Energy transfer by heating: REVISION

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1 Energy transfer by heating: REVISION P 83 minutes 83 marks Contains questions related to P. Energy transfer by heating. Answer all questions using any and all resources available. Page of 36

2 Q. The diagram shows the design of a solar cooker. The cooker heats water using infrared radiation from the Sun. (a) Why is the inside of the large curved dish covered with shiny metal foil? () Which would be the best colour to paint the outside of the metal cooking pot? Draw a ring around the correct answer. black silver white Give a reason for your answer. (c) Why does the cooking pot have a lid? () Page 2 of 36

3 (d) Calculate how much energy is needed to increase the temperature of 2 kg of water by 80 C. The specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg C. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Energy =... J (Total 6 marks) Q2. The diagram shows a car radiator. The radiator is part of the engine cooling system. Liquid coolant, heated by the car engine, enters the radiator. As the coolant passes through the radiator, the radiator transfers energy to the surroundings and the temperature of the coolant falls. (a) Why is the radiator painted black? Page 3 of 36

4 Different radiators have different numbers of cooling fins along the length of the radiator. The sketch graph shows how the number of cooling fins affects the rate of energy transfer from the radiator. The number of cooling fins affects the rate of energy transfer from the radiator. Explain how. (c) When the car engine is working normally, 2 kg of coolant passes through the radiator each second. The temperature of the coolant falls from 2 C to 97 C. Calculate the energy transferred each second from the coolant. Specific heat capacity of the coolant = 3800 J/kg C. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Energy transferred each second =... J (3) Page 4 of 36

5 (d) On cold days, some of the energy transferred from a hot car engine is used to warm the air inside the car. This is a useful energy transfer. What effect, if any, does this energy transfer have on the overall efficiency of the car engine? Draw a ring around the correct answer. decreases the efficiency does not change the efficiency increases the efficiency Give a reason for your answer. (Total 9 marks) Q3. The diagram shows the apparatus that a student used to investigate the heating effect of different wavelengths of light. (a) (i) What process happens at the point labelled X on the diagram? () The student put thermometer D outside of the light spectrum. Suggest why. () Page 5 of 36

6 (iii) The table gives the position and reading of each thermometer 0 minutes after the investigation started. Thermometer Position of thermometer Temperature in C A in violet light 2 B in green light 22 C in red light 24 D outside the spectrum 20 What should the student conclude from the data in the table? A similar investigation completed in 800 by the scientist Sir William Herschel led to the discovery of infrared radiation. Suggest how the student could show that the spectrum produced by the glass prism has an infrared region. (c) A person emits infrared radiation at a frequency of 3.2 x 0 3 Hz. Calculate the wavelength of the infrared radiation that a person emits. Take the speed of infrared radiation to be 3.0 x 0 8 m/s. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Wavelength =... m Page 6 of 36

7 (d) A thermal imaging camera detects infrared radiation. Electronic circuits inside the camera produce a visible image of the object emitting the infrared radiation. At night, police officers use thermal imaging cameras to track criminals running away from crime scenes. Thermal imaging cameras work better at night than during the day. Explain why. (Total 0 marks) Q4. (a) The diagrams, X, Y and Z, show how the particles are arranged in the three states of matter. (i) Which one of the diagrams, X, Y or Z, shows the arrangement of particles in a liquid? Write the correct answer in the box. () Which one of the diagrams, X, Y or Z, shows the arrangement of particles in a gas? Write the correct answer in the box. () Draw a ring around the correct answer in each box to complete each sentence. vibrating in fixed positions. (i) In a gas, the particles are moving randomly. not moving. () Page 7 of 36

8 stronger than In a solid, the forces between the particles are equal to the forces between weaker than the particles in a liquid. () (c) The picture shows a puddle of water in a road, after a rain shower. (i) During the day, the puddle of water dries up and disappears. This happens because the water particles move from the puddle into the air. What process causes water particles to move from the puddle into the air? Draw a ring around the correct answer. condensation evaporation radiation () Describe one change in the weather which would cause the puddle of water to dry up faster. () (Total 6 marks) Q5. The drawing shows water being heated in a metal saucepan. Page 8 of 36

9 (a) Explain, in terms of the particles in the metal, how heat energy is transferred through the base of the saucepan Energy is transferred through the water by convection currents. Explain what happens to cause a convection current in the water. The answer has been started for you. As heat energy is transferred through the saucepan, the water particles at the bottom (3) (c) Some energy is transferred from the hotplate to the air by thermal radiation. What is meant by thermal radiation? () (Total 6 marks) Page 9 of 36

10 Q6. (a) A student used the apparatus drawn below to investigate the heating effect of an electric heater. (i) Before starting the experiment, the student drew Graph A. Graph A shows how the student expected the temperature of the metal block to change after the heater was switched on. Describe the pattern shown in Graph A. Page 0 of 36

11 The student measured the room temperature. He then switched the heater on and measured the temperature of the metal block every 50 seconds. The student calculated the increase in temperature of the metal block and plotted Graph B. After 300 seconds, Graph B shows the increase in temperature of the metal block is lower than the increase in temperature expected from Graph A. Suggest one reason why. () (iii) The power of the electric heater is 50 watts. Calculate the energy transferred to the heater from the electricity supply in 300 seconds. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Energy transferred =... J Page of 36

12 The student uses the same heater to heat blocks of different metals. Each time the heater is switched on for 300 seconds. Each block of metal has the same mass but a different specific heat capacity. Metal Specific heat capacity in J/kg C Aluminium 900 Iron 450 Lead 30 Which one of the metals will heat up the most? Draw a ring around the correct answer. aluminium iron lead Give, in terms of the amount of energy needed to heat the metal blocks, a reason for your answer. Page 2 of 36

13 (c) A homeowner uses an electric immersion heater to heat the water in his hot water tank. The hot water tank has no insulation. (i) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. conduction. Energy is transferred through the water by convection. evaporation. conduction. Energy is transferred through the copper wall of the hot water tank by convection. evaporation. To keep the water in the tank hot for longer, the homeowner fits an insulating jacket around the tank. The insulating jacket costs 2 to buy. The homeowner expects to save 6 each year from reduced energy bills. Calculate the pay-back time for the insulating jacket. Pay-back time =... years (Total marks) Page 3 of 36

14 Q7. The picture shows a person taking a hot shower. (a) When a person uses the shower the mirror gets misty. Why? (3) The homeowner installs an electrically heated mirror into the shower room. When a person has a shower, the heated mirror does not become misty but stays clear. Why does the mirror stay clear? (Total 5 marks) Page 4 of 36

15 Q8. An electric immersion heater is used to heat the water in a domestic hot water tank. When the immersion heater is switched on the water at the bottom of the tank gets hot. (a) Energy is transferred by the process of convection from the hot water at the bottom of the tank to the cooler water at the top. Explain how. (4) Complete the following sentence. The main way the energy is transferred through the copper wall of the water tank is by the process of.... () Page 5 of 36

16 (c) The immersion heater has a thermostat to control the water temperature. When the temperature of the water inside the tank reaches 58 C the thermostat switches the heater off. The thermostat switches the heater back on when the temperature of the water falls to 50 C. Graph A shows how the temperature of the water inside a hot water tank changes with time. The tank is not insulated. Time in hours (i) The temperature of the water falls at the fastest rate just after the heater switches off. Explain why. To heat the water in the tank from 50 C to 58 C the immersion heater transfers 4032 kj of energy to the water. Calculate the mass of water in the tank. Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg C Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Mass =... kg (3) Page 6 of 36

17 (iii) An insulating jacket is fitted to the hot water tank. Graph B shows how the temperature of the water inside the insulated hot water tank changes with time. An insulating jacket only costs 2. Time in hours By comparing Graph A with Graph B, explain why fitting an insulating jacket to a hot water tank saves money. (3) (Total 3 marks) Page 7 of 36

18 Q9. Glass reflects, absorbs and transmits both infra red radiation and visible light. (a) The diagram shows the percentages of visible light that are reflected and absorbed by one type of glass. What percentage of visible light is transmitted by this type of glass?... % () Page 8 of 36

19 The amounts of infra red radiation and visible light transmitted by glass depend on the type and thickness of glass. The data obtained from tests on two different types of glass is displayed in the graph below. (i) To be able to compare the two types of glass, it was important to control one variable. What variable was controlled in the tests? () A homeowner has a glass conservatory built on the back of the house. The homeowner tells the builder that the inside of the conservatory should stay as cool as possible throughout the summer. Explain why the builder uses type B glass for the conservatory. Page 9 of 36

20 (c) Infra red and visible light can be used to send signals along an optical fibre. Which one of the following diagrams, X, Y or Z, shows the path taken by a signal as it travels along an optical fibre? Draw a ring around the correct diagram. () (Total 5 marks) Q0. (a) The diagram shows the ways in which heat energy can be transferred from an old house. (i) Calculate the percentage of energy transferred by draughts. % energy transferred by draughts =... () Complete the following sentence using one of the words from the box. conduction convection radiation Draughts transfer heat energy by... () Page 20 of 36

21 (iii) State one way of reducing the heat transfer by draughts.... () The diagram shows a section through the walls of a house built in 930. Explain how the air cavity between the two walls reduces the heat transfer from the house (c) The table shows the installation costs and yearly savings on energy bills for different methods of insulating a house. Method of insulation Installation cost in Yearly saving on energy bills in Double glazing Loft insulation Cavity wall insulation (i) Give one reason why loft insulation is often fitted to an old house before double glazing or cavity wall insulation () Page 2 of 36

22 The time it takes for the saving on energy bills to equal the cost of installing the insulation is called the pay-back time. Calculate the pay-back time for loft insulation.... Pay-back time =... years () (Total 7 marks) Q. The table gives information about some methods of conserving energy in a house. Conservation method Installation cost in Annual saving on energy bills in Cavity wall insulation Hot water tank jacket 0 5 Loft insulation 0 60 Thermostatic radiator valves (a) Explain which of the methods in the table is the most cost effective way of saving energy over a 0 year period. To obtain full marks you must support your answer with calculations (3) Describe what happens to the energy which is 'wasted' in a house (Total 5 marks) Page 22 of 36

23 M. (a) to reflect (the infrared) accept (shiny surfaces) are good reflectors ignore reference to incorrect type of wave black best absorber (of infrared) answer should be comparative black absorbs (infrared) is insufficient accept good absorber (of infrared) ignore reference to emitter ignore attracts heat ignore reference to conduction (c) to reduce energy loss accept to stop energy loss accept heat for energy accept to stop / reduce convection or so temperature of water increases faster accept to heat water faster accept cooks food faster or reduces loss of water (by evaporation) (d) allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step shown 2 [6] M2. (a) (matt) black is a good emitter of infrared / radiation accept heat for infrared / radiation ignore reference to good absorber attracts heat negates this marking point to give maximum (rate of) energy transfer (to surroundings) accept temperature (of coolant) falls fast(er) accept black emits more radiation for mark black emits most radiation / black is the best emitter of radiation for 2 marks Page 23 of 36

24 the fins increase the surface area accept heat for energy so increasing the (rate of) energy transfer or so more fins greater (rate of) energy transfer (c) allow mark for correct temperature change, ie 5 ( C) or allow 2 marks for correct substitution, ie answers of or gain 2 marks or substitution or gains mark an answer of 4 kj gains 3 marks 3 (d) increases the efficiency less (input) energy is wasted accept some of the energy that would have been wasted is (usefully) used or more (input) energy is usefully used accept heat for energy [9] M3. (a) (i) refraction accept refracted reflection, diffraction and dispersion are incorrect to check rise in temperature (of other thermometers) was due to the (different wavelengths of) light accept as a control / comparison to measure room temperature is insufficient Page 24 of 36

25 (iii) any two from three: different colours produce different heating effects / (rises in) temperatures red light produces the greatest heating effect / (rise in) temperature or violet produces the least heating effect / (rise in) temperature all colours produce a greater heating effect than outside the spectrum an answer the longer the wavelength the greater the (rise in) temperature or the lower the frequency the greater the (rise in) temperature gains both marks 2 move a thermometer into the infrared region / just beyond the red light allow use an infrared camera / infrared sensor the temperature increases beyond 24( C) accept temperature higher than for the red light (c) v = f λ accept or or accept or allow mark for correct substitution ie = λ 2 (d) at night the surroundings are cooler accept at night the air is colder there is no heat from the Sun is insufficient or at night there is a greater temperature difference between people and surroundings Page 25 of 36

26 (so surroundings) emit less infrared (than in daytime) accept camera detects a greater contrast or gives larger difference in infrared emitted (between people and surroundings) [0] M4. (a) (i) Z X (i) moving randomly stronger than (c) (i) evaporation any one from: becomes windy temperature increases accept (becomes) sunny the sun alone is insufficient less humid [6] M5. (a) ions / electrons gain (kinetic) energy accept atom / particles / molecules for ion accept ions vibrate faster accept ions vibrate with a bigger amplitude accept ions vibrate more do not accept ions move faster (free) electrons transfer energy by collision with ions or energy transferred by collisions between vibrating ions Page 26 of 36

27 move faster or take up more space do not accept start to move / vibrate (warmer) water expands or becomes less dense (than cooler water) do not accept answers in terms of particles expanding warm water rises (through colder water) or colder water falls to take its place (c) transfer of energy by waves / infrared (radiation) accept rays for waves do not accept transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves ignore reference to heat [6] M6. (a) (i) temperature (increase) and time switched on are directly proportional accept the idea of equal increases in time giving equal increases in temperature answers such as: as time increases, temperature increases positive correlation linear relationship temperature and time are proportional score mark 2 any one from: it refers to the metal block energy transfer (from the block) to the surroundings accept lost for transfer accept air for surroundings (some) energy used to warm the heater / thermometer (itself) accept takes time for heater to warm up (metal) block is not insulated (iii) allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step shown 2 lead reason only scores if lead is chosen Page 27 of 36

28 needs least energy to raise temperature by C accept needs less energy to heat it (by the same amount) lowest specific heat capacity is insufficient (c) (i) convection correct order only conduction 3 / 4 (year) or allow mark for correct method, ie shown 0.75 or 9 months or 274 days 2 [] M7. (a) any two from: water evaporates accept steam / water vapour for water molecules accept water turns to steam water molecules / particles go into the air mirror (surface) is cooler than (damp) air accept the mirror / surface / glass is cold water molecules / particles that hit the mirror lose energy accept water molecules / particles that hit the mirror cool down cooler air cannot hold as many water molecules / particles 2 (causes) condensation (on the mirror) accept steam changes back to water (on the mirror) or particles move closer together mirror (surface) is warm mirror is heated is insufficient Page 28 of 36

29 (rate of) condensation reduced accept no condensation (happens) [5] M8. (a) (water) particles / molecules gain energy / move faster accept atoms for molecules ignore move more do not accept move with a bigger amplitude / vibrate more and (the particles / molecules) move apart this causes the water to become less dense accept water expands ignore particles become less dense and the warm / hot water rises (through the tank) accept (more energetic water) particles rise to the top ignore heat rises conduction (c) (i) there is a bigger temperature difference between the water and the surrounding air accept the water is hottest / hotter so the transfer of energy (from hot water) is faster accept heat for energy ignore temperature falls the fastest 20 allow mark for converting kj to J correctly, ie or correctly calculating temperature fall as 8 C or allow 2 marks for correct substitution, ie = m answers of 0.2, 9.2 or 6.6 gain 2 marks answers of 0.09 or 0.07 gain mark 3 (iii) water stays hot for longer Page 29 of 36

30 so heater is on for less time accept so less energy needed to heat water so cost of the jacket is soon recovered from) lower energy costs / bills accept short payback time [3] M9. (a) 85 (i) thickness (of glass) accept how thick the glass is do not accept light intensity transmits less infra red accept radiation / or heat for infra red accept transmits less energy (at all wavelengths) accept (glass B) absorbs more infra red accept infra red is the same as heat ignore reference to visible light infra red has a heating effect or infra red warms the room ignore references to conservatory keeping cool (c) Z [5] M0. (a) (i) 20 (iii) convection fit draughtproof strips accept lay carpet accept fit curtains accept close doors / windows / curtains accept any reasonable suggestion for reducing a draught double glazing alone is insufficient Page 30 of 36

31 air is (a good) insulator or air is a poor conductor accept air cavity / it for air reducing heat transfer by conduction accept stops for reduces ignore convection do not accept radiation do not accept answers in terms of heat being trapped (c) (i) most cost effective accept it is cheaper or lowest cost accept shortest payback time accept in terms of reducing heat loss by the largest amount do not accept it is easier ignore most heat is lost through the roof 4 [7] M. (a) loft insulation energy saved in 0 years 600 net saving (600 0) 490 OR hot water jacket energy saved in 0 years 40 This is the highest percentage saving on cost transferred to environment / surroundings as heat / thermal energy [5] Page 3 of 36

32 E. (a) Most students realised that a shiny surface would be a good reflector, but many used the word bounce instead of reflect. The most common wrong response was to say that metals are good conductors. (c) (d) Although most students correctly chose black as the best colour to paint the outside of the metal cooking pot, there was much confusion as to the reason. Many students stated that black was the best colour to attract the Sun. Some students stated that black would absorb energy without making any comparison, e.g. by stating that black is a good absorber. As in previous papers there was much confusion between absorption and emission. The great majority of students could give a correct reason for having a lid: usually to keep the heat in or to stop the water evaporating. The majority of students could correctly complete the calculation. Some however, although they could correctly substitute the numbers into the appropriate equation, were unable to calculate the correct value. This may have been either because they did not have a calculator or they were unable to use the calculator correctly. Some students incorrectly chose to convert the mass in kilograms into grams before doing the calculation. The correct numerical answer was Some students sensibly wrote this as 672,000 using a comma as a separator. Others wrote it as using an apostrophe as a separator. E2. (a) Many students are unable to distinguish between a hot object emitting infrared radiation, and a cold object absorbing it. However, by stating that matt black objects are good emitters and absorbers, many were able to achieve one mark. (c) (d) This question was answered well, with over half of the responses correctly stating a relationship between the number of fins and the rate of energy transfer; of these responses, about half also referred to the increased surface area. The majority of students were able to substitute the correct numbers into the correct equation and perform the calculation. Common mistakes were converting the 2 kg mass to grams, and not calculating the difference between 97 and 2 correctly. Some very pleasing answers were seen, students clearly expressing that energy which would have been wasted had now been converted into useful energy. Page 32 of 36

33 E3. (a) (i) Two-thirds of students scored this mark. (iii) Many students scored this mark because they realised the need for a control in order for a comparison to be made. The most common non-creditworthy answer was to just measure room temperature without any reference as to why this was needed. There were a significant number of answers in terms of the possible effects of scattered / reflected / refracted / diffracted light. Over three-quarters of students scored at least one mark, usually for red light being the hottest or outside the spectrum being cooler. Few students linked temperature rise to wavelength. Common errors included reference to there being infrared within the visible spectrum and red light having the shortest wavelength. (c) (d) This was a very poorly answered question with hardly any students scoring both marks. Most answers were very confused and lacked accurate scientific information. Many students clearly did not know where the infrared region was, whilst others thought that red light and infrared were the same thing or that infrared can be seen. Standard form is now part of the mathematical requirements for this specification. Whilst it was pleasing to see that some students were capable of using data given in this form, it was clear that the majority of students did not know what to do with the powers. There were also a significant number of students that were unable to transform the equation correctly. This usually resulted in zero marks, as no correct substitution was shown. This question was not answered well. Many students tried to link their answer to the absence of the Sun at night and / or more light during the day making it harder to see the criminal on the camera. A number of students gained one mark for reference to the temperature difference between the criminal and surroundings but, without reference to infrared. Some students thought the criminal would show up better as they were hot from running away! E4. (a) (i) Nearly all students answered this correctly. Nearly all students answered this correctly. (i) Nearly all students answered this correctly. Nearly all students answered this correctly. (c) (i) The majority of students correcty chose evaporation. Most students knew that if the weather became warmer or more windy the puddle of water would evaporate faster. A few students were unspecific and simply wrote temperature or the Sun. Page 33 of 36

34 E5. This question was very poorly answered. (a) (c) Many candidates stated that particles start to vibrate, rather than vibrate faster. Candidates confused conduction and convection and frequently wrote about particles expanding and becoming less dense. Answers were generally poor. Few candidates mentioned waves, rays or infrared and many wrote about heat transferring to the air, or heat moving from hot to cold. E6. (a) (i) Although most students could describe the pattern as being linear, very few referred to the fact that the graph showed direct proportionality. (iii) There were very few correct answers to this question. A few suggested it took time for the heater to warm up but other acceptable answers were rarely seen. Many stated that the difference was because the first graph was a guess and the second was a real result. There was a lot of discussion about the original room temperature and some thought that since the student was reading the temperature every 50s, they had to switch off the heater whilst they were doing this. The majority of students could correctly complete the calculation to find the energy transferred. The majority of students chose aluminium rather than lead, presumably because it had the highest specific heat capacity. Of those who did select lead, very few were able to provide an adequate reason. (c) (i) Most students were able to score both marks in this question. There were few correct answers to this question. The most common method was to multiply the two numbers and thereby end up with a figure of 92 years for the payback time. E7. (a) This question discriminated well, with the best students scoring all three marks. However, there was much confusion about terminology with the terms condensation, convection and evaporation apparently interchangeable in many answers. The most common way of gaining a mark was to say that condensation was occurring. The verb to condensate was almost universal. Most students realised that condensation would not take place, although condensation followed by evaporation from the mirror surface was common. Many thought that warm air was attracted to a cold surface. Others did not state that the mirror was warm and simply repeated the heated mirror from the stem of the question. As in part (a) the meaning of evaporation and condensation was not clear. Page 34 of 36

35 E8. (a) Less than half of the students scored at least two marks, usually for referring to the hot water becoming less dense and therefore rising. Students who referred to water particles often mistakenly referred to them vibrating more as a result of the energy given, or to the particles themselves becoming less dense. Nearly three quarters of the students correctly identified the process of conduction. (c) (i) Fewer than one fifth of the students realised that this question related to the greatest difference in temperature between the water and the surroundings. (iii) A small minority of the students scored full marks. The majority of students failed to convert kj to J. Many students were unable to transpose the equation correctly. This was very well answered, with over half of the students scoring at least two of the three marks. This was usually for realising that the insulating jacket would keep the water hotter for longer, thus requiring the heater to be switched on for a shorter period of time. Many did not score the third mark because they merely repeated the question by saying that this saves money rather than referring to the cost of electricity / energy used. E9. (a) Many candidates gave a correct answer to this question. However, a significant number of candidates supplied an answer that was in excess of 00 %. (i) The better candidates were able to identify the thickness of the glass as being the variable that had been controlled, but many other candidates thought that it was the light intensity that had been controlled. Many candidates scored mark on this question, but very few candidates made the connection between infrared radiation and the heating effect sufficiently clear. There was also confusion between transmission, absorption and reflection. (c) Only just over half of the candidates scored this mark, Y was a popular incorrect choice. E0. In part (a) the calculation of the energy lost through lack of draught proofing was generally successful and many candidates were able to submit appropriate ideas and techniques to limit heat transfer by draughts. Answers to part were poor with few candidates being able to give an explanation in terms of air being able to reduce heat loss by conduction. Many answers referred to radiation. In part (c) many candidates were able to use the information to give an answer in terms of cost efficiency. However a significant number of candidates simply answered in terms of hot air / heat rising. E. (a) This part was well answered. Most candidates were able to identify loft insulation as the most effective method and provided calculations supporting this conclusion. A surprising number made no reference to heat/thermal energy in their responses. Page 35 of 36

36 Resource currently unavailable. Page 36 of 36

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