# The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe

2 Announcements n Homework # 8 is available as of this morning in OWL. Due date for is Friday Dec 9th n Exam # 3 will take place on Tuesday, December 6 th ; n Quiz # 7 will take place Thursday, December 8th.

3 Reading Assignments n Units 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82

4 Summary of what we know q The Universe is 13.7 billion years old, and 4200 Mpc in radius q It is mostly (96%) filled with dark (non-baryonic) matter and energy q It is expanding, following the Hubble Law: v = Ho D (Ho = 73 km/s/mpc) q As we look into its farthest reaches, we are looking back in time (the Universe is a `time machine!)

5

6 A Consequence of the Hubble Law n More distant galaxies have higher `recession velocities (they `run away from us faster): v = H o D n Their light shifts to redder wavelengths (Doppler shift) n Distant galaxies are REDDER (emit light at longer wavelengths) than nearby galaxies

7 The Universe as a time machine n The speed of light is finite: 300,000 km/s n It takes time for light to move through space n E.g. it takes 8 min to come from Sun, and ~230,000 years to come from Andromeda n When light reaches us, it shows us how those sources were at the time it left them n Hence: the further we see in space, the further back we see in time n Distant galaxies are YOUNGER!

8 No Dark Energy, no Supernova evolution

9

10 Does the universe have an edge? Universe has no edge and no center!

11 A model universe: two dimensional Space is expanding with time! v No edge to space, and no center. v The distances between galaxies increase. v The velocity with which galaxies escape from each other increases.

12 Olbers Paradox n If you walk through a forest, you only see trees to the farthest distance n If the Universe is infinite, every direction you look, you should meet a star or a galaxy. n Thus, the night sky should glow like a star, and should be as hot as the surface of a star! Why is this not happening?

13 Olbers Paradox - 2 n Because, even if the Universe is infinite in space, n It is not infinite in time: the Universe had a beginning time! n It started about 13.7 billion years ago! When you `peek at the Universe, you are looking `through the surface of the balloon, back in time.

14 n Because the Universe is expanding today, it had to start from a more compressed (smaller) region. If you could revert time, the galaxies would come all together!

15 n There was a point in time and space when everything was compressed to a `point, with enormous temperatures (T > K)!

16 The Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe It started as a `hot expansion that created space and time

17 The Big Bang was not really an explosion. It is that the universe was born expanding. This expansion happens everywhere in the same way Every observer sees the same thing There is no center

18 The big bang takes place everywhere! The big bang is still going on! Space and time were created with the big bang and are still changing!

19 The Universe and Its Evolution: Step by Step

20

21 At the Very Beginning u In the `primordial soup temperatures are enormous; u All four forces are `unified into one; u Matter/antimatter and energy are in constant interaction (think of the interior of a star, but many billions times hotter), i.e., matter and antimatter change into energy and viceversa, continuously; u Particles are very elementary: quarks and electrons (and their antimatter counterparts) are just all there is As the Universe expands, it cools down

22

23 The Particle Era n n n s < t <.001 s The four fundamental forces (gravity, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) are separated! Particles (both matter and antimatter) are created and destroyed with equal efficiency. n At the end of this time, when the Universe cooled to K, it is no longer hot enough to spontaneously produce protons and antiprotons. n Because of a slight imbalance (Symmetry Breaking), for every one billion antiprotons, there were 1 billion +1 protons. - All antiprotons annihilated with protons to produce photons (1 billion photons for each proton in our Universe).

24

25 The Era of Nucleosynthesis n s < t < 3 minutes n During this time, hydrogen (the protons left over from the Particle Era) is fused into helium and a small amount of deuterium and lithium (behaves like the interior of a star). n It is a robust prediction of the Era of Nucleosynthesis that 75% of the Universe be left over as hydrogen and the other 25% be helium (plus trace amounts of deuterium and lithium) n At the end of this time, the Universe was too cool for any more fusion.

26

27 The Era of Nuclei n 3 minutes < t < 300,000 years n This is the simplest the Universe has ever been and will ever be. n All that exists during this time is ionized hydrogen and helium as well as lots of photons. n The Universe during this time (and all earlier times) is opaque (think of the surface of a star, matter and light interact constantly). n n At the end of this time, however, the Universe is too cold to be opaque: Light separates from matter (Cosmic Microwave Background)

28

29 The Era of Atoms and Galaxies n 300,000 years < t < 13.7 billion years n Universe is no longer hot enough to keep matter ionized. n Structure formed and here we are.

30 Observational Evidence for this `Funny Story Besides the observational evidence for the expanding and evolving universe, we have the confirmation of the two key big-bang predictions: 1. The abundances of light elements in the Universe. We really do measure that about 25% of the Universe is helium, about 75% is hydrogen, and we even get the deuterium and lithium right! 2. The Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (blackbody radiation from the era of nuclei)

31 The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (the fossil radiation from the Big Bang) Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson (1966) The isotropic and homogeneous radiation that was set free at the beginning of the Era of Atoms, when the Universe becomes transparent.

32 Evidence for the Big Bang n Expansion of the Universe n Origin of the cosmic background radiation n Nucleosynthesis of the light elements

33 Galaxy and Structure Formation or how we go from the Era of Atoms to the Era of Humans

34 Vocabulary n in astronomy, the term structure refers to anything that s gravitationally held together. n Planets, Stars, Galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc. are all `structures

35 Survey Question Which of the following objects would not be considered structure by astronomers? a) constellation b) planet c) star d) galaxy e) cluster of galaxies

36 Hierarchy of Structures Galaxy

37 Galaxy Cluster Hierarchy of Structures

38 The Local Supercluster of Galaxies Hierarchy of Structures

39 How did the Universe evolve from a sea of atoms to the organized structures we observe today?

40

41 Was the Big Bang Homogeneous? The light from the CMB has the same temperature everywhere and in every direction. However, it also shows tiny fluctuations: these grew to form galaxies and clusters today. We see the `seeds of today s galaxies and clusters!

42 The Universe as viewed in the Microwave by the WMAP satellite This small anisotropy (~ 1/10 6 ) in the CMB, emitted 300,000 years after the Big Bang, represents the small fluctuation in the matter distribution which provides the seed for the structure formation in the universe.

43 Formation of the Large-Scale Structure Due to gravity, acting on Dark Matter, which then attracts regular matter

44

45 The Same Picture but made with Galaxies (these are the Clusters)

46 How did we go from the clusters of dark matter to the galaxies of baryonic matter?

47

48

49

50 Collapse of baryonic gas clouds provided the initial seeds for the galaxies. Galaxies grew subsequently by `merging, i.e., by accreting other galaxies

51 Galaxies interactions and mergers have been a strong evolutionary mechanism (Movie)

52 Galaxies like to cluster: eg. M81 group

53 What will happen to the Universe? q It depends entirely on how much total gravitational `pull it has: q This depends on the total content of mass and energy q A high content of matter and energy will cause the Universe to `stop its expansion in the future (far away), reverse the expansion into a contraction, and produce the Big Crunch q A low (or `critical ) content of matter and energy will cause the Universe to expand forever q Current data suggest we are accelerating q The Universe will end up as a cold, dim expanse.

54 This ends our trip through the Universe

### Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big Bang Our goals for learning What were conditions like in the early universe? What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? What were

### Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

### Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end?

Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and

### 23. The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Agenda. ESA s Venus Express. Conditions in the Early Universe. 23.1 Running the Expansion Backward

23. The Beginning of Time Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known. Agenda Announce: Solar Altitude Lab (#2) due today Read Ch. 24 for Thursday Observation make-up next week Project Presentations

### Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me.

Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me. My telescope Has dashed your hope; Your tenets are refuted. Let me be terse:

### Lecture Outlines. Chapter 27. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines Chapter 27 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 27 The Early Universe Units of Chapter 27 27.1 Back to the Big Bang 27.2 The Evolution of the Universe More on Fundamental

### Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe

Name: _Answer key Pretest: _2_/ 58 Posttest: _58_/ 58 Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Vocab/Matching: Match the definition on the left with the term on the right by placing the letter of the term

### The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe

### Topic 3. Evidence for the Big Bang

Topic 3 Primordial nucleosynthesis Evidence for the Big Bang! Back in the 1920s it was generally thought that the Universe was infinite! However a number of experimental observations started to question

### Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang

Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Solution? ~1998 astronomers

### The Early Universe. Lecture 27-1

The Early Universe Lecture 27-1 Back to the Big Bang The total energy of the universe consists of both radiation and matter. As the Universe cooled, it went from being radiation dominated to being matter

### 3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED?

3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED? David Christian explains how the first stars were formed. This two-part lecture begins by focusing on what the Universe was like in its first 200 million years of existence, a

### Big Bang Cosmology. Big Bang vs. Steady State

Big Bang vs. Steady State Big Bang Cosmology Perfect cosmological principle: universe is unchanging in space and time => Steady-State universe - Bondi, Hoyle, Gold. True? No! Hubble s Law => expansion

### Why is the Night Sky Dark?

Why is the Night Sky Dark? Cosmology Studies of the universe as a whole Today Brief history of ideas (Early Greeks Big Bang) The expanding universe (Hubble, Relativity, density & destiny) An alternative

### Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

### Astronomy 330. Outline. Big Bang. Putting it all together: ! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe

Astronomy 330 Outline! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe This class (Lecture 4): Origin of Elements Next Class: End of the Universe Presentation Synopsis due Thur. Music:

### The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies

The Universe The Universe is everything. All us, the room, the U.S. the earth, the solar system, all the other stars in the Milky way galaxy, all the other galaxies... everything. How big and how old is

### The Big Bang Theory David Terr, Ph.D 4/10/13

The Big Bang Theory David Terr, Ph.D 4/10/13 The Big Bang theory is the currently accepted theory of the origin of the universe. According to this theory, the observable universe was formed approximately

### Chapter 27: The Early Universe

Chapter 27: The Early Universe The plan: 1. A brief survey of the entire history of the big bang universe. 2. A more detailed discussion of each phase, or epoch, from the Planck era through particle production,

### The Expanding Universe

Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

### 165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

### The Expanding Universe. Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh

The Expanding Universe Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh Cosmology: The Study of Structure & Evolution of the Universe Small & Hot Big & Cold Observational Evidence for the Expansion of the Universe

### Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,

### Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago

Evolution of the Universe from 13 to 4 Billion Years Ago Prof. Dr. Harold Geller hgeller@gmu.edu http://physics.gmu.edu/~hgeller/ Department of Physics and Astronomy George Mason University Unity in the

### WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM??

WHERE DID ALL THE ELEMENTS COME FROM?? In the very beginning, both space and time were created in the Big Bang. It happened 13.7 billion years ago. Afterwards, the universe was a very hot, expanding soup

### Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why?

Cosmology Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why? Because the prevailing scientific view about the Universe in the early 1900 s was: The Universe is infinite

### World of Particles Big Bang Thomas Gajdosik. Big Bang (model)

Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)

### Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon.

Part 1 Composition of Earth Composition of solar system Origin of the elements Part 2 Geochronometry: Age of Earth Formation of Earth and Moon. Differentiation of core and mantle. Isotope tracing: sequence

Build Your Own Universe You will need: At least 10,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000 x Down quarks At least 10,000,000,000,000,000,

### Transcript 22 - Universe

Transcript 22 - Universe A few introductory words of explanation about this transcript: This transcript includes the words sent to the narrator for inclusion in the latest version of the associated video.

### 1 Introduction. 1 There may, of course, in principle, exist other universes, but they are not accessible to our

1 1 Introduction Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole, its structure, its origin, and its evolution. Cosmology is soundly based on observations, mostly astronomical, and laws of physics. These

### Test 2 --- Natural Sciences 102, Professors Rieke --- VERSION B March 3, 2010

Enter your answers on the form provided. Be sure to write your name and student ID number on the first blank at the bottom of the form. Please mark the version (B) in the Key ID space at the top of the

### 10. Our violent origin Cosmology and the nuclear processes in the Big Bang

10. Our violent origin Cosmology and the nuclear processes in the Big Bang Our Universe is getting larger. The space between the galaxies is expanding so that we see distant galaxies in all directions

### Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the

### WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG?

2 WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG? David Christian explains how the Big Bang theory developed during the 20th century. This three-part lecture focuses on how the evidence for the expansion of the Universe

### FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

### The Cosmic Microwave Background and the Big Bang Theory of the Universe

The Cosmic Microwave Background and the Big Bang Theory of the Universe 1. Concepts from General Relativity 1.1 Curvature of space As we discussed earlier, Einstein s equivalence principle states that

### Unit 1.7: Earth and Space Science The Structure of the Cosmos

Lesson Summary: This week students will search for evidence provided in passages that lend support about the structure and organization of the Cosmos. Then students will summarize a passage. Materials

### Theoretical Astrophysics & Cosmology Spring 2015

Theoretical Astrophysics & Cosmology Spring 2015 Lectures: Lucio Mayer & Alexandre Refregier Problem sessions: Andrina Nicola & Aleksandra Sokolowska Lectures take place at: Wednesday at ETH: 13-15 room

### 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

### Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Hassen M. Yesuf (hyesuf@ucsc.edu) September 29, 2011 1 Lecture summary Protein molecules, the building blocks of a living organism, are made

### Astronomy 100 Exam 2

1 Prof. Mo Exam Version A Astronomy 100 Exam 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Write your name and ID number on BOTH this sheet and the computer grading form. Use a #2 Pencil on the computer grading form. Be careful to

### Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope

Exploring the Universe Through the Hubble Space Telescope WEEK FIVE: THE HUBBLE DEEP FIELD + LIMITATIONS OF HUBBLE, COLLABORATIONS, AND THE FUTURE OF ASTRONOMY Date: October 14, 2013 Instructor: Robert

### The Crafoord Prize 2005

I N F O R M A T I O N F O R T H E P U B L I C The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Crafoord Prize in Astronomy 2005 to James Gunn, Princeton University, USA, James Peebles, Princeton

### A Century of Paradigm Shifts in our Thinking About the Universe

A Century of Paradigm Shifts in our Thinking About the Universe George R. Blumenthal Chancellor, UC Santa Cruz Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics Why start 100 years ago? Before 1910 there was no

### The History and Philosophy of Astronomy

Astronomy 350L (Fall 2006) The History and Philosophy of Astronomy (Lecture 23: Steady State vs Big Bang) Instructor: Volker Bromm TA: Jarrett Johnson The University of Texas at Austin Steady State vs

### MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

### The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe 9.7 People have been wondering about the Universe for a long time. They have asked questions such as Where did the Universe come from? How big is it? What will

### Big bang, red shift and doppler effect

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect 73 minutes 73 marks Page of 26 Q. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected.

### Newton s laws of motion and gravity

Newton s laws of motion and gravity 1. Every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) in a straight line unless acted on by a force. (A deeper statement of this law is that

### Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You

### Knox Academy, Haddington. Our Dynamic Universe. 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory

Knox Academy, Haddington Our Dynamic Universe 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory 2014 Our Dynamic Universe: The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory Contents Unit Specification... 2 Notes...

### Milky Way & Hubble Law

Milky Way & Hubble Law Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Happy Thanksgiving! Announcements 3rd midterm 12/3 I will drop the lowest midterm grade

### Modeling Galaxy Formation

Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

### Q1. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected....

Q1. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected. What name is given to this observation? (ii) Draw a ring around the

### Particle Soup: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Name: Partner(s): Lab #7 Particle Soup: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Purpose The student explores how helium was made in the Big Bang. Introduction Very little helium is made in stars. Yet the universe is

### Institut für Kern- und Teilchenphysik Neutrinos & Cosmology

Neutrinos & Cosmology 1 Cosmology: WHY??? From laboratory experiment limits can be set ONLY in neutrino mass difference No information if neutrino masses are degenerated From kinematic experiment limits

### Einstein s cosmological legacy: From the big bang to black holes

School of Mathematical and Computing Sciences Te Kura Pangarau, Rorohiko Einstein s cosmological legacy: From the big bang to black holes Matt Visser Overview: 2005 marks 100 years since Einstein discovered

### The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies. Introduction

THE COSMIC ENGINE CHAPTER 18 The Universe begins The first minutes of the Universe released energy which changed to matter, forming stars and galaxies Introduction Cosmology, the study of the Universe

### Einstein's Cosmological Principle: the foundation of cosmology

Einstein's Cosmological Principle: the foundation of cosmology The Universe, on average, is homogeneous (equal density everywhere if averaged over a sufficiently large volume) and isotropic (it looks the

### SAMPLE PAGE. The Sun and the Stars. By: Sue Peterson. Scientists know many things about the Sun. They know

Page 23 Objective Concepts (gravity, climate, solar system, hydrogen, helium, elements, ultraviolet rays, cluster, galaxy, Milky Way Galaxy); Sight words (surface, core, dangerous, causes, amount, glowing,

### Lecture 2 - The current state of fundamental physics

Lecture 2 - The current state of fundamental physics 1) Einstein & General Relativity Gravity as Spacetime Curvature Gravitational Radiation, LIGO & LISA Cosmology & the Expanding Universe Dark Energy

### Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

### thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis

thermal history of the universe and big bang nucleosynthesis Kosmologie für Nichtphysiker Markus Pössel (vertreten durch Björn Malte Schäfer) Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Heidelberg

### Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

### Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room What is the difference between dark ENERGY and dark MATTER? Is Earth unique,

### What Energy Drives the Universe? Andrei Linde

What Energy Drives the Universe? Andrei Linde Two major cosmological discoveries:! The new-born universe experienced rapid acceleration (inflation)! A new (slow) stage of acceleration started 5 billion

### Solar Energy Production

Solar Energy Production We re now ready to address the very important question: What makes the Sun shine? Why is this such an important topic in astronomy? As humans, we see in the visible part of the

### California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

### The parts of a nuclear fission reactor

P2 6.1a Student practical sheet The parts of a nuclear fission reactor Making uranium-235 split and produce energy is actually remarkably easy. The trick is to make it do so in a controllable way. Aim

Investigating electromagnetic radiation Announcements: First midterm is 7:30pm on 2/17/09 Problem solving sessions M3-5 and T3-4,5-6. Homework due at 12:50pm on Wednesday. We are covering Chapter 4 this

### The Fate of the Universe

The Fate of the Universe How one set of equations changed an entire field of science Brian Kay PHY 495 Objective Examine the Friedmann equation and its impact on our understanding of the evolution of the

### Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

### THE BIG BANG HOW CLOSE CAN WE COME? Michael Dine Final Lecture Physics 171, 2009

THE BIG BANG HOW CLOSE CAN WE COME? Michael Dine Final Lecture Physics 171, 2009 New York Times: April, 2003 Reports a debate among cosmologists about the Big Bang. lll1.html Dr. Tyson, who introduced

### The Sun and Solar Energy

I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives

Universe 101 Reading Packet Space is a pretty big place and there is a lot to learn. This packet will guide you through some of the basics of astronomy, starting with the big bang and ending with why our

### Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon

Lesson 6: Earth and the Moon Reading Assignment Chapter 7.1: Overall Structure of Planet Earth Chapter 7.3: Earth s Interior More Precisely 7-2: Radioactive Dating Chapter 7.5: Earth s Magnetosphere Chapter

### The High Redshift Universe Reprise

The High Redshift Universe Reprise Planck time Particle physics stuff Inflation Element creation All in first 1000 seconds Bit of a snooze for the next 400000 years Atoms form from the ions and electrons

### Curriculum for Excellence. Higher Physics. Success Guide

Curriculum for Excellence Higher Physics Success Guide Electricity Our Dynamic Universe Particles and Waves Electricity Key Area Monitoring and Measuring A.C. Monitoring alternating current signals with

### If we look into space and see stars that show a blue shift, what does this tell us about the stars motion?

Name: Quiz name: Review f or Test ate: 1. If we look into space and see stars that show a blue shift, what does this tell us about the stars motion? T hey are moving away from the Earth T hey are moving

### L2: The building-up of the chemical elements

credit: NASA L2: The building-up of the chemical elements UCL Certificate of astronomy Dr. Ingo Waldmann What ordinary stuff is made of What ordinary stuff is made of Build up of metallicity 2 What are

### Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Syllabus 4 tests: June 18, June 30, July 10, July 21 Comprehensive Final - check schedule Website link on blackboard 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our goals for

### 7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

### Modeling the Expanding Universe

H9 Modeling the Expanding Universe Activity H9 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: This activity is produced by the Universe Forum at NASA s Office of Space Science, along with their Structure and Evolution of the

### 2. The Universe Is Expanding and Evolving

2. The Universe Is Expanding and Evolving We now know that the entire universe is both expanding and evolving. These two remarkable facts have been established beyond doubt over the past century. The simple

### 1 A Solar System Is Born

CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

### REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe

REALIZING EINSTEIN S DREAM Exploring Our Mysterious Universe The End of Physics Albert A. Michelson, at the dedication of Ryerson Physics Lab, U. of Chicago, 1894 The Miracle Year - 1905 Relativity Quantum

### 2. The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Theory

2. The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Theory The evolution of the Universe can be compared to a display of fireworks that has just ended: some few wisps, ashes and smoke. Standing on a cooled cinder, we

### In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees.

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The

### ASTR/PHYS 109 Dr. David Toback Lectures 18 & 19

ASTR/PHYS 109 Dr. David Toback Lectures 18 & 19 1 Was due Today L19 Reading: (Unit 4) Pre-Lecture Reading Questions: Unit 4, Stage 2: Due before class today Unit 3 Revision (if desired), Stage 2: Due today

### A Universe of Galaxies

A Universe of Galaxies Today s Lecture: Other Galaxies (Chapter 16, pages 366-397) Types of Galaxies Habitats of Galaxies Dark Matter Other Galaxies Originally called spiral nebulae because of their shape.

### The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion

The Motions of Celestial Bodies, and Newton s Laws of Motion Announcements The results of Quiz 1 are posted in OWL Looking ahead: Homework 1 is on-going, and is due on Thu, Sept. 29 th ; Homework 2 will

### Observing the Origin of the Universe. Edward L. (Ned) Wright UCLA 20 October 2006

Observing the Origin of the Universe Edward L. (Ned) Wright UCLA 20 October 2006 Old Style Cosmology Cosmology is an Observational Science We can t do experiments on the Universe. We can t change the initial

### Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

Lecture 8: Radiation Spectrum The information contained in the light we receive is unaffected by distance The information remains intact so long as the light doesn t run into something along the way Since

### Chapter 19 Star Formation

Chapter 19 Star Formation 19.1 Star-Forming Regions Units of Chapter 19 Competition in Star Formation 19.2 The Formation of Stars Like the Sun 19.3 Stars of Other Masses 19.4 Observations of Cloud Fragments

### The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision Roeland van der Marel (STScI) [based on work with a team of collaborators reported in the Astrophysical Journal July 2012] Hubble Science Briefing

### The Plasma Universe Theory

The Plasma Universe Theory Duncan Bartlett 1. Abstract: The Big Bang theory has long been accepted as the correct theory for the birth and evolution of the universe. However, over the decades, observations