Chemistry Final Exam Review

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1 Name: Date: Block: Chemistry Final Exam Review Unit 1: Measurement, Numbers, Scientific Notation, Conversions, Dimensional Analysis 1. Write in scientific notation 8.732x Write x 10 4 in standard notation How many significant figures does have? 4 4. How many significant figures does have? 5 5. Convert 24.5 g to kg 2.45x10-2 kg 6. Convert 12.2 m/s to km/hr km/hr 7. Identify the following as a physical property or chemical property. If it is physical, label if it is intensive or extensive. a. Color P-I c. Shape P-I e. Reactivity C b. Ductility P-I d. Solubility P-E f. Combustibility C 8. Identify the following as a physical change or chemical change. a. Boiling P c. Rusting C e. Burning C b. Frying an egg C d. Dissolving P f. Oxidizing C 9. What are the 5 indications of a chemical change? Change in temperature, change in color, Energy is release or absorbed, gas is formed, formation of a precipitate Unit 2: The Atom 10. What are the 3 subatomic particles? Proton, neutron, electron 11. Indicate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the following atoms: a. Calcium-41 b. Carbon-12 c. Tin P, 20e, 21N 6P, 6e, 6N 50P, 50e, 72N 1

2 12. Calculate the average atomic mass of the following element, given the abundances and masses of the naturally occurring isotopes amu Unit 3: The Periodic Table and Electron Arrangement 13. On the periodic table, the rows are called the periods and the columns are called the groups 14. What is the charge of a calcium ion? What is the charge of a nitrogen ion? A positively charged ion is called a(n) cation 17. A negatively charged ion is called a(n) anion 18. Give the number of valence electrons for each of the following groups of elements on the periodic table: a. Alkali Metals 1 c. Halogens 7 b. Alkaline Earth Metals 2 d. Noble Gases 8 Unit 4: Bonding and Nomenclature 19. What type of bond would Calcium and Sulfur form? Ionic 20. What type of bond would Sulfur and Oxygen form? Covalent 21. What type of bond would Iron and Chlorine form? Ionic 22. What group of elements does not normally form bonds? Group 18: Noble Gases 23. Name the following compounds: a. K 2 O c. PCl 5 e. Fe 2 S 3 Potassium oxide phosphorus pentachloride iron (III) sulfide b. MnO 2 d. CO f. Ba(OH) 2 Manganese (IV) oxide carbon monoxide barium hydroxide 2

3 Unit 5: Reactions 24. What are the 7 diatomic elements? Bromine, iodine, nitrogen, chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine (BrINClHOF) 25. Give an example of a decomposition reaction. CaO Ca + O Give an example of a synthesis reaction. Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O Give an example of a combustion reaction. CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 28. Give an example of a single replacement reaction. Zn + H 2 SO 4 ZnSO 4 + H Give an example of a double replacement reaction. NaOH + HCl H 2 O + NaCl 30. Balance the following reactions: a. 2Fe + 3S Fe 2 S 3 b. CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O c. Na 2 SO 4 + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 2NaNO 3 + BaSO 4 Unit 6: The Mole 31. Calculate the molar mass of KNO g/mol 32. What is the mass of 4.5 x atoms of Calcium? 3.0 x 10 2 g Ca 33. How many atoms of silver are equivalent to 2.5 moles of silver? 1.5 x atoms Ag 34. What is the volume of 1 mole of carbon dioxide at STP? 22.4 L Unit 7: Stoichiometry 35. Balance the equation then answer the questions. 2Cu + O 2 2CuO a. What mass of CuO can be formed from 12 g of Cu? 15 g CuO 3

4 b. If 4 mol of CuO are formed, what volume of O 2 had to be reacted? 44.8 L O What is a limiting reactant? The reactant that is used up first 37. What is an excess reactant? The reactant that remains after the reaction is completed Unit 8: Gas Laws 38. Give the formulas for the gas laws. a. Boyle s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 b. Charles Law: V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 c. Gay-Lussac s Law: P 1 /T 1 = P 2 /T 2 d. Ideal Gas Law: PV = nrt e. Combined Gas Law: P 1 V 1 /T 1 = P 2 V 2 /T 2 f. Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures: P total = P 1 + P 2 + P What are the conditions for STP? STP = standard temperature and pressure: 273 K (O C) and 1 atm (101.3 kpa, 760 mmhg, 760 torr) 40. What are the four main points of the kinetic molecular theory? 1) Gas particles have no volume 2) No intermolecular forces exist between gas particles 3) Great distances separate gas particles and there is empty space between them 4) The average kinetic energy (KE) of a gas sample is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the sample 41. Take the reaction: NH 3 + O 2 NO + H 2 O. In an experiment, 5.25 g of NH 3 are allowed to react with 3.70 g of O 2. a. Which reactant is the limiting reagent? O 2 b. How many grams of NO are formed? 2.78g NO c. How much of the excess reactant remains after the reaction? 3.67g NH 3 4

5 Unit 9: Solids & Liquids 42. List the three intermolecular forces in order from strongest to weakest. Hydrogen bonding > Dipole-Dipole > London Dispersion Forces 43. For the following compounds, identify the strongest intermolecular force. a. NH 3 Hydrogen bonding b. BF 3 LDFs c. Br 2 LDFs d. CH 4 LDFs e. H 2 O Hydrogen bonding 44. Define Exothermic: Heat/Energy is released or given off TO the surroundings 45. Define Endothermic: Heat/Energy is absorbed or taken in FROM the surroundings 46. In the ice cream lab, heat moved from your milk mixture to the ice/salt mixture. Therefore, which substance underwent an endothermic process and which substance underwent an exothermic process? The milk mixture was EXO because it gave off heat to the ice/salt mixture. The ice/salt mixture was ENDO because it absorbed heat from the milk mixture. Unit 10: Solutions 47. Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 25.0 g of NaCl in ml of water M NaCl 48. Calculate the molarity of a solution that contains 4.0 mol of glucose in 25.0 ml of water. 160 M Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) 49. As you add a solute to water to make a solution, what happens to the freezing point? What happens to the boiling point? The freezing point of the solution is lower than that of pure water. The freezing point is DEPRESSED. The boiling point of the solution is higher than that of pure water. The boiling point is ELEVATED. 5

6 Unit 11: Kinetics, Acid/Base Theory, Equilibrium 50. In which direction will the equilibrium shift in response to each change, and what will be the effect on the indicated quantity? Ni (s) + 4 CO (g) Ni(CO) 4 (g) ΔH = kj Change Direction of shift Effect on amount of: Add Ni (s) No change Ni(CO) 4 (g) No change Increase temperature Left CO (g) Increase Add CO (g) Right Ni (s) Decrease Remove Ni(CO) 4 (g) Right CO (g) Decrease Decrease volume Right Ni(CO) 4 (g) Increase Decrease temperature Right CO (g) Decrease Remove CO (g) Left Ni (s) Increase 51. List the four ways to speed up a reaction. Increase concentration of reactants Increase temperature Increase surface area of reactants Add a catalyst 52. What is the ph of a solution that has a hydrogen ion concentration of 2.4 x 10-5 M? What is the ph of a solution if the poh is 12.2? What is the [H + ] if the [OH - ] is 3.4 x 10-6 M? 2.9 x 10-9 M 55. If 87 ml of 1.25 M HCl were required to completely neutralize 15.7 ml of a basic solution with unknown concentration, what were the concentration and ph of this basic solution? 6.93M; ph =

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