ANNEX 10. Air pollution control system

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1 ANNEX 10 Air pollution control system

2 Air pollution control system The air pollution will be the result of heating process in the reheat furnace. The flue gas will therefore require cleaning before discharge into the atmosphere. Composition of flue gas The contaminated emissions, from the mouth of the furnace crucible, will be collected through a hood and will be made to flow into the air pollution control device which will clean it of the pollution load to desired levels. The cleaned gas will flow into the stack through a blower. The blower is meant to provide the gas flow with necessary pressure and velocity requirements. The stack will discharge the cleaned gas at desirable elevation. If efficiently operated the particulate removal efficiency for the system is expected to be in the range of more than 90% for particles up to 1 micron in size. Air pollution control system- process emissions The modeling and design of the air pollution control system, to satisfy the applicable norms, will be based on the following general assumptions: a) The emissions above the furnace will be blown by two axial fans (man coolers) symmetrically placed, to blow the flare and hence emissions away from the work area. b) The air blowing the emissions will have a minimum horizontal velocity of m/s. c) The temperature of the emissions at the inlet of the air pollution control device will be about 150ºC. The final temperature of the emissions, after treatment, will be in the range of 60-80ºC d) Sufficient velocity will be maintained in the ducts/conduits in order to ensure that there is un-clogged flow. e) All of the bends are recommended to have throat radius of at least, 2 times the diameter of the duct. There are no sharp bends in the ducts/ conduits f) The gaseous emissions follow ideal gas behavior. Gas flow is incompressible. g) Due consideration has been accorded to the change in gas properties and behavior with changes in temperature. h) There will not be any kind of leakage from any part of the duct, air pollution control device and machinery i) All inlets, outlets and approaches are proper so that there is no turbulence in the flow Page 1 of 5

3 The inner surfaces of the ducts and the air pollution control device are reasonably smooth j) The sampling port will be provided in the stack, such that its height is, at least, 8 times the stack diameter, from the inlet to the stack. The emission shall be discharged into the atmosphere at a height, above the sampling port, at least 2 times the stack diameter. Scrubber The proposed air pollution control device will be centrifugal spray scrubber with modified irrigated inlet. In the centrifugal scrubber, the performance of a cyclonic separator will be catalyzed by an irrigated inlet (through rod venturi) and wet scrubbing. Rod venturi comprises a series of parallel bleeding pipes (water oozing from pipe) provided vertically across the gas flow near the inlet of the scrubber. High gas velocity at the inlet coupled with irrigated inlet creates venturi effect with much lower pressure drop. Wetting increases the size of the particulate. Particulate collection efficiency is improved by increasing the relative velocity between particulate and the gas streams. This is achieved by the centrifugal force of the spinning gas. The higher particle to liquid relative velocity also increases particle collection efficiency. The wetted walls prevent re-entrainment of the separated particulate. The water spray also aids in imparting centrifugal motion to the gas stream. The flue gas will enter tangentially at the bottom of the cyclone cylinder. The water drops at the rod venturi will get atomized partially by the high velocity gas stream. This helps in transfer of fine particle into relatively larger droplets. Inside the scrubber water will be sprayed by trains of jets spraying water directed outwards from the centre through a vertical spray manifold. Additionally, the inner periphery of wall of the scrubber will remain wet with a falling water film to affect wash out of the particulates and water droplets coming in contact with the wall. Some unsprayed portions at the top will be provided so that the liquid droplets containing the collected particles will have time to reach walls of the chamber before coming into contact with the gas stream. The top section of the cylinder will be provided with the gas flow straightening cum mist eliminating section across the flow to limit the water content of the cleaned gas emissions. The cleaned gas will flow out from the top. The scrubbed water stream loaded with removed particulates will be ejected from the bottom. Mist eliminator Page 2 of 5

4 The mist eliminator will be an impingement type separator designed for horizontal gas flow. It is composed of sine curve shaped flow counters (with small baffles attached to the surfaces) assembled with phase separating chambers. They are mounted in a frame with a sump and form a separation module. The profiles split the gas flow into a single stream but liquid drops cannot make short radius turn as easily as the gas molecules. Therefore, inertia forces the liquid drops against the wall where the drops agglomerate and flow by gravity in areas of low gas velocity. As drops contact the profile surface, they are transformed into liquid film which is pushed along and drained as a film. Drop formation is prevented. Since the drops do not have to flow back against the gas flow, the liquid draining capacity is greater, the allowable velocities are greater and the limit drop size is smaller. Because the drag co-efficient is low, higher velocities are permissible without excessive pressure drop. At higher velocity, smaller drops are removed due to the increased inertial force, resulting in greater overall efficiency. The scrubbing water tank The scrubbed water removed from the bottom of the scrubber will have high suspended solids which will be allowed to settle in a sedimentation tank. The clean water will be stored in a tank to be recycled back and water quantity lost will be made up by adding fresh water to it. The water will be pumped inside the air pollution control device, for scrubbing, at desired pressure. A rectangular tank of sufficient size will be provided to store the water flowing out of the air pollution control device. The suspended solids will settle at the bottom and will be removed periodically. The supernatant will be recycled back after conditioning. A minimum settling area of 6m 2 will be provided to facilitate efficient and effective settling. Sludge filter/drying bed The bed is meant to filter and dry the settle solids obtained from the process. Total surface area required is 5m 2. The bed will comprise graded sand on underlying gravel packing. Depth of packing will be 0.15m of gravel of size 20-25mm at the bottom, over which 0.1m of 10mm aggregates and 0.3m of graded sand at the top.the underflow will be collected and recycled back into the scrubber. The dried solids will be removed from the beds and stored prior to disposal. Collection hood Page 3 of 5

5 The collection hood is meant to contain the emissions into the hood opening from where it is carried to the air pollution control device. The hood will be a specially designed oblique hood. It will allow for undisturbed capture of emissions without interfering in the regular operations. The collection hood will be a vertical one with trapezoidal face view. A horizontal duct, cut at the bottom, along the ends and uncut in the central portion, will be joined with the top face of the hood to serve as suction inlet. The cue face of the duct will lie in the plane of the top horizontal face of the hood at the top. The middle portion of the horizontal face of inlet duct will be covered/blocked so that the suction streamlines are flared along the sides to avoid any short circuiting and related problems. The hood bottom will be suspended at an elevation of m above the furnace floor. This will facilitate the capture of emissions without interfering with the regular operations near the furnace (like blowing by axial fan from one side, loading of the furnace from top etc.) The hood will also provide safety curtain, from any kind of hot/igniting particles, to the workers on the pit side of the furnace. The horizontal inlet duct will be connected to a vertical rising duct. The duct will take a U-turn, downwards, before running horizontally to the air pollution control device. The vertical ducts will be provided with hinges, at appropriate locations, so that the hood can be moved about vertical axis to facilitate furnace operations. Air pollution control device approach duct The duct, conveying flue gas from collection hood to the air pollution device (spray scrubbers), shall be circular in section having a diameter of 500mm. All of the bends are recommended to have throat radius of, at least 1000mm. The duct will approach air pollution control device horizontally and will run for a horizontal distance of at least 2.4m.The duct on approach of the air pollution control device will be converted into rectangular duct of section of 550 x 550mm 2.The section of the approach will taper to 550mm x 220mm, at the inlet of the air pollution control device. This reduction in width will start at least 2m upstream of the air pollution control device. The approach ducts shall enter the air pollution control device tangentially. At the section 0.3m upstream of the scrubber inlets, an arrangement of rod venturi will be provided in the approach duct. It will comprise of number of pipes, each of OD 12mm arranged symmetrically across the width in vertical direction. The alternative rods will be provided with holes for irrigating gas stream. Blower (ID fan) Page 4 of 5

6 The blower will compensate for the pressure requirements maintaining the desired flow rate. A duct of 0.8m diameter shall feed the flue gas from the blower into the stack. Stack The stack shall have adequate height so as to discharge the gaseous emissions at least 3m above the ceiling level of the industry. Diameter of the stack will be 0.55m, height of sampling port minimum 4.4m above inlet. Adequate provision for treated gas sampling in the form of sampling port with platform, shall be provided for monitoring purposes. A ladder arrangement shall be provided to access the sampling port. Page 5 of 5

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