Origin of Life. Where did life begin, how did it look like?

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Origin of Life. Where did life begin, how did it look like?"

Transcription

1 Origin of Life Where did life begin, how did it look like?

2 News: Water on Mars!

3

4 Summary earliest evidence of life! Still unclear! C isotopes suggest life, but may be confused with abiotic processes! Stromatolites became abundant about 2.7 Gyr ago! Microfossils not abundant until the Proterozoic 2.5 Gyr ago! Must be careful because minerals have shapes that look like bacteria

5 When did early life begin! Life probably arose earlier than 3.85 billion years ago.! The very young Earth probably experienced numerous large impacts during the heavy bombardment Some large enough to extinguish any life, or eat least life near the surface.! Conclusion: Current geological evidence suggests that life appeared very soon after the heavy bombardment in a short time period of perhaps only 200 million years.! We could expect life to arise as fast on any other world with similar conditions.

6 What did early life look like! The earliest living organisms presumably went extinct long ago.! The current organisms most closely related to the common ancestor of all life on Earth would be located very closed to the root of the tree of life!. Organisms close to each other on the phylogenetic tree are genetically very similar, while the ones far from each other are genetically very different. As life on Earth evolved, its DNA became gradually more complex.

7 ! Present-day living organisms closest to the root of the Phylogenetic tree are hyperthermophiles. Suggests that life evolved from a hyperthermophilic ancestor, (Earlier life might have had greater variety, but became extinguished by a near-sterilizing impact). Hyperthermophilic (red), grow at T>90, cold adapted species (phsychrophilic, blue), and psychrotolerant (violet) lines of bacteria and archaea

8 Where did life begin! On land surface? NO: There was no ozone layer to shield out harmful UV rays.! Shallow ponds? NO: Probably full of organic compounds; as the water evaporated they became more concentrated making it easier to combine into more complex molecules. However, life in ponds would have suffered lethal effect of UV radiation and/or high salt concentration.

9 ! Deep-sea vents? Probably: DNA evidence suggest early life was hyperthermophile. Offer plenty of chemical energy to fuel metabolism Protected from the Sun`s UV rays by the water above Safe from impacts that partially vaporized the oceans during the heavy bombardment the safest environment!

10 Can life on Earth have come from elsewhere? Abiogenesis Scientific consensus is that life on Earth might have emerged from nonlife somewhere between 4.4 Gyr ago, when water vapor first liquefied, and 3.9 Gyr ago, when the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon ( 12 C and 13 C ), iron and sulfur points to a biogenic origin of minerals and sediments.

11 ! Panspermia life may have originated elsewhere in the solar system Transported to Earth where it then diverged into the diversity of organisms we are familiar with today. Alternatively, life transferred from Earth to another body of the solar system. Earlier treated with skepticism, moves the problem of the origin of life elsewhere

12 Observations suggesting panspermia is possible 1. We find intact Mars rock on Earth Best place to find meteorites is Antarctica cold (preserves them) easily visible ice is melting, so they are concentrated

13 Microstructures in Martian meteorite claimed to be of biogenic origin 1n 1996 NASA made the announcement that a Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains fossils of alien micro-organisms. The meteorite ALH84001 has a fascinating history: " 4.5 Gyr crystallized from magma on Mars " 4.0 Gyr battered by an asteroid impact " Gyr altered by water to produce carbonate minerals " 16 Myr blasted into space by an asteroid impact " 31 years ago (1984) discovered in Antarctica

14 2. Bodies are moving through the solar system 3. Organic compounds Are plentiful in the solar system (comets, asteroids, dust) Can survive billions of years in space Can survive atmospheric entry inside meteorites " outer surface melts but inner part still cold as space

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies.

Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison. This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. Lecture 23: Terrestrial Worlds in Comparison Astronomy 141 Winter 2012 This lecture compares and contrasts the properties and evolution of the 5 main terrestrial bodies. The small terrestrial planets have

More information

The Origin of Life. The Origin of Life. Reconstructing the history of life: What features define living systems?

The Origin of Life. The Origin of Life. Reconstructing the history of life: What features define living systems? The Origin of Life I. Introduction: What is life? II. The Primitive Earth III. Evidence of Life s Beginning on Earth A. Fossil Record: a point in time B. Requirements for Chemical and Cellular Evolution:

More information

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity GEOS 2900 Sample Activity 3.3 GEOLOGIC TIME Introduction: Now that we understand how fossils and rocks are used to interpret past events and to put relative and absolute ages on these events, we can begin

More information

A: Planets. Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets?

A: Planets. Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets? Q: Which of the following objects would NOT be described as a small body: asteroids, meteoroids, comets, planets? A: Planets Q: What can we learn by studying small bodies of the solar system? A: We can

More information

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Ch.16-17 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements describe what all members of a population

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth

Lecture 19. 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth Lecture 19 Part 2: Climates of the Past 1) The geologic timescale: the age of the Earth/ Solar System the history of the Earth 2) The evolution of Earth s atmosphere - from its origin to present-day 3)

More information

Geological Timeline. Important EvEnts In the Earth s history

Geological Timeline. Important EvEnts In the Earth s history Geological Timeline In this pack you will find information and activities to help your class grasp the concept of geological time, just how old our planet is, and just how young we, as a species, are.

More information

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM reflect Our solar system is made up of thousands of objects, at the center of which is a star, the Sun. The objects beyond the Sun include 8 planets, at least 5 dwarf planets, and more than 170 moons.

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. reflect. what do you think?

PHOTOSYNTHESIS. reflect. what do you think? reflect Suppose you place a plant on a sunny windowsill and water it regularly. At the same time you place a similar plant in a dark closet and keep it watered, too. The only difference between the two

More information

Section 1 The Earth System

Section 1 The Earth System Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY

Name Class Date STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Atmosphere SECTION 11.1 Atmospheric Basics In your textbook, read about the composition of the atmosphere. Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement. 1. Most of Earth s atmosphere

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE

FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated

More information

FORMATION OF EARTH. Today we are going to talk about the earth.how it was formed.

FORMATION OF EARTH. Today we are going to talk about the earth.how it was formed. FORMATION OF EARTH Have you ever wondered about the universe? What made it possible.how it was formed? Of course, religion has explained for centuries the intricacies of creation. And as always, science

More information

Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark GRADE 6

Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark GRADE 6 Grade Stand Sub-Strand Standard Benchmark OF OF OF A. Scientific World View B. Scientific Inquiry C. Scientific Enterprise understand that science is a way of knowing about the world that is characterized

More information

Evolutionary Trees I

Evolutionary Trees I TreeofLife:BranchingBiology&HistoryThroughArt Evolutionary Trees I AN INTRODUCTION An overwhelming body of evidence supports the conclusion that every organism alive today and all those who have ever lived

More information

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets

ASTR 380 Possibilities for Life on the Moons of Giant Planets Let s first consider the large gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Planets to scale with Sun in background 67 62 14 The many moons of the outer planets.. Most of the moons are very small 1

More information

Geologic Time Scale Notes

Geologic Time Scale Notes Name: Date: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Notes Essential Question: What is the geologic time scale? Vocabulary: Geology: the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core.

Michelle Mindick. volcanism, gradation, impact cratering, and Earth s interior core. Michelle Mindick The Evolution of Earth s Surface According to 21 st Century Astronomy, Earth originally formed as a result of gas and dust that rotated around a protostar - our sun- billions of years

More information

The Ice Age By: Sue Peterson

The Ice Age By: Sue Peterson www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (pulses, intermittent, isotopes, chronicle, methane, tectonic plates, volcanism, configurations, land-locked, erratic); concepts (geological evidence and specific

More information

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Geologic Time Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Chapter Subtopic/Media Key Points of Discussion Notes/Vocabulary Introduction Title NA NA Various Pictures of Geologic Time It s About Time Personal Timeline

More information

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog

Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 07: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth Unique Properties of Water Humidity Atmospheric Stability Clouds and Fog Water on Earth The origin of water A scientific

More information

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A. Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?

More information

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs

Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. California State Science Content Standards. Mobile Climate Science Labs Earth Sciences -- Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 California State Science Content Standards Covered in: Hands-on science labs, demonstrations, & activities. Investigation and Experimentation. Lesson Plans. Presented

More information

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth

Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Unit C: Earth Science Chapter 1: The Changing Earth Lesson 1: Layers of the Earth 1. Atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the planet 2. Clouds are in this layer 3. Atmosphere contains gases

More information

Appearance of Venus. The Planet Venus. Current Position of Venus and Mars. Current Position of Venus and Mars. Phases of Venus

Appearance of Venus. The Planet Venus. Current Position of Venus and Mars. Current Position of Venus and Mars. Phases of Venus The Planet Venus The Moon and Mercury are geologically dead Venus, Earth, and Mars are still active geologically Venus is the planet nearest to Earth, sometimes approaching to within 40 million km The

More information

Natural Resources. Air and Water Resources

Natural Resources. Air and Water Resources Natural Resources Key Concepts Why is it important to manage air and water resources wisely? How can individuals help manage air and water resources wisely? Air and Water Resources What do you think? Read

More information

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE

GETTING TO THE CORE: THE LINK BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND CARBON DIOXIDE DESCRIPTION This lesson plan gives students first-hand experience in analyzing the link between atmospheric temperatures and carbon dioxide ( ) s by looking at ice core data spanning hundreds of thousands

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Zahrat Al-Sahraa International School. Science Department 2014/2015 Grade 5 Final Exam Worksheet

Zahrat Al-Sahraa International School. Science Department 2014/2015 Grade 5 Final Exam Worksheet Zahrat Al-Sahraa International School Science Department 2014/2015 Grade 5 Final Exam Worksheet A- Fill in the blanks: 1- All the planets rotate or spin on an imaginary line called. 2- The inner planets

More information

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis

Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System. What theory best explains the features of our solar system? Close Encounter Hypothesis Chapter 8 Formation of the Solar System What properties of our solar system must a formation theory explain? 1. Patterns of motion of the large bodies Orbit in same direction and plane 2. Existence of

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display The Living World Chapter 1: The Science of Biology Specific Learning Outcomes: 1.1 List the major properties of life. 1.2 Explain how science is distinguished from other ways of seeking understanding of

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Think of the last time it rained in your city. When the rain stopped, you probably saw puddles on the ground. After a few hours, though, the ground was dry again. Where did all that rainwater go?

More information

Sciences Experiences and outcomes

Sciences Experiences and outcomes Sciences Experiences and outcomes The sciences framework provides a range of different contexts for learning which draw on important aspects of everyday life and work. Learning in the sciences will enable

More information

CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF ASTEROID IMPACTS

CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF ASTEROID IMPACTS CHEMICAL SIGNATURES OF ASTEROID IMPACTS INTRODUCTION The film The Day the Mesozoic Died identifies the presence of high quantities of iridium (Ir) in the clay layer at the boundary between the Cretaceous

More information

Chapter 9: Earth s Past

Chapter 9: Earth s Past Chapter 9: Earth s Past Vocabulary 1. Geologic column 2. Era 3. Period 4. Epoch 5. Evolution 6. Precambrian time 7. Paleozoic era 8. Shield 9. Stromatolite 10. Invertebrate 11. Trilobite 12. Index fossil

More information

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth

Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth Overview Name Period 1. In the last chapter, you were asked about macroevolution. To begin this chapter, give some examples of macroevolution. Include at least one novel example not in your text. Concept

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

Q1. In the carbon cycle the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the air are changed by several processes.

Q1. In the carbon cycle the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the air are changed by several processes. Q. In the carbon cycle the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the air are changed by several processes. (a) The names of some processes are given in the box below. combustion decomposition neutralisation

More information

National Science Week Quiz

National Science Week Quiz National Science Week Quiz 1. What is an atomic number? (a) the number of neutrons in the nucleus (b) the number of electrons around the nucleus (c) the number of protons in the nucleus 2. Atoms are most

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

More information

Dinosaur Extinction Theories. Student Packet

Dinosaur Extinction Theories. Student Packet Dinosaur Extinction Theories Student Packet 1 Dinosaur Extinction Theories Introduction Why did the dinosaurs become extinct? What happened over 65 million years ago to kill a species that had survived

More information

Other Citizens of the Solar System

Other Citizens of the Solar System Other Citizens of the Solar System Astronomers study the stars in the sky. They try to find new things. In 1913, Percival Lowell found a new dot of light. It was very far away. It was tiny. It was hard

More information

Homework #3 Solutions

Homework #3 Solutions Chap. 7, #40 Homework #3 Solutions ASTR100: Introduction to Astronomy Fall 2009: Dr. Stacy McGaugh Which of the following is a strong greenhouse gas? A) Nitrogen. B) Water Vapor. C) Oxygen) The correct

More information

Characteristics of Life

Characteristics of Life 1 Life: Characteristics, Origin EVPP 110 Lecture Fall 2003 Dr. Largen 2 characteristics of life origin of life 3 Characteristics of Life 4 What qualifies something as "living"? 5 In-Class Activity #5:

More information

Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase. You may use each answer once, more than once or not at all.

Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase. You may use each answer once, more than once or not at all. CHAPTER 1 OCE 1001 (Introduction to Oceanography, Professor Chiappone) INTRODUCTION TO PLANET EARTH (Trujillo and Thurman, 11 th edition) SAMPLE QUESTIONS Matching Questions Match the term or person with

More information

THE INTERESTING HISTORY OF CELLS STUDENT HANDOUT. There are two basic types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

THE INTERESTING HISTORY OF CELLS STUDENT HANDOUT. There are two basic types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. THE INTERESTING HISTORY OF CELLS STUDENT HANDOUT There are two basic types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Figure 1. A PROKARYOTIC CELL The prokaryotes are very small singlecelled organisms

More information

Earth & Space Voyage Content Unit Report. Grades: 8 States: Nevada Content Standards

Earth & Space Voyage Content Unit Report. Grades: 8 States: Nevada Content Standards Earth & Space Voyage Content Unit Report Grades: 8 States: Unit 1: Exploring the Earth- Teacher's Guide pages 5B-18B: CONTENT STANDARD NV.N.8.A. Scientific Inquiry (Nature of Unifying graphs. opinion.

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

6th Grade - Science. Content Vocabulary. * Assess. investigation. make observations complete investigations conduct research generate questions

6th Grade - Science. Content Vocabulary. * Assess. investigation. make observations complete investigations conduct research generate questions Science Processes - Inquiry Process S.IP..1 Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and developing solutions to problems.

More information

The Earth System. The geosphere is the solid Earth that includes the continental and oceanic crust as well as the various layers of Earth s interior.

The Earth System. The geosphere is the solid Earth that includes the continental and oceanic crust as well as the various layers of Earth s interior. The Earth System The atmosphere is the gaseous envelope that surrounds Earth. It consists of a mixture of gases composed primarily of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The atmosphere and

More information

Layers of the Earth s Interior

Layers of the Earth s Interior Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior.

More information

Topics: The Petroleum System. Origin of Petroleum. Arguments for biogenic origin. Google search : Origin of Petroleum : Hugoton Gas Field (Kansas)

Topics: The Petroleum System. Origin of Petroleum. Arguments for biogenic origin. Google search : Origin of Petroleum : Hugoton Gas Field (Kansas) The Petroleum System Topics: Origin of Petroleum Controversy Carbon Cycle Global Implications Petroleum System Gas Oil Water Origin of Petroleum Long standing debate: Where does rock oil come from? Organic

More information

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly

Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Lecture 12: The Solar System Briefly Formation of the Moonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WpOKztEiMqo&feature =related Formation of our Solar System Conservation of Angular Momentum Why are the larger,

More information

Using Real-Life Data to Understand Climate Change By: Margy Goodman

Using Real-Life Data to Understand Climate Change By: Margy Goodman Using Real-Life Data to Understand Climate Change By: Margy Goodman INTRODUCTION This lesson is aimed at increasing students general knowledge of climate change on local, national, and global scales, and

More information

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury craters smooth plains, cliffs Venus volcanoes few craters Radar view of a twinpeaked volcano Mars some craters volcanoes riverbeds? Moon craters smooth

More information

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards for the Sunshine State Standards FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION http://www.myfloridaeducation.com/ The seventh grade student: The Nature of Matter uses a variety of measurements to describe the physical

More information

Let s get started. So, what is science?

Let s get started. So, what is science? Let s get started So, what is science? Well Science Science is the observation of phenomena and the theoretical explanation of it. Simply, it is the state of knowing. Biology Biology is the study of life.

More information

Materials Needed: Time Needed: Adaptations: 2 flyswatters (optional) Vocabulary Definitions (below) Vocabulary Scramble Sheets (below)

Materials Needed: Time Needed: Adaptations: 2 flyswatters (optional) Vocabulary Definitions (below) Vocabulary Scramble Sheets (below) Vocabulary Slap Game ( Flyswatter Game ) Directions: Project a Vocabulary Scramble sheet on a projection screen or Smart Board. Divide the class into two teams. Each team sends one person up to the screen.

More information

Chesapeake Bay Governor School for Marine and Environmental Science

Chesapeake Bay Governor School for Marine and Environmental Science Choose the best answer and write on the answer sheet provided. 1. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be an effect of global warming? (a) Loss of fertile delta regions for agriculture (b) Change

More information

The Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in Our Solar System and on Exoplanets

The Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in Our Solar System and on Exoplanets The Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in Our Solar System and on Exoplanets Stephen R. Cantor Teaching Lecturer Plymouth State University Plymouth, NH Sunday Morning University Congregation Bnai Israel

More information

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology

THE WATER CYCLE. Ecology THE WATER CYCLE Water is the most abundant substance in living things. The human body, for example, is composed of about 70% water, and jellyfish are 95% water. Water participates in many important biochemical

More information

Composition of the Atmosphere. Outline Atmospheric Composition Nitrogen and Oxygen Lightning Homework

Composition of the Atmosphere. Outline Atmospheric Composition Nitrogen and Oxygen Lightning Homework Molecules of the Atmosphere The present atmosphere consists mainly of molecular nitrogen (N2) and molecular oxygen (O2) but it has dramatically changed in composition from the beginning of the solar system.

More information

Essential Standards: Grade 4 Science Unpacked Content

Essential Standards: Grade 4 Science Unpacked Content This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Essential Standards (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers.

More information

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011

Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 Climate Change: A Local Focus on a Global Issue Newfoundland and Labrador Curriculum Links 2010-2011 HEALTH Kindergarten: Grade 1: Grade 2: Know that litter can spoil the environment. Grade 3: Grade 4:

More information

The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment

The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment The Pennsylvania System of School Assessment 2005 2006 Science Item and Scoring Sampler Grade 8 Pennsylvania Department of Education Bureau of Assessment and Accountability 2005 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

THE PLANT KINGDOM: THE WATER CYCLE

THE PLANT KINGDOM: THE WATER CYCLE THE PLANT KINGDOM: THE WATER CYCLE Material: The Water Cycle Nomenclature The Water cycle Model Water Ice Heat Source (lamp with a clamp) Tables Presentation 1: Key Experience 1. Say, Today we are going

More information

1. Michigan Geological History Presentation (Michigan Natural Resources)

1. Michigan Geological History Presentation (Michigan Natural Resources) 1. Michigan Geological History Presentation (Michigan Natural Resources) The Michigan Geological History Presentation provides an overview of the approximately 3 billion years of Earth Processes that the

More information

The Water Cycle. 4 th Grade Pre-Visit Activity #1

The Water Cycle. 4 th Grade Pre-Visit Activity #1 th Grade Pre-Visit Activity # The Water Cycle Overview Objectives Subjects Earth s water molecules circulate among air, plants, animals, and soil by way of the water cycle. This activity uses a game to

More information

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras CHAPTER 9 3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras SECTION A View of Earth s Past KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What were the periods of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras? What

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17

Vagabonds of the Solar System. Chapter 17 Vagabonds of the Solar System Chapter 17 ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 13 Nov. 27, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch7: Comparative

More information

DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN EARTH S CRUST

DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN EARTH S CRUST OVERVIEW DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN EARTH S CRUST This lesson serves as an extension to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute short film The Day the Mesozoic Died. It provides an opportunity for students

More information

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts

Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets. Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Chapter 9 Asteroids, Comets, and Dwarf Planets Their Nature, Orbits, and Impacts Asteroid Facts Asteroids are rocky leftovers of planet formation. The largest is Ceres, diameter ~1,000 km. There are 150,000

More information

Section 1: Continental Drift

Section 1: Continental Drift Section 1: Continental Drift Preview Objectives Wegener s s Hypothesis Mid-Ocean Ridges Sea-Floor Spreading Paleomagnetism Wegener Redeemed Continental Drift (Pangaea) Objectives Summarize Wegener s hypothesis

More information

SGL 101 MATERIALS OF THE EARTH Lecture 1 C.M.NYAMAI LECTURE 1. 1.0 ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH

SGL 101 MATERIALS OF THE EARTH Lecture 1 C.M.NYAMAI LECTURE 1. 1.0 ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH LECTURE 1. 1.0 ORIGIN, STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH 1.1 INTRODUCTION. Welcome to Lecture 1 of this unit. To start with, stop and look around you wherever you are. Take a look at all the things

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Blizzard Bag Day 2 Here is the lesson that you need to complete for the first calamity day. I am attaching the notes along with the question to help you with the question. Please try your BEST and answer

More information

Humidity Activity Background

Humidity Activity Background Humidity Activity Background Water is the common name for a chemical that has two atoms of hydrogen (H) for each atom of oxygen (O). The chemical formula for water, then, is H 2 O. Water has some special

More information

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).

More information

Radiometric Dating. This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012

Radiometric Dating. This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012 Page 1 of 14 EENS 2120 Tulane University Radiometric Dating This document last updated on 18-Apr-2012 Petrology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Prior to 1905 the best and most accepted age of the Earth was that

More information

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons

Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt. Asteroid Facts. What are asteroids like? Asteroids with Moons Chapter 12 Remnants of Rock and Ice Asteroids, Comets, and the Kuiper Belt 12.1 Asteroids and Meteorites Our goals for learning What are asteroids like? Why is there an asteroid belt? Where do meteorites

More information

Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

More information

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury

Chapter 7 Earth and the Terrestrial Worlds Mercury 9/28/11 Important Stuff (section 003) Important Stuff (section 004) The First Midterm is Tuesday, October 11 The First Midterm will be given in Bell Museum 100 The First Midterm is Wednesday, October 12

More information

Radiometric Dating. Dating Methods for Igneous Rocks

Radiometric Dating. Dating Methods for Igneous Rocks Radiometric Dating why radiometric? although several different dating techniques are employed, all but radiometric dating is able to estimate ages in timescales relevant to astronomers. How it works Radiometric

More information

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances?

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances? CHAPTER 4 1 The Nine Planets SECTION A Family of Planets BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of our solar system? When were the

More information

Solar System Overview

Solar System Overview Solar System Overview Planets: Four inner planets, Terrestrial planets Four outer planets, Jovian planets Asteroids: Minor planets (planetesimals) Meteroids: Chucks of rocks (smaller than asteroids) (Mercury,

More information

Chapter 1. What is Biology? Worksheets. (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.

Chapter 1. What is Biology? Worksheets. (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com. Chapter 1 What is Biology? Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 1.1: Science and the Natural World Lesson 1.2: Biology: The Study

More information

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM NOTES: GEORGIA HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEST THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1.What is a Solar system? A solar system consists of: * one central star, the Sun and * nine planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

More information

Formation of Solar System and Abundances of Elements

Formation of Solar System and Abundances of Elements Formation of Solar System and Abundances of Elements Composition of Earth cannot be understood in isolation Sun and meteorites are closely linked Solar system formed in Milky Way galaxy @ Big Bang 15 Ma

More information

Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Introduction and Origin of the Earth Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

More information

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

More information

Formation of the Solar System

Formation of the Solar System Formation of the Solar System Any theory of formation of the Solar System must explain all of the basic facts that we have learned so far. 1 The Solar System The Sun contains 99.9% of the mass. The Solar

More information

1 Exploring Earth s Interior

1 Exploring Earth s Interior 1 Exploring Earth s Interior Crust Mantle Outer Core Crust-to-Mantle Inner Core Cross Section From Surface to Center SCIENCE EXPLORER Focus on Earth Science Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2 Evidence for Continental

More information

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line

Asteroids. Earth. Asteroids. Earth Distance from sun: 149,600,000 kilometers (92,960,000 miles) Diameter: 12,756 kilometers (7,926 miles) dotted line Image taken by NASA Asteroids About 6,000 asteroids have been discovered; several hundred more are found each year. There are likely hundreds of thousands more that are too small to be seen from Earth.

More information