2 what a basic essay/written response is. the steps of writing an essay. what an essay consists of. helpful transition words. why it is important to support your thoughts. why you should proofread your essays. **. **
3 Basically, an essay is a written response that is presented as a short piece of academic writing on a particular subject. Here at CSU, a typical essay normally consists of a few paragraphs addressing a certain topic or question.
5 1. Decide on your topic (which is most often given to you). 2. Organize your ideas. This can be as an outline, list, or idea in your head. 3. Write your thesis statement. Your thesis statement is the sentence that tells your reader the main focus of your essay. 4. Write the introduction. 5. Write the body. 6. Write the conclusion. 7. Proofread your essay and add the finishing touches.
6 FIRST: Ask questions. What is the purpose of my essay? [inform, convince, describe, etc.] What type of essay should I write? [an analysis, a general overview, an argument, personal experience, etc.] Who is my audience? What information does my audience need first, second, and third? SECOND: Brainstorm. Research Free writing Listing/bulleting Cubing (describe it, compare it, associate it, analyze it, apply it, and argue for or against it) Clustering/mapping/webbing
7 THIRD: Outline. I. Introduction [1 paragraph] A. Introduce topic B. Overview or background (if needed) C. Thesis (what the overall essay will focus on) II. Body [1-3 paragraphs] A. First supporting point 1. Detail B. Second supporting point 2. Detail c. Third supporting point 3. Detail III. Conclusion [1 paragraph] A. Restate thesis B. Briefly summarize main points C. Meaningful sentence that ties together main points
8 As seen on the previous outline, there are several components that essays consist of: Thesis statement Supporting information
9 The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of your essay. The introductory paragraph: Captures the interest of the reader Tells why the topic is important Gives important overview or background Introduces the main idea Main idea is known as a thesis statement Most important sentence of the essay Explicitly identifies the purpose of the paper Lets the reader know what the essay is going to cover
10 Introduction paragraph example: "A dog is man's best friend." That common saying may contain some truth, but dogs are not the only animal friend whose companionship people enjoy. For many people, a cat is their best friend. Despite what dog lovers may believe, cats make excellent house pets as they are good companions, they are civilized members of the household, and they are relatively low maintenance. **The thesis statement is underlined Notice the introduction, information about the different opinions, and the thesis statement containing a clear topic and supporting facts.
11 The body of the essay explains, describes, or argues the chosen topic. The strongest and most relevant topic should be presented first. All information in the body paragraph(s) should directly support the thesis sentence. The information provided in the body paragraph(s) should sufficiently answer the question asked of you, if applicable. The final sentence of the last paragraph in the body should close the paragraph and smoothly transition into the conclusion.
12 Body paragraph example: First of all, people enjoy the companionship of cats. Many cats are affectionate; they will snuggle up and ask to be petted or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they are not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful. They especially enjoy playing when their owners are participating in the game. Contrary to popular opinion, cats can be trained. By using rewards and punishments, just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Secondly, cats are civilized members of the household. Unlike dogs, cats do not bark or make other loud noises. Most cats do not even meow very often. They generally lead a quiet existence. Cats do have claws and owners must make provision for this. A tall scratching post in a favorite cat area of the house will often keep the cat content to leave the furniture alone. As a last resort, of course, cats can be declawed. In addition, cats are not high maintenance pets and do not require much attention. Lastly, one of the most attractive features of cats as house pets is their ease of care. Cats do not have to be walked. They get plenty of exercise in the house as they play, and they do their business in the litter box. Cats also take care of their own grooming. Bathing a cat is almost never necessary because under ordinary circumstances, cats clean themselves. In addition, cats can be left home alone for a few hours without fear. Unlike some pets, most cats will not destroy the furnishings when left alone. They are content to go about their usual activities until their owners return.
13 The main purpose of the conclusion is to restate the main ideas. The conclusion: Reminds the reader of the topics covered Reiterates the most important evidence supporting the information presented Provides a forum for the writer to persuade the readers to his/her viewpoint Ties together all loose ends
14 Conclusion paragraph example: Cats are low maintenance, civilized companions. People who have small living quarters or less time for pet care should appreciate these characteristics of cats. However, many people who have plenty of space and time still opt to have a cat because they love the cat s personality. In many ways, cats are the ideal house pet.
15 To show addition: To give examples: To compare: To contrast: To summarize or conclude: To show time: To show place or direction: To indicate logical relationship: In addition, moreover, next, also, besides, further, furthermore For example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate Also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly However, although, despite, on the other hand, yet In conclusion, in summary, therefore, all in all, therefore, to sum up As soon as, subsequently, earlier, during, before, at last, after, afterward, immediately, since, thereafter above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite Accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus
16 Because you want to make sure your essay flows smoothly and is easy to read, it is important that you balance your writing. Personal experience and evidence/hard facts Paraphrased information and direct quotes Let s look at an example
17 First of all, according to Smith (2005), People enjoy the companionship of cats (p. 56). Many cats are affectionate; they will snuggle up and ask to be petted, or scratched under the chin. Who can resist a purring cat? If they are not feeling affectionate, cats are generally quite playful (Miller, 2010). They especially enjoy playing when their owners are participating in the game. I have found that contrary to popular opinion, cats can be trained. By using rewards and punishments, just like with a dog, a cat can be trained to avoid unwanted behavior or perform tricks. Studies show that elderly individuals who have the companionship of a cat are likely to live 5 years longer than those who don t. Personal experience Facts/ hard evidence Direct quotes Paraphrased information
18 It is extremely important to provide supporting evidence when writing your essay because it reaffirms your main point and makes what you say more credible and valid. Remember this is meant to support rather than replace your argument. Directly quoted material should not exceed more than 20% of your writing. Use credible sources when providing evidence. Use proper APA citation when citing sources.
19 Supporting evidence should be properly incorporated. Interpret the information and do not plop it into your essay. Direct quotes should not stand alone. Supporting evidence should be clear and easy to understand. Do not use vague statements or statistics.
20 Finally, read your essay aloud upon completion and ask yourself questions. Is my essay in order? Are my thesis statement and main ideas clear? Are there any ideas I would like to add? Do I like my intro, body, and conclusion? Did I directly answer the question being asked? Re-read any revisions made. Check spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Revise at LEAST 3 times. Re-read your essay until you are comfortable enough to submit it.
21 Should you have further questions, do not hesitate to contact the CSU Success Center at or by at. Remember that the Success Center is here to help you SUCCEED in everything you do!
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