ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

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1 ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI FACULTY OF FORESTRY AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT Laboratory of Mountainous Water Management and Control Dr. Panagiotis Stefanidis Associate Professor and Chairman Dr. Ioannis A. Kalinderis Research Assistant

2 3 Different processes of the Hydrologic Cycle: Precipitation is condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface. Most precipitation occurs as rain, but also includes snow, hail, fog drip, and sleet. Canopy interception is the precipitation that is intercepted by plant foliage and eventually evaporates back to the atmosphere rather than falling to the ground. Snowmelt refers to the runoff produced by melting snow. Runoff includes the variety of ways by which water moves across the land. This includes both surface runoff and channel runoff. As it flows, the water may infiltrate into the ground, evaporate into the air, become stored in lakes or reservoirs, or be extracted for agricultural or other human uses. Infiltration is the flow of water from the ground surface into the ground. Once infiltrated, the water becomes soil moisture or groundwater. Subsurface Flow is the flow of water underground, in the vadose zone and aquifers. Subsurface water may return to the surface (eg. as a spring 4 or by being pumped) or eventually seep into the oceans

3 Evaporation is the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere. The source of energy for evaporation is primarily solar radiation. Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants, though together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. Sublimation is the state change directly from solid water (snow or ice) to water vapor. Condensation is the transformation of water vapour to liquid water droplets in the air, producing clouds and fog. 5 Forests and the Hydrologic Cycle The surface water in a stream, lake, or wetland is most commonly precipitation that has run off the land or flowed through topsoils to subsequently enter the waterbody. If a surficial aquifer is present and hydraulically connected to a surface-water body, the aquifer can sustain surface flow by releasing water to it. In general, a heavy rainfall causes a temporary and relatively rapid increase in streamflow due to surface runoff. This increased flow is followed by a relatively slow decline back to baseflow, which is the amount of streamflow derived largely or entirely from groundwater. During long dry spells, streams with a baseflow component will keep flowing, whereas streams relying totally on precipitation will cease flowing. 6

4 Forest Hydrology Forest hydrology is the discipline, which deals with the interaction between forest cover and the water cycle. Forest hydrology provides useful information for the much-needed efforts to maintain and restore water- related ecosystems. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Forest Hydrology is the study of the interactions between the hydrological cycle and forest ecosystems Kotoulas 1995, Stefanidis Forest hydrology combines aspects of two separate disciplines: hydrology and forestry. Hydrology is the science that studies the waters of Earth. Hydrology seeks to understand where water occurs; how water circulates; how and why water distribution changes over time; the chemical and physical properties of water; and the relation of water to living organisms. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests and the interactions between the parts comprising a forest. 8

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10 30 40 % Picea Abies (European Fir) ~ 35 % Abies sp. (Fir) ~ 42% Pinus Sylvestris (Forest Pine) ~ 30% % % Fagus sp. (Beech) ~ 17,5% Populus sp. (Poplar) ~ 8% Quercus sp. (Oak) ~ 21% 19 Runoff Coefficient A coefficient relating the amount of runoff to the amount of precipitation received. Runoff c = Pr ecipitation e.g. Runoff 40 c= = = 0,4 Pr ecipitation % of water that reaches the surface, flows superficially 20

11 Runoff Coefficient Runoff Coefficient rates: 0 1 Factors affecting runoff coefficient: Geologic structure, support Slopes, Vegetation, Forests. 21

12 Percentage of forested areas and Runoff Coefficient 24

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14 Torrential Phenomena The torrential phenomena that occur on mountainous slopes are: Erosion, weatherings, Landslides, Rockfalls. These phenomena are the main reasons for the production of sediments. 27 Torrential Phenomena

15 Sheet erosion after forest fire Sheet erosion after forest fire

16 Gully erosion Gully erosion

17 Weathering

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