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1 Universe, Earth, Oceans and Atmosphere Get ready to have your mind blow n!

2 Quick Quiestion#1 How do you think the universe was created? ain.org/asset/ess05_vid_ microwave/ Quick Quiestion#2 How can we tell how far away stars are, or what they are made of? ain.org/asset/phy03_vid_ hubble2/ Quick Quiestion#3 How Big is the universe?

3 I. The Origin of the Universe A. The Big Bang Theory - The theory that the universe began as a point and has been expanding ever since. Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something called a singularity (which scientist don t fully understand! Thought to be the core of a black whole) The tiny, dense sphere expanded and cooled, forming a gigantic expanding cloud that moved and condensed and formed billions of galaxies

4 I. The Origin of the Universe A few minutes after the Big Bang the first atomic nuclei formed Thousands of years later our elements formed The first element produced was hydrogen/helium/lithium These and other elements in clouds formed gravity, stars, and galaxies The galaxies continue to move outward today

5 Quick Quiestion#4 Explain in your own words how the universe was created.

6

7 II. The Origin of the Solar System A. The Protoplanet Hypothesis 5 billion years ago, a great cloud of gas and dust rotated in space Most of the cloud s material gathered in the center, causing it to shrink and rotate faster into a disk shape The compression made the interior so hot that hydrogen fusion began and the sun was born Masses surrounding the sun separated into rings and collected to become planets

8 III. The Origin of the Earth A. Earth was created when from mass surrounding the sun Initially one, hot sphere, the interior grew hotter and melted to form layers of the earth and magnetic fields were formed B. Age of the Earth Earth is estimated to be 4.6 billion years old! C. Evidence Supporting Age of Earth Oldest rocks on Earth are dated billion years old Evidence of billion year old crust in Australia Moon rocks found to be approx. 4.6 billion years old

9 D. Conditions on Early Earth The early Earth was an uninhabitable, hot ball of molten lava with a uniform mix of minerals and elements Over time, the magma differentiated: heavy elements sank toward the center (iron) lighter elements accumulated toward the top (silica) 3 distinct layers formed: hot radioactive core, molten mantle and a thin, brittle crust

10 Quick Quiestion#5 Draw a visual that shows the layers of the earth.

11 Quick Quiestion#6 What do you think came first? Oceans or continents?

12 IV. The Origin of Continents A. Formation of Crust Geologists hypothesize that Earth s crust formed as a result of the cooling of the upper mantle Approximately 2 billion years ago, small pieces of continental crust collided and fused together forming supercontinents Today, slabs of crust move, collide and subduct due to the cycling mantle below, yielding the current position of the continents

13 V. The Origin of the Oceans A. Possible Sources of Water Outgassing of water vapor from volcanoes condensed to form liquid water Ice comets landed and melted to form water

14 Quick Quiestion#7 How was water created?

15 VI. The Origin of the Atmosphere A. Earth s Early Atmosphere Contained mostly hydrogen (H), helium (He), methane (CH 4 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) Outgassing from volcanoes produced water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N) and carbon monoxide (CO) Earth s early atmosphere did NOT contain oxygen (0 2 )!

16 B. Oxygen in the Atmosphere Large mounds of billions of cyanobacteria called stromatolites dominated the shallow oceans of early Earth Through photosynthesis, these bacteria produced enough oxygen to change the composition of Earth s early atmosphere Iron oxides in red sedimentary rocks indicate oxygen was plentiful in Earth s atmosphere 1.8 billion years ago These rocks are referred to as red beds 2.1 billion year old Neguanee Formation, Michigan

17 Quick Quiestion#8 What do you think the significance of oxygen formation was?

18 C. Significance of Oxygen in the Atmosphere Respiration for animals Forms ozone (O 3 ) gas that protects against UV radiation from the Sun

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