percent) of all students; nearly half (47.9 percent) of these students have access to school network speeds of or greater, and one-third have access to speeds greater. Remote rural areas are just half as likely, compared with large suburban, to have speeds over the or thresholds. 6 As with the other cohorts examined, it is possible to determine how many rural students face access gaps either not enough in or too many in 10 Mbps or less. Here the comparison is between rural and non-rural students. Aggregating the three rural categories in Table 7 and the city and suburban categories in Tables 5 and 6 summarizes speeds by whether a school is in a rural or non-rural area. Table 8:, Networks Speeds, and Location: Rural versus Non-rural Rural Non-rural 10 Mbps or less 21.8% 19.1% 50 Mbps 100 Mbps 38.5% 32.3% 10.3% 12.9% 29.4% 35.7% The gaps for rural relative to non-rural students are significant when looking at access to low-end and high-end speeds. As with the other groups, rural students are disproportionately in with network speeds of 10 Mbps or less. They are also underrepresented (against the non-rural benchmark) in with speeds of. 6 The analysis shows that 2 percent of all K 12 students live in remote rural areas. 13

14 If the share of students in rural with internet speeds of matched the share of non-rural students with speeds of, approximately 760,000 rural students would have access to the internet at speeds of. At the other end of the spectrum, rural students are disproportionately found in with speeds of 10 Mbps or less. The gap here is approximately 325,000 students. If the share of rural students with network speeds of 10 Mbps or less were equal to the share of non-rural students with these speeds, the number of rural students with network speeds of 10 Mbps or less would fall by 325,000. This places the overall access gap at approximately 1.1 million for rural students. That is, 9 percent of all rural students either lack access to the highest speed tier or are overrepresented in the lowest speed tier. 14

15 Appendix A: State-by-State Results The database created by merging data from the National Center on Education Statistics and the National Broadband Map (NBM) identifies the state in which are located. This enables an analysis of broadband speeds available to students in the they attend on a state-bystate basis. The state summary table below shows results for the fastest broadband speed of 100 Mbps or. The table also shows that not all states reported data to the NBM; twenty-six states plus the District of Columbia reported data, however, this analysis only includes states where the percentage of students in reporting internet speeds was 30 percent or greater. This eliminated results for California, Connecticut, and North Dakota and further underscores the need for ongoing improvement in reporting of this data. The results and variation across the twenty-three states analyzed are nonetheless illuminating. (State-by-state analyses are presented alphabetically in the appendix.) State Summary Table Percentage of students in State with broadband speed Oregon 86.4 Kentucky 70.1 Louisiana 67.2 West Virginia 66.2 Oklahoma 57.7 Montana 51.0 Washington 50.3 Pennsylvania 50.3 Maryland 49.1 Arizona 47.6 Idaho 47.1 New York 41.5 Maine 39.1 District of Columbia 34.2 United States 34.2 Wisconsin 33.8 Indiana 31.8 Wyoming 30.2 Illinois 10.2 Arkansas 9.9 Georgia 5.3 Virginia 4.0 Colorado 0.0 New Mexico 0.0 Delaware

16 Methodological Note In the state-by-state analysis that follows, much of the discussion focuses on gaps, or shortfalls, that emerge when comparing results within states and between states and the nation at large. As in the main body of the report, the gaps surface through scrutiny of either end of the speed tier spectrum, that is, results for students served in school that have 10 Mbps or less internet speeds and results for students served in that have greater internet speeds. To elaborate on how the state-by-state discussion conducted the gap analysis: State-national comparisons: The gap represents the sum of two quantities that compare the percentage of students served by greater speeds and the percentage of students served by school internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less for the state in question and the nation. More specifically, the gap is the sum of (1) the value that comes from subtracting the percentage of students served in the state by speeds from the percentage of students served nationally by speeds, and (2) the value that comes from subtracting the percentage of students served nationally by 10 Mbps or less speeds from the percentage of students served in a state by 10 Mbps or less speeds. For instance, if the national results for greater is 34 percent and the state result finds that 24 percent of students have that speed at school and the national result shows that 20 percent of students have 10 Mbps or less speeds and the state results finds that 40 percent of students have that speed, the gap is 30 percentage points [(34 24) + (40 20)]. This means that 30 percent of students in the state in question would experience a speed shortfall (that is, the number overrepresented in the slowest tier and underrepresented in the fastest tier) relative to the national average. Within state comparisons: The gap follows the approach in the main body of the report. Gaps for low-income students compare findings for students eligible for the free or reducedprice lunch program with those for students in, that is, where 25 percent or fewer students are eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program. For race, students and students are compared to white students. The calculation of gaps follows the approach identified above for state-national comparisons. As an example, using the comparison for students in versus low-income students, the gap represents the sum of (1) the value that comes from subtracting the percentage of low-income students served by speeds from the percentage of students served by 100 Mbps or speeds, and (2) the value that comes from subtracting the percentage of students served by 10 Mbps or less speeds from the percentage of low-income students served by 10 Mbps or less speeds. 16

17 ARIZONA Arizona versus the Nation National Average Arizona 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 17.0% Results for race and income: Arizona in 10 Mbps or less 15.5% 19.5% 12.0% 17.9% 13.8% Key takeaway: in Arizona are significantly likely to have access to greater speeds at school; nearly half do. And there are only modest differences in access to internet speeds across by race and income. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 79% 17

18 ARKANSAS Arkansas versus the Nation National Average Arkansas 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 38.5% Results for race and income: Arkansas in 10 Mbps or less 32.2% 37.8% 55.7% 43.1% 23.6% Key takeaway: In Arkansas, when compared to the entire nation, students at school are likely to have access to slow internet speeds and less likely to have access to greater speeds. This creates a large access gap; 42.5 percent of Arkansas K 12 students find themselves (relative to the national average) either in with access to slow internet speeds or not in with access to fast internet speeds. A notable racial inequity is evident for students. If the share of students with access to fast and slow internet services matched that of whites, 30.2 percent students would experience better internet speeds in school. For the comparison by income, the speed shortfall is wider 62.1 percent although only 1.3 percent of Arkansas students are in and that the data represents 34 percent of all student in Arkansas. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 34% 18

19 COLORADO Colorado versus the Nation National Average Colorado 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 43.2% Results for race and income: Colorado in 10 Mbps or less 46.4% 41.4% 25.1% 42.4% 37.5% Key takeaway: The data at least from the 38 percent of reporting do not show any students in Colorado with access to internet speeds in school. Nearly half are in that have internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less. About 57.1 percent of all K 12 students in Colorado which comes to 487,000 students have a speed shortfall in school, meaning they are likely (relative to the national average) to be in with 10 Mbps or less internet speeds or less likely to be in with. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 38% 19

20 DELAWARE Delaware versus the Nation National Average Delaware 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 6.9% Results for race and income: Delaware 10 Mbps or less 8.5% 6.6% 4.5% 7.7% 1.6% in Key takeaway: Delaware, as the data shows vividly, reports no students in where internet speeds are over a stark contrast with the entire nation. If students in Delaware had access to greater speeds at school at the same rate as the nation, 34 percent Delaware students would have access to greater internet speeds at school. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 90% 20

21 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA District of Columbia versus the Nation National Average 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 4.6% Results for race and income: District of Columbia District of Columbia 10 Mbps or less 0.9% 7.4% 4.8% 5.7% 0.0% in 0, Key takeaway: in the District of Columbia do somewhat better than the national average in the sense that D.C. students are much less likely to have access to slow (10 Mbps or less) internet speeds than students elsewhere. This means 15.7 percent of students in the District are not saddled with slow internet speeds at school when compared to students elsewhere. students make up the strong majority of students in the District (76 percent), but their differences compared to white students place the access gap at 11.0 percentage points for students. If internet speeds were the same for students as for white students, about 6,200 students would have access to fast internet speeds at school or no longer have access to speeds of 10 Mbps or less. For low-income students (compared to students in ) the access gap is 11.1 percentage points. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 72% 21

22 GEORGIA Georgia versus the Nation National Average Georgia 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 26.1% Results for race and income: Georgia in 10 Mbps or less 19.6% 22.1% 35.3% 29.2% 12.4% Key takeaway: Schools in Georgia significantly trail the nation when it comes to internet speeds in. The typical K 12 public school student is nearly seven times likely to be in a school with internet speeds than the typical student in Georgia. Overall, 34.7 percent of all students in Georgia, or 584,000 students, have a speed shortfall in school, meaning they are likely (relative to the national average) to be in with access to slow internet speeds (10 Mbps or less) and less likely to be in with access to fast internet speeds ( ). and low-income students are also likely than white students and students in in Georgia to be in with slow internet speeds. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 99% 22

23 IDAHO Idaho versus the Nation National Average Idaho 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 9.7% Results for race and income: Idaho 10 Mbps or less 8.8% 13.6% 4.7% 11.5% 1.4% in Key takeaway: Idaho performs well in light of national figures, with 47.1 percent of its students having access to internet speeds at school compared with 34.2 percent nationally. However, low-income students trail those in when it comes to school internet speeds. In, only 1.4 percent of students have access to 10 Mbps or lower internet speeds and 74 percent have access to speeds of. This creates an access gap of 40.4 percentage points for low-income students in Idaho. That is, 40.4 percent of low-income students are either underrepresented with respect to access to internet speeds or are overrepresented in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less (relative to students in Idaho ). Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 96% 23

24 ILLINOIS Illinois versus the Nation National Average Illinois 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 20.7% Results for race and income: Illinois in 10 Mbps or less 27.4% 13.7% 12.8% 17.9% 19.5% Key takeaway: Illinois has a high concentration of with relatively slow internet speeds (between 10 Mbps and ) and few that offer speeds of to their students. Nationwide, students are than three times likely than their peers in Illinois to have access to internet speeds at school of. This means that 24.4 percent of Illinois students have a shortfall of internet speeds at school, i.e., they do not have speeds or are overrepresented, if only slightly, in with 10 Mbps or less speeds, compared to the national average. Within Illinois, students of color experience deficits in access to high-speed internet in school relative to white students but only by somewhat modest margins. students are 7.8 percent less likely to have access to greater internet speeds at school than white students and students are 5.3 percent less likely to have access to high-speed internet in school than their white peers. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 95% 24

25 INDIANA Indiana versus the Nation National Average Indiana 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 33.5% Results for race and income: Indiana in 10 Mbps or less 35.3% 33.0% 24.7% 34.8% 26.1% Key takeaway: in Indiana are likely to have access to slow internet speeds (10 Mbps or less speeds) at and somewhat less likely to have access to fast speeds (100 Mbps or ) than the typical U.S. public school K 12 student. This means that 15.6 percent of Indiana s students are underserved by internet speeds at school relative to the national average (the sum of the gaps between the national average and those in Indiana for the share of students in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less or ). It is also the case that students in (i.e., those whose student bodies have 25 percent or fewer students on the free or reduced-price lunch program) are likely to have fast speeds than low-income students by a 39.7 percent to 31.6 percent margin. in are also less likely than low-income students (by a 34.8 percent to 26.1 percent margin) to be in with internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less. If internet speeds in all Indiana matched those in ones, 16.8 percent or nearly 84,000 low-income kids in Indiana would have access to internet speeds of or no longer have slow internet access in school. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 98% 25

26 KENTUCKY Kentucky versus the Nation National Average Kentucky 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 6.5% Results for race and income: Kentucky in 10 Mbps or less 7.3% 3.4% 1.3% 7.6% 10.2% Key takeaway: Kentucky stacks up very well in comparison to the national average, as the state s K 12 public students are twice as likely to have access to fast internet at school than those nationwide. At the same time, low-income students trail students in when it comes to access to internet speeds of. Approximately 84.7 percent of students in with fewer than 25 percent of students eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program have access to fast internet speeds in school. This creates a 17.8 percentage-point deficit for low-income students (that is, the difference between 84.7 percent and 66.9 percent). In other words, if internet speeds at the fastest tier in all Kentucky matched those in, 17.8 percent low-income kids in Kentucky would have access to internet speeds of. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 32% 26

27 LOUISIANA Louisiana versus the Nation National Average Louisiana 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 0.1% Results for race and income: Louisiana 10 Mbps or less 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.0% in Key takeaway: In Louisiana, K 12 public school students enjoy fast ( ) internet speeds at school at a rate that is about twice the national average. The availability of fast network speeds does not vary much across race or income categories, with the exception of students who are 10.7 percentage points likely to attend with fast internet speeds than the average student in Louisiana. Although the results for students differ widely from the average, only 2.3 percent of students in Louisiana attend where 25 percent or fewer students are eligible for free or reduced-priced lunches. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 68% 27

28 MAINE Maine versus the Nation National Average Maine 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 0.0% Results for race and income: Maine 10 Mbps or less 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% in Key takeaway: Maine does somewhat better than the nation at large when it comes to the provision of school internet speeds of over. The state also does not report any students in where internet speeds are 10 Mbps or less. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 50% 28

29 MARYLAND Maryland versus the Nation National Average Maryland 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 22.9% Results for race and income: Maryland in 10 Mbps or less 16.6% 31.5% 28.4% 30.5% 13.2% Key takeaway: in Maryland s K 12 public are likely, by a 49 percent to 34 percent margin, to have access to internet speeds than students elsewhere. The only cautionary note has to do with access for low-income students. Compared to Maryland s average, students on the free or reduced-price lunch program are likely to be in that provide slow internet speeds and less likely to be in with fast speeds. The differences are greater when comparing low-income students to those in, where just 13.2 percent of students have access to 10 Mbps or less speeds and 62.8 percent have access to speeds of. This results in a 40.3 percentage-point shortfall for low-income students in Maryland. If internet speeds in were the same for low-income students as for students in, almost 144,000 low-income students in Maryland (40.3 percent of low-income students) would have access to fast internet speeds at school or no longer have access to speeds of 10 Mbps or less. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 55% 29

30 MONTANA Montana versus the Nation National Average Montana 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 23.5% Results for race and income: Montana in 10 Mbps or less 22.8% 20.6% 10.4% 24.9% 23.4% Key takeaway: For very fast internet speeds ( ), Montana performs well compared to the nation, as 51.0 percent of students in the state have access to internet speeds at school. income students (those eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program) have access to slower speeds (or lower rates of access to high speeds) at a rate greater than students in. In Montana, 58.7 percent of students have access to greater speeds and 23.4 percent have access to 10 Mbps or less speeds. This results in an access shortfall of 13.8 percentage points for low-income students in Montana relative to students in the state. If internet speeds in were the same for lowincome students as for students, nearly 8,000 low-income students (13.8 percent of all low-income students) would have greater access to fast internet speeds at or no longer have access to speeds of 10 Mbps or less. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 74% 30

31 NEW MEXICO New Mexico versus the Nation National Average New Mexico 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 44.8% Results for race and income: New Mexico in 10 Mbps or less 41.8% 45.5% 37.9% 47.3% 49.9% Key takeaway: The data reported for New Mexico shows that no students in the state go to a school where the internet speed is. Nearly three in five (58.7 percent) of all K 12 students in New Mexico which is nearly 200,000 students have a speed shortfall in, meaning they are likely (relative to the national average) to be in with 10 Mbps or less internet speeds or less likely to be in with. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 62% 31

32 NEW YORK New York versus the Nation National Average New York 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 32.2% Results for race and income: New York 10 Mbps or less 13.6% 51.5% 47.6% 45.6% 9.4% Between 10 and Between 50 and in Key takeaway: New York exhibits cross currents when examining internet speeds available to students in. The state does somewhat better than average in its share of students in with access to internet speeds of. But New York has a disproportionate share of students whose provide internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less. At the same time, significant inequalities are evident for low-income and students of color. Lowincome students are half as likely to be in with internet speeds of compared with students in by a 30.6 percent to 59.4 percent margin. Only 9.4 percent of students in have internet speeds that are 10 Mbps or less. This results in 65.0 percent of low-income students experiencing speed shortfalls, meaning that they are either underrepresented with respect to access to speeds or are overrepresented in with access to internet speeds of 10 Mbps or less (relative to students in New York ). The access gap is 78.5 percentage points for students relative to white students and 66.7 percentage points for students compared to white students. The gaps affect large numbers of students, specifically almost 870,000 low-income students, almost 500,000 students, and 330,000 students. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 95% 32

33 OKLAHOMA Oklahoma versus the Nation National Average Oklahoma 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 10.1% Results for race and income: Oklahoma 10 Mbps or less 10.4% 6.4% 6.3% 11.2% 0.0% in Key takeaway: in Oklahoma are much likely than the typical K 12 public school student to have access to internet speeds of at school. Gaps emerge for low-income students compared to students in in Oklahoma. About 70 percent of students in have access to greater internet speeds at school and none have access to speeds of 10 Mbps or less. This results in an access shortfall of 26.9 percentage points for low-income students in Oklahoma, which means that if internet speeds were the same for low-income students as for students in, 110,000 low-income students (26.9 percent of all low-income students) would have access to fast internet speeds at school or no longer have access to speeds of 10 Mbps or less. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 50% 33

34 OREGON Oregon versus the Nation National Average Oregon 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 4.8% Results for race and income: Oregon 10 Mbps or less 5.9% 2.7% 1.7% 5.4% 1.8% in Key takeaway: Oregon well exceeds the national average when it comes to the percentage of students who have access to internet speeds of at school. At the same time, low-income students (those eligible for the free or reduced-price lunch program) are somewhat less likely to have access to fast internet ( ) and slightly likely to be in with slow internet (10 Mbps or less) than students in. There is a speed shortfall of 13.7 percentage points, which means that 13.7 percent of low-income students are, relative to students in in Oregon, either underrepresented at high speeds or overrepresented at slow speeds for school internet connectivity. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 94% 34

35 PENNSYLVANIA Pennsylvania versus the Nation National Average Pennsylvania 10 Mbps or less 20.3% 8.2% Results for race and income: Pennsylvania 10 Mbps or less 8.9% 4.5% 7.9% 8.8% 6.0% in Key takeaway: in K 12 public in Pennsylvania have greater exposure to 100 Mbps or greater internet speeds at school than the national average by a 50.3 percent to 34.2 percent margin. Moreover, low-income students, students, and students in Pennsylvania are better served than the average Pennsylvania student when it comes to internet speeds at school. Percentage of students covered by reporting internet speeds: 96% 35

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