Toxicity of common in herbs in the prac3ce of TCM. The mechanism of toxicity of Pinellia ternata and its reduc3on through processing

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1 Toxicity of common in herbs in the prac3ce of TCM The mechanism of toxicity of Pinellia ternata and its reduc3on through processing

2 Toxicity Toxicity in the Nei Jing toxic drugs a-ack the evil the five grains nourish the five fruits support the five animals provide benefit and the five vegetables fill. Su wen, Trea?se 22

3 Su Wen 70, Trea3se 70 Drugs with great toxicity ceased when the disease is removed by 60% Drugs with small toxicity ceased when the disease is removed by 70% The common drug ceased when the disease is removed by 80% The drug without any toxicity ceased when the disease is removed by 90%, AJer ceasing the drug cereals, meats, fruits and vegetables eliminate all the remaining evil energy

4 Wang Bing ( ) If they are able to asack disease, one calls them toxic drugs Zhang Jiebin ( ) If the disease emerge from inside, they cannot be treated with needles, cauteriza3on, massage, or excercises. One must use toxic drugs.

5 Yao Shaoyu The so- called toxic drugs are drugs whose (qi)nature and flavor are violent and strongly pronounced. Hence one dis3nguishes between strong toxicity, regular toxicity, and minor toxicity. For example, drugs like fuzi, xixin, and ganjiang are mostly warm in their nature; huang lian, huang qin, and huang bai are mostly cold in their nature. If they are used appropriately, they can cure disease; if they are used inappropriately they can kill a person.

6 Toxicity in the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing Superior class medicinals Used as sovereigns Nourish life and correspond to heaven, nontoxic and taking in large amounts will not harm a person Make one s body light, boost the qi, prevent aging, and prolong life Examples Ling Zhi, Fu Ling, E Jiao, Bai Zhu, Tian Men Dong, Dang Gui, Huang Qi, Ren Shen, Ju Hua(Dan Sha, Xiong Huang, Xi Xin)

7 Medium Class Medicinals Used as ministers Nurture personality and correspond to humanity. He Huan (Cortex Albizziae Julibrissinis) and Xuan Cao (Radix Hemerocallis Fulvae). The former resolves anger, while the laser is able to help relieve worry May or may not be toxic, should weigh and ponder before pulng them to their appropriate use Control disease, supplement vacuity, replenish exhaus3on Examples Fang Feng, Xi Jiao, Yin Chen Hao, Huang Qin, Ge Gen, Gao Ben, Shan Zhu Yu, Wu Wei Zi, Gan Jiang, Fang Ji, Ma Huang,

8 Inferior class medicinals Used as assistants and envoys Mainly treat disease and correspond to earth Usually toxic and cannot be taken for a long 3me Eliminate cold and heat and evil qi, break accumula3ons and gatherings, and cure disease Examples Mu Dan Pi, Da Huang, Gan Sui, Ting Li Zi, Zhu Ling, Lu Feng Fang, Shui Zhi, Ba Dou, Wu Tou, Tian Xiong, Fu Zi, Ban Xia

9 Ban Xia - 半夏 Pinellia ternata Acrid and balanced It mainly treats cold damage, cold and heat, and hardness below the heart. It downbears the qi, treats swollen and sore throat, head dizziness, chest disten3on, cough and counterflow, and rumbling intes3nes, and stops swea3ng. Its other name is Di Wen. Another name is Shui Yu. It grows in rivers and valleys. (from the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing)

10 Calcium Oxalate Crystals common source of toxicity Pinellia ternata ban xia Arisaema amurense 3an nan xing Aracea family members- Alocasia Arisaema Colocasia Dieffenbachia Philodendron

11 Ban Xia - 半夏 Pinellia ternata Several Materia Medica list pinellia as being toxic, but, in fact, processed pinellia is a rela3vely mild herb with very low toxicity.

12 Chemical composi3on of calcium oxalate crystals Roas3ng or boiling the tubers breaks down the crystals and yields an edible product

13 Scanning electron micrographs of (A) purified acrid aligned raphides at 1.5 K magnifica3on, (B) inac3ve methanol washed raphides at 12 K with no deposits between raphides and few deposits in the raphide groove as compared to (C) ac3ve raphides at 30 K showing surface deposits, and, (D) ac3ve raphide showing considerable deposits between rawhides and groove near the central ring of the raphide. groove near the central ring of the raphide.

14 Toxic effect of calcium oxalate crystals Even a small dose of calcium oxalate is enough to cause intense sensa3ons burning in the mouth and throat, swelling, and choking could last for up to two weeks. Greater doses can cause severe diges3ve upset, breathing difficul3es, coma or even death. Recovery from severe oxalate poisoning is possible, but permanent liver and kidney damage may have occurred.

15 Correla3on of Pinellia ternata agglu3nin and Pinellia ternata raphides' toxicity].zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.. Pinellia ternata agglu3nin enhanced the content of PGE2 and protein in rats peritoneal cavi3es concentra3on dependently. With PTA concentra3on increased, PTA enhanced the inflamma3on induced by raphides to rabbit eyes, but PTA alone had no toxicity response. PTA had obvious effect of pro- inflamma3on. The toxic mechanism of P. ternata was PTA induced inflamma3on only when the raphides pierce into the organiza3on.

16 Raphides

17 In the ar3cle [Study on processing mechanism of Pinellia ternate] from Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi Jul;32(14): the ques3on of how processing Pinellia ternata with alum was explored. The objec3ve was to "Elucidate the detoxifica3on mechanism of the raw Pinellia ternata processed by alum solu3on or alkaline solu3on (ph > 12). Raw Pinellia ternata was immersed in alum solu3on and alkaline solu3on according to Chinese pharmacopoeia. Observed the shape's changing of needle- like calcium oxalate crystals by scanning electro- microscopy. Determina3ng the contents of calcium oxalate crystals by applying oxida3on reduc3on 3tra3on. Measured the irrita3ons of raw P. ternata and various processing products on the model of rabbits'eyes. Result : AJer processed by 8% alum solu3on prescribed in Chinese pharmacopoeia or 10% sodium carbonate solu3on, the needle- like shape of raphides in raw Pinellia ternata were changing and the s3ng barb of raphides were rusted and dissolved, the contents of calcium oxalate crystal in raw Pinellia ternata were sharply declined from more than 1% to less than 0.5%. the decline of contents is rela3ve to the irrita3on decline of P. ternata on rabbit's eyes. Less than 0.5% calcium oxalate crystals of P. ternata almost had no irrita3on. Conclusion: AJer processed by 8% alum solu3on or sodium carbonate solu3on (ph > 12), the irrita3on components in raw P. ternata could be rusted and dissolved, the needle point of raphides was broken, which led to the raphides'content declining and the irrita3on disappearing.

18 Tradi3onal processing of Pinellia Ternata it will be processed with ginger and alumen the ginger is decocted first alumen is crushed alumen and Pinellia ternata tuber is added to the ginger decoc3on 1/8 (X) grams of alumen, 1/4 (X) grams of ginger, (X) grams of Pinellia ternata tuber they are decocted together for a few hours half drying in the sun

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