1 CHAPTER 3: CRYSTAL STRUCTURES Crystal Structure: Basic Definitions - lecture Calculation of material density self-prep. Crystal Systems lecture + self-prep. Introduction to Crystallography lecture + self-prep. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) lecture
2 MATERIALS AND PACKING Crystalline materials... atoms pack in periodic, 3D arrays typical of: -metals -many ceramics -some polymers crystalline SiO2 Non-crystalline materials... atoms have no periodic packing occurs for: -complex structures -rapid cooling "Amorphous" = Non-crystalline Non-crystalline SiO2
3 Glass-Ceramics High temperature (the torch flame) Quartz tubing is fabricated from beach sand The lamp applications are shown in the GE product montage Low temperature (the ice cube) Highly thermal resistive ceramics Ceramics Crystals: atoms have long range periodic order Glasses (non-crystalline): atoms have short range order only (amorphous)
4 Crystallography is the experimental science of the arrangement of atoms in solids. The word "crystallography" derives from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and grapho = write. A crystalline solid: HRTEM image of strontium titanate. Brighter atoms are Sr and darker are Ti. A TEM image of amorphous interlayer at the Ti/(001)Si interface in an as-deposited sample.
5 Crystal CRYSTAL FACES A CRYSTAL is any solid material in which the component atoms are arranged in a definite patter and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry.
6 Unit Cell Lattice points Atomic hard sphere model Unit cell is the smallest unit of volume that permits identical cells to be stacked together to fill all space. By repeating the pattern of the unit cell over and over in all directions, the entire crystal lattice can be constructed.
7 Crystal Systems: Possible Unit Cell Shapes Goal is to Quantitatively Describe (a) Shape and Size of the Unit Cell (point symmetry) (b) Location of the Lattice Points (translational symmetry) What we will do? For (a) to specify the Crystal System and the Lattice Parameters For (b) to define the Bravais Lattice
8 Crystal Systems Unit cells need to be able to Stack them to fill all space!! This puts restrictions on Unit Cell Shapes Cubes Work! Pentagons Don t! Different types (but not!!!!) of unit cell are possible, and they are classified based on their level of symmetry
9 Symmetry Symmetry is a the set of mathematical rules that describe the shape of an object Do you know that there is only ONE object in the geometrical universe with perfect symmetry? It is a SPHERE!! Infinite planes of symmetry pass through its center, infinite rotational axes are present, and no matter how little or much you rotate it on any of its infinite number of axes, it appears the same! A sphere is the HOLY GRAIL of symmetry!!
10 Crystal: Space Group By definition crystal is a periodic arrangement of repeating motifs ( e.g. atoms, ions). The symmetry of a periodic pattern of repeated motifs is the total set of symmetry operations allowed by that pattern Let us apply a rotation of 90 degrees about the center (point) of the pattern which is thought to be indefinitely extended. This pattern will be unchanged as a result of this operation, i.e. the operation maps the pattern onto itself. Also a linear shift (translation) of this pattern by a certain amount (e.g. by the length of a small square) results in that same pattern again. The total set of such symmetry operations, applicable to the pattern is the pattern's symmetry, and is mathematically described by a so-called Space Group The Space Group of a Crystal describes the symmetry of that crystal, and as such it describes an important aspect of that crystal's internal structure
11 Translational Symmetry A Space Group includes two main types of symmetries (i.e. symmetry operations) (I) The Translational Symmetries, and (II) The Point Symmetries Translations, i.e. executable shifting movements, proceeding along a straight line and on a certain specified distance, such that the operation does not result in any change of the shifted pattern. High magnification structure image of the mineral Cordierite. The insert shows the idealized structure of Cordierite, as determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. ( Hurlbut & Klein, 1977, Manual of Mineralogy ) Typically the translational symmetries are macroscopically not visible because the translation lengths are in the order of Å.
12 Point Symmetries It is a macroscopically visible symmetry operations: after it has been applied to the crystal at least one point remains where it was!! These operations are : Reflection in a point (inversion) Center of Symmetry! Reflection in a plane or Mirror Symmetry! Rotation about an imaginary axis Rotational Symmetry! Rotation-and-after-it-inversion or Roto-inversion!
13 Center of Symmetry Example: The item, consists of two asymmetric faces: the every part of the item can also be found on the opposite side of some point (center of symmetry!!) at the same distance!! Reflection in a point or inversion!
14 Mirror Symmetry A U V T Y Mirror Plane vertical Mirror Plane horizontal D E C B Reflection symmetry in two directions H I O People and most vertebrates basically have mirror symmetry: in biology it is called bilateral symmetry
15 Rotational Symmetry A point around we rotate symmetry axis 6 6 / / / % / / / 99 Z S N two-fold symmetry three-fold symmetry four-fold symmetry six-fold symmetry Figure looks the same n times in a 360 rotation. n-fold symmetry!! One-fold symmetry = No symmetry!!
16 N-fold Roto-Inversion Symmetry The object will be transformed into itself after the following two step operation (e.g. the 4-fold roto-inversion): a rotation of 90 degrees along the axis; followed by the inversion with respect to a point on the axis
17 Objects may have more than one kind of symmetry 4mm symmetry 3m symmetry Rotation Symmetry without Reflection Rotation Symmetry and Reflection O H I X Mirror planes in two direction + + two-fold rotation symmetry
18 The Sets of Basic Symmetry Elements for Crystals 1 fold rotation (rotation through 360 degrees); symbol: none 2 - fold rotation (rotation through 180 degrees); symbol: fold rotation (rotation through 120 degrees); symbol: 3 4- fold rotation (rotation through 90 degrees); symbol: 4 6- fold rotation (rotation through 60 degrees); symbol: 6 In the case of crystals the only above rotation axes can occur!! Mirror plane; symbol: m Center of Symmetry: p 4-fold roto-inversion axis unique element!; symbol: 4*
20 Crystal Classes With all these point symmetries (i.e. Rotation, Reflection, and Roto-inversion) combinations can be made, which themselves are again cover operations, and this results in a total of 32 unique possibilities. Thus all crystals can be classified in 32 CRYSTAL SYMMETRY CLASSES according to their symmetry content, i.e. specific set of symmetry elements For example: The highest symmetrical Cubic (Hexakisohedric) Class possess the following symmetry elements: Three 4-fold rotation axes. Six 2-fold rotation axes. Six secondary mirror planes. Four 3-fold rotation axes. Three primary mirror planes. Center of symmetry. The lowest symmetrical class Triclinic (Hemihedric) involves 1-fold rotation axis, thus no symmetry at all!!
21 The Crystal Systems In turn these symmetry classes, because some of them show similarities among each other, are divided among the different Crystal Systems. There are six Crystal System 1. The CUBIC (also called Isometric system) 2. The TETRAGONAL system 3. The HEXAGONAL system 4. The ORTHORHOMBIC system 5. The MONOCLINIC system 6. The TRICLINIC system Decreasing symmetry Every Crystal System involves a number of Crystal Classes.
22 CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC AXES Refer to the axes in the order - a, b, c The point of intersection of the three axes is called the AXIAL CROSS. By using these crystallographic axes we can define six large groups or crystal systems that all crystal forms may be placed in
23 CUBIC (or ISOMETRIC) System -I The three crystallographic axes are all equal in length and intersect at right angles to each other. a = b = c a=b=g=90 In general this system involves 6 classes of symmetries and 15 crystal forms a1.. a3. a2 Cube - is one of the easiest to recognize and many minerals display it with little modification: pyrite, fluorite, perovskite, or halite cubes!
24 CUBIC (or ISOMETRIC)-II If you glance on the Hexoctahedron, which also belongs to this crystal system you will understand why crystal forms in the isometric system have the highest degree of SYMMETRY, when compared to all the other crystal systems. Compare with Sphere!!
25 TETRAGONAL System Three axes, all at right angles, two of which are equal in length (a and b) and one (c) which is different in length (shorter or longer). a = b = c a=b=g=90 a1 c a2 A tetragonal prism is one of the 9 forms in this crystallographic system with 7 classes of symmetry Note: If c was equal in length to a or b, then we would be in the cubic system!
26 HEXAGONAL System Four axes! Three of the axes fall in the same plane and intersect at the axial cross at 120. These 3 axes, labeled a1, a2, and a3, are the same length. The fourth axis, c, may be longer or shorter than the a axes set. The c axis also passes through the intersection of the a axes set at right angle to the plane formed by the a set. c Hexagonal division: nine forms 7 classes 6-fold symmetry Trigonal division: six forms 5 classes 3-fold symmetry In some classifications: Rhombohedrial Crystal System Example: Normal prism
27 ORTHOROMBIC System Three axes, all at right angles, all three have different length. a = b = c a=b=g=90 a c b Five forms 3 symmetry classes: 2-fold axis of rotation And/or mirror symmetry A pinacoid, also called the parallelohedron, is one of the forms in this crystallographic system Note: If any axis was of equal length to any other, then we would be in the tetragonal system!
28 MONOCLINIC System Three axes, all unequal in length, two of which (a and c) intersect at an oblique angle (not 90 degrees), the third axis (b) is perpendicular to the other two axes. a = b = c a = g= 90 = b Three forms 3 symmetry classes: 2-fold axis of rotation And/or mirror symmetry Example: A monoclinic prism Note: If a and c crossed at 90 degrees, then we would be in the orthorhombic system!
29 TRICLINIC System The three axes are all unequal in length and intersect at three different angles (any angle but 90 degrees). a = b = c a = b = g = 90 Two forms 2 symmetry classes: Zero or 1-fold axis symmetry!! Example: Triclinic Pinacoid Note: If any two axes crossed at 90 degrees, then we would be describing a monoclinic crystal!
30 The Crystal Systems 1. The CUBIC (also called Isometric system) 2. The TETRAGONAL system 3. The HEXAGONAL system 4. The ORTHORHOMBIC system 5. The MONOCLINIC system 6. The TRICLINIC system Decreasing symmetry
31 Bravais Lattices By means of unit cells we managed to reduce all possible crystal structures to a relatively small numbers of basic unit cell geometries. Now let us consider the issue how atoms (viewed as hard spheres ) can be stacked together within a given unit cell. Lattice points are theoretical points arranged periodically in 3-D space, rather than actual atoms And again there is a limited number of possibilities, referred to as Bravais lattice Lattice points
32 The 14 Bravais Lattices Where Can I Put the Lattice Points? The French scientist August Bravais, demonstrated in 1850 that only these 14 types of unit cells are compatible with the orderly arrangements of atoms found in crystals. These three-dimensional configurations of points used to describe the orderly arrangement of atoms in a crystal. Each point represents one or more atoms in the actual crystal, and if the points are connected by lines, a crystal lattice is formed.
33 Bravais Lattices Crystal System Bravais Type External Minimum Symmetry Unit Cell Properties Triclinic P None a, b, c, al, be, ga, Monoclinic P, C One 2-fold axis a, b, c, 90, be, 90 Orthorhombic P, I, F Three perpendicular 2-folds a, b, c, 90, 90, 90 Tetragonal P, I One 4-fold axis, parallel c a, a, c, 90, 90, 90 Trigonal P, R One 3-fold axis a, a, c, 90, 90, 120 Hexagonal P One 6-fold axis a, a, c, 90, 90, 120 Cubic P, F, I Four 3-folds along space diagonal a, a, a, 90, 90, 90 Symbols P - Primitive: simple unit cell F - Face-centered: additional point in the center of each face I - Body-centered: additional point in the center of the cell C Base-Centered: additional point in the center of each end R - Rhombohedral: Hexagonal class only
34 Isometric Cells Simple cubic (P) Body Centered Cubic (BCC; I) Face Centered Cubic (FCC; F) The F cell is very important because it is the pattern for cubic closest packing. There is no centered (C) cell because such a cell would not have cubic symmetry.
35 Tetragonal Cells A C cell would simply be a P cell with a smaller cross-section. While an F cell would reduce to a network of I cells.
36 Orthorhombic Cells C F
37 Monoclinic and Triclinic Cells P Monoclinic F or I cells could also be represented as C cells. Any other triclinic cell can also be represented as a P cell.
38 Trigonal Cells = R (Rhombohedral) The R cell is unique to hexagonal crystals. The two interior points divide the long diagonal of the cell in thirds. This is the only Bravais lattice with more than one interior point. A Rhombohedron can be thought of as a cube distorted along one of its diagonals.
39 Conclusion: The Crystal Systems Name # Bravais lattice Conditions Decreasing symmetry 1. The CUBIC 2. The TETRAGONAL 3. The HEXAGONAL 4. The ORTHORHOMBIC 5. The MONOCLINIC 6. The TRICLINIC Triclinic 1 a1 a2 a3 a b g Monoclinic 2 a1 a2 a3 a=b=90 g Orthorhombic 1 a1 a2 a3 a=b=g=90 Hexagonal 1 a1=a2 a3 a=b=90 g=120 Trigonal (Rhormohedral) 4 a=b=g=90 a=b=g 90 Tetragonal 2 a1=a2 a3 a=b=g=90 Cubic 3 a1=a2=a3 a=b=g=90
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