Galaxy Formation Carlos Frenk Institute of Computational Cosmology University of Durham. Books:

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1 Galaxy Formation Carlos Frenk Institute of Computational Cosmology Goal: understand origin and evolution of cosmic structures Review of standard Big Bang model Growth of small fluctuations (linear theory) Fluctuations in the microwave background radiation The formation of galaxies and clusters Connection to three outstanding problems in 21 st Physics: The identity of the dark matter The nature of the dark energy Origin of cosmic structure Galaxy Formation Carlos Frenk Institute of Computational Cosmology You should be familiar with: Basic concepts in Big Bang theory The contents of the Universe The expansion properties of the Universe Books: Cole & Lucchin: Cosmology Peacock: -- about the right level Galaxy Formation -- advanced Liddle: Cosmology -- basic background The Big Bang Theory What it is: Theory that the Universe as we know it began billion years ago Initial state was a hot, dense, uniform sea of particles that filled space uniformly and was expanding What it describes: How the universe expands and cools How the light chemical elements formed How matter congealed to form stars and galaxies What it does not describe: What caused the expansion (expanding initial state assumed) Where did matter come from (energy assumed to be there from start) Empirical evidence for the Big Bang 1. The expansion of the universe of galaxies galaxies are receding from us with speed proportional to their distance expansion is the same for all observers 2. The microwave background radiation heat left over from Big Bang explosion comes from everywhere in space (homogeneous and isotropic) it was emitted when the universe was years old 3. The abundance of the light elements BB theory predicts that 75% of mass is hydrogen, 24% is helium and 1% is the rest These are precisely the abundances observed in distant gas clouds! (nb: elements heavier than H and 4 He were produced billions of years later inside stars)

2 The content of our universe What is the Universe made of? Dark matter matter that does not emit light at any wavelength Ω = What is the universe made of? density critical density critical density = density that makes univ. flat: ρ = ρ mass + ρ rel + ρ vac (Ω = 1 for a flat univ.) Galaxy rotation curves Radiation (CMB, T=2.726±0.005 o K) Ω r = 4.7 x 10-5 Massless neutrinos Ω ν = 3 x 10-5 Massive neutrinos Ω ν = 6 x 10-2 (<m ν >/ev) Baryons Ω b = ± (of which stars) Ω s = ± Dark matter (cold dark matter) Ω dm 0.26 Dark energy (cosm. const. Λ) Ω Λ 0.7 > Ω = Ω b + Ω dm + Ω Λ 1 (assuming Hubble parameter h=0.7) Flat V c M(<r) r dark halos around galaxy

3 Mapping the dark matter Computer simulation of galaxy halo Light rays are deflected by gravity (E=mc 2 ) Observer Galaxy clusters (Gravitational lens) Distant galaxy 0.5 Mpc/h Gravitational lensing The visible and dark sides of the universe There is ~5 times more dark matter than there is ordinary (baryonic) matter (~90% of the mass of the Universe is dark matter) Most of the dark matter is NOT ordinary (baryonic) matter Light from distant galaxies is deflected by dark matter in cluster, distorting the galaxies images into arcs Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS)

4 Non-baryonic dark matter candidates Looking for WIMPS Type candidate mass hot neutrino a few ev CERN Geneva warm cold Sterile neutrino axion neutralino kev-mev 10-5 ev->100 GeV The search for dark matter UK DM search (Boulby mine) Boulby mine Looking for dark matter down the mine (where cosmic rays can t penetrate)

5 What is the universe made of? UK DM search (Boulby mine) Boulby mine So, the Universe contains: Ordinary matter (Ω b =0.04) Dark matter (Ω dm = 0.21) Anything else? Looking for dark matter down the mine Yes! Dark energy (where cosmic rays can t penetrate) Dark energy is a property of space itself. It has the opposite effect to gravity SN type Ia (standard candles) at z~0.5 are fainter than expected even if the Universe were empty Evidence for Λ from high-z supernovae flux Ω m Ω Λ.. a =- 4 p a -3-4 a const? Friedmann equations c 2 a d =- 3 pc 2 da 3 G 3 w1 ρ tot = ρ mass + ρ rel + ρ vac where pw 2 3 w10 a0 expansion accelerates Þ The cosmic expansion must have been accelerating since the light was emitted If ρ = ρ vac = const, If ρ vac = ρ vac (z,x) and dρ da = 0 p = ρc 2 w = 1 cosmological constant quintessence Perlmutter et al 98 a/a 0 =1/(1+z)

6 a a s c o s c v a c > 0 = 1 > 1 time = 8 = 0.1 = 1 Evolution of Cosmic Scale Factor in FRW Model The origin of galaxies r, c to fa le m ic ρ= ρ mass + ρ rel + ρ vac a -3-4 a const Λ>0 Inflation Initially, Universe is trapped in false vacuum Scalar field Φ Universe decays to true vacuum keeping ρ v ~ const Universe oscillates converting energy into particles

7 Friedmann equations a 2 kc 2 8 p 3 G 2 Inflation If k0 and t t aµe vac const a a 2 8 p 3 G w=-1 3 t 8 p 1 2 Universe expands exponentially Cosmic Inflation Generation of primordial fluctuations t=10-35 s Observable universe Quantum fluctuations are blown up to macroscopic scales during inflation Inflation theory predicts: Chaotic inflation 2. Flat geometry (Ω =1) (eternal expansion) 4. Small ripples in mass distribution

8 ^ Or if pressure forces dominate inside the perturbation

9 k 2 k n Gau ss ian a mplitu des n = 1 Inflation (t~10-35 s) The origin of cosmic structure QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS: + Damping (nature of dark matter) Cold dark matter Horizon crossing baryons radiation P(k) n=1 P(k)=Ak n T 2 (k,t) R h(t eq) Transfer function Mezaros damping Hot DM (eg ~30 ev neutrino) - Top-down formation Cold DM (eg ~neutralino) - Bottom-up (hierachical) Free streaming The microwave background radiation years after the big Bang The microwave background radiation T=2.73 K Plasma t=0 John Mather 2006 Nobel laureate t= yrs

10 The microwave background radiation Dependence of T/T on cosmological params inflation years after the big Bang T=2.73 K Plasma Max Tegmark z =1000 z = The CMB The CMB The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) provides a window to the universe at t~3x10 5 yrs In 1992 COBE discovered temperature fluctuations ( T/T~10-5 ) consistent with inflation predictions George Smoot - Nobel Prize 2006

11 k 2 kn n = 1 Gau ss ian a mplitu des 1992 The CMB WMAP temp anisotropies in CMB Amplitude of fluctuations 2003 The amplitude of the CMB ripples is exactly as predicted by inflationary cold dark matter theory The position of the first peak FLAT UNIVERSE Hinshaw etal 06 Inflation (t~10-35 s) The origin of cosmic structure 1. FLAT GEOMETRY: 2. QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey A collaboration between (primarily) UK and Australia 250 nights at the AAT Cold dark matter CMB (t~3x10 5 yrs) Structure (t~13x10 9 yrs) 221,000 redshifts to b j <19.45 median z=0.11 Survey complete and catalogue released in July/03

12 Sloan Digital Sky Survey ~300,000 galaxy redshifts so far, 500,000 eventually Evolution of spherical perturbations Calculating the evolution of cosmic structure R h(t eq) P(k) Mezaros damping n=1 Free streaming N-body simulation Large scales Small scales

13 -5 15 Cold DM Hot DM Cold DM Cold DM Non-baryonic dark matter candidates Candidate Axions Neutrinos Neutralinos (SUSY) Primordial black holes Mass 10 ev 30 ev >20 GeV >10 g Free-streaming length so large that superclusters form first and galaxies are too young Neutrinos cannot make an appreciable contribution to Ω and m ν << 30 ev Neutrino (hot) dark matter Z f =0.5 CfA redshift survey Ω ν =1 (m ν = 30 ev) Z f =2.5 Frenk, White & Davis 83 In CDM structure forms hierarchically Cold dark matter CDM Ω=0.2 dalla Vechia, Jenkins & Frenk Early CDM N-body simulations gave promising results CfA redshift survey HDM Ω=1 Davis, Efstathiou, Frenk & White 85 Comoving coordinates QuickTimeª and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. 150 Mpc/h

14 QuickTimeª and a The Millennium simulation 3ivx D decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a 3ivx D decompressor are needed to see this picture. Springel et al Nature June/05 1 Mpc Helly & Frenk 06 real SDSS Dependence of T/T on cosmological params CMB CfA 2dF survey Galaxies Springel, Frenk & White Nature, May 06 simulated ΛCDM Max Tegmark

15 Cosmological parameters from WMAP+2dFGRS The cosmic power spectrum: from the CMB to the 2dFGRS Accelerated expansion ΛCDM provides an excellent description of mass power spectrum from Mpc WMAP z=0 ΛCDM CMB: Convert angular separation to distance (and k) assuming flat geometry 2dFGRS Extrapolate to z=0 using linear theory Spergel etal 03 Sanchez et al 06 Inflation (t~10-35 s) Conclusions The origin of cosmic structure 1. FLAT geometry: 2. Small (quantum) ripples Cold dark matter CMB (t~3x10 5 yrs) Galaxies (t~13x10 9 yrs) Ripples seen as hot & cold spots in cosmic radiation Galaxies form Recent measurements of fluctuations in the temperature of the microwave background confirm this paradigm.

16 Open questions Open questions Tools: What is the dark matter? What is the dark energy? What happened in the first s after the Big Bang? How, in detail, did stars and galaxies form? How much farther will the simulations go? Satellites to study the CMB & distant galaxies Large telescopes Direct dark matter searches Particle accelerators (CERN) Supercomputer simulations Ideas: Theoretical physics & mathematics The paradigm of structure formation ΛCDM Material content: Initial conditions: Growth processes: Parameters: Cold dark matter, baryons, Λ From quantum fluctuations during inflation: δ k 2 k; Gaussian ampl. Gravitational instability; gas (cooling, star formation, etc) CDM 0.26, b 0. 04, h0. 70, 3 H , Galaxies form hierarchically

17 ? Conclusions: open questions?? UK DM search (Boulby mine) Open questions: The future of cosmology Detection (or manufacture) dark matter The origin of the dark energy? The astrophysics of galaxy formation? Direct searches for CDM (Boulby, CDMS, G Sasso) Constraints on w (high-z SN, lensing, high-z clustering) Surveys of galaxies at high-z (VLT, SIRTF, ALMA, NGST) Supercomputers simulations New ideas on w

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