Chapter 1: Introducing Public Speaking

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1 Chapter 1: Introducing Public Speaking I. Identify what public speaking is and the person's social, academic, and career benefits to be gained from its mastery. Examine your beliefs about public speaking. Good public speakers are born, not made. (False - learned skill.) The more speeches you give the better you'll become at it. (True only if you practice effective skills.) You'll never be a good public speaker if you're nervous giving speeches. (False - most speakers are nervous, the key is to manage the fear not eliminate it.) It's best to memorize your speech, especially if you're fearful. (False memorizing your speech is one of the worst things you can do.) The skills of public speaking are similar throughout the world. (False the skills are culture specific.) The benefits of public speaking include the following. Enhanced personal and social abilities. Improved academic and career skills. Conduct research efficiently and effectively. Explain complex concepts clearly. Support an argument with all the available means of persuasion. Understand human motivation and make effective use of your insights in persuasive encounters. Organize a variety of messages for clarity and persuasiveness. Present yourself to others with confidence and self-assurance. Analyze and evaluate the validity of persuasive appeals. Refined general communication abilities. Develop a more effective communication style. Adjust messages to specific listeners. Give and respond appropriately to criticism. Develop logical and emotional appeals. Communicate your credibility. Improve your listening skills. Organize extended messages. Refine your delivery skills. PD! ADR

2 Improved public speaking abilities. In public speaking a speaker presents a relatively continuous message to a relatively large audience in a unique context. The essential elements of speaking include the following items. Speaker - delivers a relatively long speech and is usually not interrupted. You and your speech are the reason for gathering. Message - includes both verbal and non verbal signals. You communicate with a purpose. Organization is crucial, because it adds clarity to your message and makes it easier for listeners to understand and remember what you are saying. You adjust your language to your audience, the topic, and the situation. Channels - this is the medium that carries the message signals from the sender to the receiver. Both auditory and visual channels are significant in public speaking. This also includes the items like prerecorded speeches, television, digital recordings, etc. Noise - this is anything that distorts the message and prevents the listeners from receiving your message as you intended it to be received. Signal is information that is useful to you and noise is what you find useless. Noise may be physical (talking, car horns, etc.), psychological (preconceived ideas, wandering thoughts), semantic (misunderstood meanings), or visual (sunglasses). All situations involve some noise, but you must reduce its effects - use precise language, organize your thoughts logically, and reinforce your ideas with visual aids. Audience - this can be a large group in public speaking. Sometimes you know your audience well, other times you are speaking to strangers. Public speaking involves not just the adjustment of messages to the listeners but also active involvement by the listeners. Context - this influences you as the speaker, the audience, the speech, and the effects of the speech. The physical context is the actual place where you give your speech. The socio-psychological context includes the relationship between speaker and audience and the audience's attitudes toward and knowledge of you and your subject. The temporal context includes factors such as time of day and where your speech fits into the sequence of events. The cultural context refers to the beliefs, lifestyles, values, and behaviors that the speaker and the audience bring with them and that bear on the topic and purpose of the speech. PD / ADR

3 Delivery - early on it is better to concentrate on the content of your speech and as you gain confidence you can direct your attention to refining and polishing your delivery skills. These skills include how you stand, gesture, and how to raise and lower your vocal volume. Ethics - because your speech will have an effect on your audience you have an obligation to consider ethics (issues of right and wrong or the moral implications) of your speech. Culture, gender and public speaking are important because principles for communicating information and for persuasion differ from one culture to another. Public speak principles vary on the basis of culture. Culture - is the collection of beliefs, attitudes, values, and ways of behaving that are shared by a group of people and passed down from one generation to the next through communication rather than through genes. Gender - cultures teach boys and girls different attitudes, beliefs, values, and ways of communicating and relating to one another. II. Explain how fear of public speaking works and apply techniques to manage it. Managing your apprehension - this is normal in public speaking. At times communication apprehension (fear) can work for you. It can motivate you to work harder to produce a speech that will be better than it might have been. The audience cannot see the apprehension that you may be experiencing. You can reduce public speaking apprehension in the following ways. Reversing the factors that cause apprehension. Gain experience. Think positively. See public speaking as conversation. Stress similarity. Prepare and practice thoroughly. Move about and breathe deeply. Avoid chemicals as tension relievers. Practicing performance visualization. Develop a positive attitude and a positive self-perception. 09/ PD.' ADR

4 Model your performance on that of an especially effective speaker. ON Systematically desensitizing yourself. Ask a question in class. Answer a question in class. Speak in a group in front of the class. Introduce another speaker to the class. Give a speech in class. Ill. Follow the ten steps for preparing a public speech. 1. Select your topic and purpose.. Select worthwhile, interesting, and appropriate topics. The topic should be appropriate to the speaker and the audience. It should be culturally sensitive. It must be limited in scope. Once you have the topic you should consider your purpose. The informative speech seeks to create understanding. The persuasive speech seeks to influence attitudes or behaviors. The special occasion speech contains elements of both information and persuasion (introductions, presenting a tribute, securing the goodwill of listeners, or entertaining the audience). Allik 2. Analyze your audience. Analyze and adapt the message to a specific audience. Success depends on how well you know your audience and the extent to which you've adapted your speech to them. 3. Research your topic. Locate and integrate research into one's speech. Read a general source, consult individuals, use the web, etc. Be sure to examine what you know, begin with a general overview, and consult increasingly specific sources. 4. Develop your thesis and main points. Construct a thesis statement and derive major propositions from the thesis. Begin by identifying the one idea that you want your audience to remember after you have concluded your speech. This central idea is the thesis. Word your thesis and then identify PD / ADR j

5 the main ideas that will support your thesis. These become the main points of your speech - in an informative speech sometimes asking "what" and "how" will help you identify the main points and in a persuasive speech sometimes asking "why" will help you identify the main points. 5. Support your main points.. Support major propositions with a wide variety of materials. In an information speech your supporting materials primarily amplify describe, illustrate, define, exemplify - the concepts you discuss. In a persuasive speech your support is proof - material that offers evidence, argument, motivational appeal, and establishes your credibility. 6. Organize your speech materials. + Organize materials into a logical and coherent structure. This will help your audience understand and retain what you say. Try to use a simple topical pattern. Divide your topic into logical subdivisions or subtopics. The subtopics are the main points of your speech (treated equally) and then you organize you supporting materials under each appropriate point. 7. Word your speech.. Style the speech so that it is instantly intelligible. Do not talk down to your audience, but do make your ideas (even complex ones) easy to understand at one hearing. Use words that are simple and concrete - not abstract. Use personal and informal rather than impersonal and formal language. Use simple and direct rather than complex and indirect sentences. If you write out your speech do not read it - it will sound like it. Outlines are better. Give your speech a title - use only three or four words - it will attract attention and arouse the interest of your listeners. The title should have a clear relationship to the main purpose of your speech. 8. Construct your introduction, conclusion, and transitions. Develop a conclusion, introduction, and varied transitions for the speech. The introduction should: 1 " gain your listeners' attention; 2nd establish connections among yourself, the topic, and the audience; and 3rd orient your audience (tell them what you are going to talk about). The conclusion should: l st summarize your ideas and 2nd wrap up your speech (let the audience know you PD ADR

6 are done). The transitions should help you ensure that the parts of your entire speech flow into one another and the movement from one part to another will be clear to the audience. Use words, phrases, and sentences to help this transition. 9. Rehearse your speech. Rehearse the speech for the greatest effectiveness and efficiency. Do it at least four times from start to finish - out loud. Time your speech, practice words or phrases you have difficulty with, and make notes on your outline. 10.Deliver your speech. Deliver a speech confidently and effectively. Use your voice and bodily action to reinforce your message. Any vocal or body movements that draw attention to themselves should be avoided. Be sure to: 1st when ready approach the front of the room with confidence; 2nd when at the front of the room do not begin immediately, but take time to engage your audience eye to eye and then begin to talk directly to them (be sure to speak so you can be heard); and 3 r maintain eye contact with your entire audience. tij PD / ADR

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